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Movers, Shakers & Newsmakers 2012 Third Period

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Movers, Shakers & Newsmakers 2012 Third Period - Page Text Content

S: Scottsburg High School Journalism 2012 third period

FC: Movers, Shakers & News Makers

1: Table of Contents | NEWSPAPERS 2-3 Tiana Stone 4-5 Madeline Parker 6-7 Carrie Morrison MAGAZINES 10-11 Cassie Robinson 12-13 Derrian Hampton 14-15 Taylor Means RADIO 18-19D eana Brown 20-21Cheyenne Barrett 22-23 Kris Shunnara 24-25 Lindsey Boswell TELEVISION 28-29JosieCrawford 30-31 Kelsie Fortnre 32-33 Delilah Hale 34-35 Sarah Breeding 36-37 Caitlyn Carey INTERNET 40-41 Shelby DeShong 42-43 Allyssa Napier 44-45 Christina Stepp 46-47 Stormey Justice

2: One of the greatest trials of time happen here in the united states. It's the beginning of press and a stubborn independence of American Jurors. It was a remarkable story of a split colony. Back then newspapers and pamphlets allow for exchange of ideas and for voicing of dissent. John peter Zenger was a New York printer who was important. John's defense was broken down by Andrew Hamilton of Philadelphia, the most ablest and eloquent attorney in the colonies. James Alexander and William Smith initially started Zenger's defense.They were both disbarred in April 1735 by Chief justice Deviancy and Philipse Cosby. Cosby hand picked to try Zenger’s case. Jury selection began on July 29,1735,and Cosby attempted to control events by having his political supporter,Francis Harrison produce a roll of potential jurors that includes the forty-eight Non-Free-Holders. | Men assumed to be concerned too much for Cosby's Hand-Picked judges. Twelve jurors were selected quickly. The Trial opened on August 4th on the main floor of New York City's hall with attorney General Bradley's reading the information filed against Zenger. He told jurors that Zenger was being a rebellious person and a frequent printer and publisher of false news and seditious libels. That had strangely devised to Scandalize governor Cosby and his ministers. Bradley said that “Libeling has always been discouraged as a thing than tends to create differences among men, I'll blood among the people,and great bloodshed between the party libeling and the party libeled.” magnificent of governmental situations. Andrew Hamilton defended Zenger and argued that the published statements could not be accountable if they were true. English law at the time was designed to protect the government from critical elements,and the truth was not a defense to libel. The jury however exonerated Zenger,establishing an ongoing central tenet to defamation law,that the truth is an absolute defense. This decision proved to not only be redirect the law and scorn but also lay the foundation for the freedom of the press. It became critical to Governor Cosby after he replaced Lewis Morris with The Chief Justice of New York,for deciding a lawsuit against the governor. the Critical articles were authored by James Alexander and editorialist,founder,and printer of The New York Weekly Journal was John Peter Zenger. Unfortunately the printer was sued by the governor. It was entitled The New York Weekly Journal,including having many things tending to raise factions and tumults among the people of this Province,inflaming their minds with attempt of his magnificent of governmental situations. Andrew Hamilton defended Zenger and argued that the published statements could not be accountable if they were true. English law at the time was designed to protect the government from critical elements,and the truth was not a defense to libel. The jury however exonerated Zenger,establishing an ongoing central tenet to defamation law,that the truth is an absolute defense. | The Trial Of John Peter Zenger By Tiana Stone |

3: Zenger's lawyer stands up for freedom of the press. | This decision proved to not only be redirect the law and scorn but also lay the foundation for the freedom of the press. Although Zenger Did not author the articles that are critical to Governor Cosby he endured in jail during the proceedings. All the time he was in prison,his wife continued to publish The weekly journal. | Peter Zenger's lawyer stands up for freedom of the press | Zenger trial for the freedom of the press.

4: Inventions That Changed Communication | Newspapers completely changed the way the world communicated. People could get more information, and get it faster. Some of the inventions that helped newspapers and general communication progress and become faster and easier are the electric telegraph and typewriter. Another invention that greatly improved communication is the electric telegraph. The electric telegraph is a machine that transmits electric signals over wires and are translated into messages with a system called morse code. Samuel Morse invented morse code which is a sequence of dots and dashes that make letters and is used on telegraph machines to make out massages. Morse was born on April 27, 1791 in Charlestown, Massachusetts. He attended Yale University, and studied art and electricity. After college he became a painter. | When Morse was sailing home from Europe in 1832, he heard of a newly discovered electromagnet. After hearing of the electromagnet he came up with an idea for an electric telegraph. Morse had no idea that other inventors were already working on a telegraph machine. He spent the next several years developing a prototype. During this time he took on two partners, Leonard Gale and Alfred Vail. In 1838 he demonstrated the device using morse code. In 1843 he convinced congress, who was skeptical about the idea, to set up the first telegraph line in the United States from Washington D.C. to Baltimore. In May of 1844 he sent the first official telegram: “what hath god wrought”. Over the next few years private companies started using morse code and telegraph lines, so they set up lines all across the northeast. IN 1851, the New York and Mississippi valley Printing Telegraph Company was founded. They later changed their name to western Union. In 1861, western union finished their first transcontinental telegraph line across the U.S. During WWII people would dread the sight of a Western Union delivery truck, because telegrams started being used to inform families of the death of a loved one. Telegrams were eventually replaced by telephones, and Western Union delivered its last telegram in January, 2006. | By: Madeline Parker | The first telegraph machine | Samuel Morse

5: The first typewriter was invented by Christopher L. Sholes in 1867. The first typewriter was marketed by Remington arms comspany in 1873. Originally the keys on typewriters were arranged in alphabetical order. Keys would often get jammed when people were typing, so Sholes came up with a solution. He obtained a list of the most commonly used letters, and spread them fairly far apart on the typewriter in the layout we use today. This design actually increased the amount of time it took for typists to write, because at the time they used the “hunt-and-peck” method, so common letter combinations were now spread far apart. No one ever imagined that typing would actually be faster than hand writing which is approximately 20 words per minute or less. However, in 1878 ten-finger typing, promoted by Mrs. L.V. Longley, started to replace two-finger typing. When people start using the ten-finger method and touch typing, the new layout of keys, with commonly used letter spread far apart proved to be very efficient. The jamming problem no longer occurred. | Glidden and Sholes typewriter

6: Yellow Journalism | Yellow Journalism is a term that was first made up during the famous newspaper wars between Joseph Pulitzer || and William Randolph Hearst. Pulitzers paper was The New York Word, and Hearst’s paper was The New York Journal, their papers changed the content of newspapers, by adding cartoons and more sensationalized stories. More and more cartoons were being put in newspapers, Pulitzer decided to publish a cartoon called “The Yellow Kid” in 1896. The Yellow Kid was created by R.F. Outcault, and became one of the many objects Hearst and Pulitzer fought over during their rivalry. Later on, Hearst took Outcault and The Yellow Kid from Pulitzer by offering Outcault an outrageous salary. To compete with Hearst, Pulitzer published another cartoon, very similar to The Yellow Kid. | With all the competition going on between the newspapers, it was over-dramatic and editors and publishers altered the stories, because they thought it would get the readers attention and sell more papers. | By: Carrie Morrison

7: The Yellow Kid was often used to sensationalize stories and discredit the stories from other newspaper, it was also used to sway the publics opinion on important issues, like the Spanish-American war. When Hearst heard about the war, he saw it as an opportunity to boost his newspaper sales. Many people believed that during the Spanish-American war, Hearst played a major role in the American involvement with Cuba. Hearst’s newspaper, The New York Journal was the first newspaper to put a team of reporters in Cuba to keep track of the events happening there. Hearst published articles about the cruelty, brutality, and inadequate care to sway the pubic opinion about America's involvement in the war.

8:,r:22,s:19,i:207 | |,r:0,s:0,i:75&tx=136&ty=71 | Carrie Morrison |

9: Tiana Stone | "Stop- telegram era over, says western union." NBCNews. N.p., n.d. Web. 11 Sept. 2012. . "Morse Demonstrates Telegraph." This Day in History. N.p., n.d. Web. 10 Sept. 2012. . "The First Typewriter- Invented in Wisconsin." Wisconsin Historical Society. N.p., 23 Mar. 2007. Web. 11 Sept. 2012. . Bigler, Jeff. "Early Typewriter History." N.p., 16 July 2001. Web. 12 Sept. 2012. .

10: Early Magazines | Can you imagine turning the pages of a picture-less magazine? 281 years ago the first magazine came out, it had no pictures, only words! Throughout time they have changed magnificently. Not a lot of things about magazines has even stayed the same. Most of all magazines have pictures these days. The first magazine with pictures came out on November 23, 1936. The magazine was Life, and believe it or not it is still around! | The first magazine in our history had absolutely no pictures, it is said to be general-interest. Today, you can find a magazine on just about everything. From food, to fashion and marriage. They originated in London and made their way around to the United States, where sales plummeted. With no Internet, TV or phones the magazine was very popular. | This is a picture of one of the first magazines! (www.wki.gener-news.mag.ol/3370) | This shows that the magazines then were mostly general interest. (www.wki.gener-news.mag.ol/3370)

11: Cover photos are a big part of a magazine, in the first Life magazine was a cover photo of the Fort Peck Dam by Margaret Bourke-White. Every since, all magazines have cover photos. They are supposed to pull peoples attention to their magazine. They didn't need cover photos before because the magazine was the only resort they had. | The magazine Life has withstood time the longest. It has became one of the most popular ones also. Its been around the longest and helped with the history of magazines. Without the magazine Life, the pictures may have never been added into the magazines and they could have never made it popular. Without magazines today would be different, their everywhere you go. You can see them in doctor offices, book stores, big businesses, or just around the house. Entertainment or learning is always at hand with a good magazine! | By: Cassie Robinson | The first cover of Life Magazine! ( | This is to show the variety of magazines we have today, and how they have changed over time! (

12: Story of Nelly Bly | {Elizabeth Jane Cochran} | Elizabeth was born May 5th, 1864. She was born in a comfortable home, parents Mary Jane and Judge Michaels. Shortly after her sixth birthday her father died, changing her and her families life. | Later they moved to a modest home and Elizabeth took on the responsibilities of raising he siblings. Soon after her Mother, hoping to secure her children re-married. Unfortunately he new husband was abusive. Elizabeth's passion for womens rights stemmed from the helplessness she and her family experienced. Elizabeth had a vivid imagination that was evidenced by her storytelling. Its said to be that it would be a matter of time before she would reach out world wide. | When Elizabeth was 18 she wrote a letter to the editor of the Pittsburgh dispatch in response to a sexist editorial by the "quite observer" Erusmas Wilson. | He was so impressed with a article titled "Lonely Orphan Girl" that he wrote a add in the paper asking the anonymous write to revel themselves. | Elizabeth Cochran climbed the four stories to the offices of the dispatch. Elizabeth's first article was a rebuttual to Wilson's sexist piece on the "Womens Sphere" | { First Women Writer in Newspaper}

13: When the managing editor decided to make Elizabeth permanent to his staff, he said he needed to come up with a proper pen name for her.See it was quit improper for a women to write in a newspaper and let her identity be known. After several names they came across the decided on "Nellie Bly" the title character in the song "Nelly Bly" written 35 years ago by Stephen Collins Foster. | Important Dates... | September, 1887- Nellie Succeeded in doing the staff of the New York world, where her first assignment was she was committed to the womens lunatic asylum on Blackwells island. November 14, 1889- Nellie Bly began her world wide journey on the hamburg American company liner, August Victoria, from the Hoboken pier at 9:40 a.m. April 5, 1895- Nellie married a man 40 years into her senior and retired from journalism. Robert Livingston was a millionaire Industrialist from Catskill. *I believe Nellie bly changes journalism by being the first girl to write and be known for it.* | By: Derrian

14: In Washington DC, 1972 the outrage of the Watergate Scandal broke loose. They got the name "Watergate" from the Watergate Hotel in Washington. At the hotel the Democratic Party of National Headquarters was holding an event. Security guards guarding all entrances of all doors caught many burglars breaking into the event. Many of those people claimed that they had ties to the Nixon administration but Nixon tired to take away all of the damage of them.This is what made President Nixon resign. | Watergate Scandal Washington, DC | This is a picture of Watergate Hotel. This is where the Democratic Party of National Headquarters is held | This is a picture of President Ford and his wife walking former president Nixon and his wife to the helicopter after his resignation. | Former president Nixon. | By: Taylor Means

15: Woodward and Bernstein were journalist for the Washington D.C. Newspaper. The Watergate Scandal had to do with journalism because this was the first time journalist went beyond the news and was getting more involved with the scenes. This has improved journalism a lot in the world we live in today. | This is one of the pages that Woodward and Bernstein wrote about the Watergate Scandal. | How did the Watergate Scandal effect journalism? | This is Woodward and Bernstein working on one of the papers for the Watergate Scandal.

16: Magazine Works Cited | Cassie: Curtis, Dr. Anthony. A Brief History of Magazines . Ed. Derik Hampton. Mass Communication Dec, 17 Nov. 2011. Web. 6 Sept. 2012. Cart, Zen. "Life (1883-1936)." 2Neat Magazines and Books 2012. Web. 6 Sept. 2012. Piper, Maggie. "Magazines Now and Then." 27 May 2009. Web. 6 Sept. 2012. | Taylor: "Watergate Scandal." 12 Mar. 1995. Web. 13 Sept. 2012. . "Watergate Scandal." Watergate Scandal 12 Jan. 2001. Web. 13 Sept. 2012. .

17: Danny: | Derrian:

18: The Early Radio 1893-1919 By:Deana | The radio has been around for a long time. It was first invented by Nikola Tesla (top left picture) in 1893, but he had one problem! He couldn't exactly get the radio to work! Then came Guglielmo (William) Marconi (bottom left picture) he took the radio and worked on it and he FINNALLY got the radio to work!He was the first person to set out the first radio wave in December of 1895! Although Nikola and Guglielmo are the two main people recognized for the radio there were much more people involved with the making of the radio. | |

19: I heard from a friend that was doing a assignment on the radio in an other class that the government was going to make it to where in books it said that Guglielmo Marconi was the one that invented the radio, but the government was afraid that they would be sued so they decided to give Nikola Tesla some credit for the radio too. I don't know for sure if that fact is true or not though. I also don't know exactly why Nikola Tesla wanted to invent the radio, but whatever encouraged him to do that is a good thing because it has helped journalism a lot. The radio helps journalism because it provides people all around the world with what's going on (news). Sometimes we don't really think about who invented the radio and when we invented F.M radio, but the radio has done so much for journalism.The radio also played a very important role during World War I. It provided people back home with information on how everything was going on in the war zones,and who was alright and who has died and all kinds of different stuff like the few examples above. | Old time radio

20: Radio 1920-29 | Radio of the 1920s was inspirational and often controversial. From commercial radio making its significant penetrations of the market, to Jazz journalism making celebrities enormous successes through reach of the radio. | During the 1920s, Radio absolutely dominated. With nearly 3 million Americans owning a radio by 1923. | FDR (bottom right corner) made several announcements on the radio in the 1920s during his presidency.

21: 1920s Time Line The 1920s was a time of making Radio famous, and making celebrities huge. Often in the 1920s starting with the Presidential election in Pittsburgh Washington, on KDKA, FDR made several broadcasts all over the country to one or two of the eighteen stations during that time. The first commercial broadcast was also put out in the early 1920s by AT&T and WEAF. By the mid 1920s newspapers owned up to 69 stations, while the rest of the majority was owned by General Electric and the Westing House. In the beginning of the 1920s most Radio stations consisted of 2 to 4 hours of Newspaper readings, and the rest of the time was taken up by Church sermons and classical music. In the 1920s, Radio dominated, with close to 3 million Americans owning a radio by 1923. During this time while FDR was busy in office and not on the radio, people needed more drama; So the twenties gave birth to Jazz Journalism. Jazz Journalism in the 1920s made celebrities huge, the radio gave celebrities the attention of mass circulation press. Since people had hardly any access to things outside of their small towns or cities, Jazz Journalism gave them exciting information about things that would intrigue them and it also gave them the dramatic entertainment they desired. In 1927 the Radio Act was passed through congress. It gave the five-person FRC the power to grant and deny licenses, and to also assign frequencies and power levels for each licensee who was given a license. The Radio Act also put the country into 5 geographical zones. Each zone was represented by one of the five Commissioners. During the 1920s Radio affected journalism in so many ways, giving it Jazz Journalism to Tabloid Journalism in the 30s. The people who can be thanked for affecting radio and even us now, are FDR and Hebert Hoover. They both made radio better.

22: Radio's Development From 1930s-1960s by: Kris Shunnara | Radio in the 1930s The 1930s in radio history is often referred to as the Golden Age. The 1930s is when radio was America's first choice for entertainment and news. Radios were starting become affordable for the average family to own. Despite the Great Depression, the number of radios owned by Americans grew. From 1930 to 1939, it spiked from 12 million radios, to 28 million radios. Families looked forward to listen to their favorite shows on the radio. Radio brought news into a lot of homes. It gave Americans the first chance to hear the president address the nation. Radios were reaching more people, and informing them more than ever. Radio in the 1940s The 1940s will be well remembered by WWII, and its effect on the world. This time period is full of historical events. That history that occurred throughout the decade was delivered to Americans by radio. Radio was America's main source of media and news, and it was how people kept up with everything around them. The famous “Day of Infamy” address given by President Roosevelt was heard after the Pearl Harbor attack. 50,000 watt AM radio stations first appeared. To cover the war, and inform major sections of the country at once, President Roosevelt used the radio productively with his “Fireside Chats”. He used these to inform the nation on the war, and to help raise money to fund the war. The radio played such a big part of everyday life for people in this time period, and its popularity grew from the 1930s. It had become almost like the telephone of the world. The average person could find out what was going on day to day, without being there. It was as close to instant news at the time. | A family gathers around their radio in the 1930s | Radio from the 1940s

23: Radio in the 1950s The start of the 1950s was a good time in America. WWII had just ended, and everyone was in good spirits. The 1950s were also a big decade for radio as we know it. Ameture radio began to take form. People were starting their own small frequency radio stations. These ameture stations were known as ham radio. Ham radio brought one person's opinions, ideas, and thoughts to locals. They could obtain news and information on a local level, instead of only national news. The public had a source other than a town newspaper to find out what was happening right outside their door. The 1950s also brought forth the FCC, or the Federal Communications Commission. This was the first time the government had any kind of control on radio stations. The FCC now is over television and radio today. The FCC determines what can and cannot be played, or shown on tv and radio. Another license had first appeared as well. The ARRL, or the American Radio Relay League was first introduced. The ARRL controlled ham radio, and became like a club for all ham radio stations. The 1950s did have a war though. It lasted only three years, but the Korean War was being fought. The radio like, in WWII, brought information about the Korean War and gave American’s insight on how the war was going. The 1950s after the Korean War would yet bring forth another war on November 1, 1955. The Vietnam War had began. The radio was used again as the main source of information about how the war was going, and was used to announce our entry into the war. Radio in the 1960s In 1965, 228 million people in the United States owned a radio. This was important, because of the Vietnam War. The radio brought news of the war, and its protesters. The effect of that radio had in this time period cannot go without notice. One of the biggest events in journalism in its history, and the radio was there bringing it all to the homes, and cars of Americans everywhere. The 1960s shaped radio, and were arguably the most important decade in radio’s long history. The 1960s were the beginning of FM and AM signals. The Bell Laboratories transistor was possibly the biggest advancement for the radio in this decade. Another big step in radio was the introduction of music formats. Radio had to compete entertainment wise, because of TV’s growing popularity, and all famous radio shows transitioned to TV. To compete, music began playing on radios. By 1967, 90% of radio stations were playing music. This plan for boosting the ratings worked. Also, the commercial was first played on the radio. In the past, radio stations had programming formats that consisted of talk programs, comedies, dramas, and news, but the 1960s changed that. The radio began to look and sound like the radio you listen to today. The two main forms of programming were music and commercials. An hour of a sports program was not uncommon. The 1960s brought so many new ideas to radio, and paved the way to the modern era of radio. The radio we know today began in the 1960s, and the ideas have lasted through the decades. | Home radio in the 1960s | Car radio in the 1960s | Radio from the 1950s

24: How Radio Changed From 1970-1990 By: Lindsey Boswell | In the 1970s, very little changed in the world of radio. Most radios only carried either FM of Am frequencies. There were twice as many AM stations than FM in that year, and many more people owned AM radios. This was because AM stations could reach farther than FM, but FM stations were clearer. FM stations started to become more popular because they took on the format of AOR (album-oriented radio), where the stations played whole albums of songs, without being interrupted by commercials or DJs. By the end of the 1970s, the popularity of the frequencies were almost reversed. FM stations were becoming more popular than AM. | In the 1980s, radio stations gained many freedoms they didn't have in the 1970s. Around 1987, the Reagan Administration “deregulated” radio. This means that radio stations had to meet the needs and wants of their listener, instead of the FCC’s (Federal Communications Commission) regulations.Radio stations now had to play things that attracted listeners. News and public affairs were beginning to be played less and less. Because news was played less, the news writers and reporters lost their jobs. Another major thing that happened in 1987 was that the FCC repealed the Fairness Doctrine. The doctrine stated that all radio hosts had to provide opposition when talking about politics and other controversial things. This meant that when a radio host talked about things like politics, they had to have a two-sided debate instead of just giving their one-sided opinion. Once the doctrine was repealed, radio hosts were free to give their opinion, without having to talk about the other side of the subject. In the 1990s, digital devices started coming out and helping the radio industry. A whole days worth of material could be stored on a computer memory, so they could be listened to again. Instead of having to spend hours editing broadcasts, it could be done much quicker with the aid of computers. In the 1990s, AM radio began to make a comeback, but the FM frequency still dominated radio. | Computers were a very helpful enhancement in radio. They help record, remix, edit, and upload broadcasts.

25: Shock Jocks By: Lindsey Boswell | What is a “shock jock?” It is a very opinionated radio broadcaster that is only on the air for the purpose of entertainment. They keep people tuning into their stations to hear what they're going to say. They are funny and entertaining, but to many people, they are also very offensive. They are so opinionated that they offend certain groups of people. Shock jocks are compared to tabloid newspapers in the writing world. They worry about entertaining more than giving good, factual information. | In the 21st century, radio is for many reasons. The main reason is to listen to music. This mostly takes place on FM stations, because the AM frequency is mostly talk radio and news radio. Even though AM radio isn't as common as FM, it is still used some. This means AM radio has been around for about 100 years! | The future of radio is going electronic. Pandora, Spotify, and other online radio stations are taking over the future radio. Instead of having to just listen to FM stations on the radio, people are starting to get online and listen to music stations that play music they want to hear. While listening to regular radio, one has to listen to commercials, DJs, and songs one doesn't like. If people listen to their music online, they can the hear songs they want to hear. | Radio of the 21st Century By: Lindsey Boswell | Future of Radio By:Lindsey Boswell | Online radio stations, such as Pandora, are the future of radio. | Some famous shock jocks are Petey Greene (shown on the right), Howard Stern (upper left), and Rush Limbaugh (lower left). |; | |

26: Deana: History of American Journalism What year was the radio invented When Was the First Radio Made? - Answers The FCC Kids Zone - History of Radio radio Facts, information, pictures | articles about radio HowStuffWorks "How Radio Works" FM broadcasting - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia 6. Early Radio Industry Development (1897-1914) History of radio - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia | Cheyenne

27: Lindsey: “12 Events That Changed How Media Outlets Cover News.” Halbrooks, Glen. New York Times Company, n.d. Web. 9 Sep. 2012 “A Century of Radio.” Adams, Mike. California Historical Radio. n.p., n.d. Web. 9 Sep. 2012 “Shock Jocks.” Wikipedia. n.p., n.d. Web. 9 Sep. 2012 "The 1970s: Media: Overview." American Decades. 2001. 9 Sep. 2012

28: After several years of work, Zworykin finally sought the patent for his television from Westinghouse. He demonstrated his invention to the executives, and was denied the patent. They told Zworykin he should spend his time on more reasonable activities, and this statement drove Zworykin to work harder on the invention. After several days of working to 2:00 a.m., his persistence eventually brought to light the kinescope; a cathode ray tube which serves as the basis for picture translation in television. The development of television moved into the mid-1931 and Zworykin and his team finished the icon scope - a camera tube with a beam of high-velocity. This invention forever changed the thought of television as an all-electric device. The first experimental television broadcast came in 1932. The transmission came from a mechanical camera. The television was introduced in 1939 at the New York World’s Fair. After perfecting the design of modern television in 1940, Zworykin donned the title of “the father of modern television”. Zworykin was awarded The Faraday Medal from Great Britain in 1965, The U.S. Presidential Medal of Science in 1966, The National Medal of Science in 1967, and was inducted in the U.S. Hall of Fame in 1977. During his life time, Zworykin received 120 patents to his many inventions. On July 29, 1982, in Princeton, New Jersey, Zworykin died. He was on day away from his 93rd birthday. | Vladimir Kosma Zworykin was born the youngest of seven on July 30, 1889. At the age of nine, he worked as an apprentice on his fathers boat and this was the beginning of his interest in electricity. From then on, he had a strong fascination of how things worked. Once he was old enough, Zworykin attended St. Petersburg Institute of Technology and received his degree in engineering in 1912. He then attended the College de France in Paris to study x-ray technology. Then, as WWI began, Zworykin enlisted as a private in the Russian army, where he worked on ciphering and deciphering radiograms. Sadly, he overworked himself, developing insomnia and hallucinations. He was then discharged from the army. Shortly after, in 1916, Zworykin met and quickly married his first wife, Tatiana Vasilieff. However, due to the demanding nature of his work, they soon separated. After the resolution in WWI, Zworykin moved to the U.S. to study radio tubes and photocells at the Westinghouse Electric Research laboratories. All through 1923, Zworykin kept himself occupied designing an electrically-based television model. He even turned down an offer from the Warner Brothers so he could work long hours on his invention. | The Father of Television | By: Josie Crawford | Vladimir K. Zworykin |,_Vladimir_Kosma | | Vladimir K. Zworykin

29: “This is direct television from Alexandra Palace...” These unforgettable words were the first to be heard over television. Not only could the words be heard, but the speaker, Elizabeth Cowell, could be seen as well as heard. The Alexandra Palace, located in north London, is known as “the birthplace of television”. In 1936, two separate television systems were fighting to be the first to broadcast - one in Studio A, the other in Studio B. The two stations, EMI-Marconi and Baird, were holding trials to see who would be the television standard of the future. Both achieved this goal. | The Birthplace of Television | by: Josie Crawford |!image/2880093320.jpg_gen/derivatives/landscape_630/2880093320.jpg | Alexandra Palace in 1936 | Alexandra Palace Broadcast mast 1936 |

30: Television Changed America Forever | About 60 years ago on May 17, 1939 NBC tried televising an athletic event for the first time. It was at a Columbia-Princeton baseball game that was carried by the National Broadcasting Company. There were only about 400 or so television sets that were able to receive the signal. This satisfied NBC so they decided to televise a major league baseball game at Brooklyn’s Ebbets Field 5 months later. The New York Times recorded the historical event in their paper. A sportswriter Louis Effrat covered the Columbia-Princeton doubleheader. | Effrat stated that “This encounter, listed for seven innings, was televised by the National Broadcasting Company, the first regularly-scheduled sporting event to be pictured over the airwaves." The Thursday paper underestimated its importance though, the paper wanted to focus on selling more advanced radio sets. When World War ll began it put a hold on the development of television. Soon after the war was over baseball games became the main item used for enough people to start buying television sets and be able to be advertised. David Sarnoff was the dominant figure it the broadcasting world at that time. | First Televised Sporting Event By: Kelsey Fortner | The Columbia-Princeton baseball is the first televised event by NBC. | | By: Kelsey Fortner | Television had a huge effect of the world of Journalism because it keeps people entertained. Without being able to visually see and hear about important things in the world I doubt many people would be very interested in hearing about news. Television can illustrate and characterize the report being made. It helps show where the scene of the story took place and who was involved. T.V. allows the direct images and sounds to be captured by the audience which creates a more intimate and connected experience rather than reading about a news story. Television journalists may not have as much time or space to present information as print journalists but they are definitely able to catch a persons attention easier.

31: NBC and CBS | In the year 1941 NBC and CBS were granted the first commercial television license for their New York stations on the same day so neither were the first. By 1945 there were fewer than 7,000 television sets in the homes of Americans. There were only nine broadcasting stations. 3 in New York city, 2 in Chicago, 2 in Los Angeles, 1 in Philadelphia, and 1 in Schenectady New York. | | | (NBC and CBS had a great impact on journalism. They were the first to commercial television.) | World War ll | In 1944 the United States becomes engaged in World War ll. Commercial production of television is put to a stop for the remaining time of the war. At some stations in the United States broadcasting is allowed on a limited basis. All broadcasting is put to stop in England until June 7th, 1946. During the year 1946 broadcasting resumes everywhere in the United States. RCA begins the production of 630-TS, which was the first television designed and manufactured after the war. About 10,000 sets were sold by the end of the year. 43,000 were sold by the end of 1949. | | The very first television manufactured and designed was the 630-TS | To sum everything up in one sentence without television journalist many people wouldn't get the news that they need to informed about, nor would people even be interested. | By: Kelsey Fortner | By: Kelsey Fortner

32: “ London” were universally recognized words, by a universally recognized man: Edward R. Murrow. With pioneering documentaries credited for changing history, Murrow had an incredible impact on the generation of television. In 1937, Murrow was sent by CBS to gather correspondents to make a report in Europe. The group of young men included William Shirer, Charles Collingwood, Bill Shael, and Howard K. Smith. These names became household words in wartime America, where they were later known as “Murrow’s Boys” After returning home, Murrow came to find that his reports overseas had made him a star. He was then approached to host a weekly program, “See It Now.” The show constantly broke television journalism ground, and produced very powerful commentaries on political and social issues. This began the new age in American Politics. | In the late 1940s, the earliest television devices were electro mechanical. A disc would spin, which allowed light from a neon bulb to shine onto a screen about the size of a cell phone’s. 50 line pictures were transmitted at the rate of 18 frames per second, with a blurry reddish orange hue to the moving images. The purpose of cable television was originally for it to be broadcasted on a community antenna, and then re-transmitted to people who couldn’t receive broadcasts due to their location. Leroy “Ed” Parsons was the first to build a community antenna television to do this. | The First Television Devices | By: Delilah Hale | Edward R. Murrow By: Delilah Hale | Edward R. Murrow | The earliest television device called the Baird Televisor

33: On September 26, 1960, 70 million Americans tuned into watch Senator John Kennedy and Vice President Richard Nixon in the very first presidential debate to be televised. This was the first of four televised debates known as the “Great Debates.” | These “Great Debates” marked television’s grand opening into presidential politics. Televised presidential debates allowed voters to see visual contrasts between Kennedy and Nixon, which had an impact on the way they voted. For example, if one candidate took less care in their appearance, the people could see that. The candidates were also much more evenly matched. Voters who listened to the debate on the radio said Nixon was a better fit, while those who watched the debate on television saw a smoother delivery of Kennedy’s charisma. By a very large margin, studies showed Kennedy was perceived the winner among television viewers. So as you could imagine, the Great Debates had a significant impact on voters throughout the 60s. | On July 23, 1962, the Telstar 1 Communications satellite relayed the first ever transatlantic television signal in history. Telstar was the product of an international collaboration, which pushed development of communications via satellite. Telstar used a helical antenna to get microwave signals sent from the ground station, which were then amplified to be rebroadcasted to the main station in southern England. The satellite was first launched July 10, aboard a NASA Delta rocket, with a 20 minute transmission period. Ernie Banks was the first human image to be relayed across the Atlantic. Afterwards, the producers picked up a television broadcast of a major league ballgame between the Philadelphia Phillies and the Chicago Cubs, playing in Wrigley Field. | The First Televised Presidential Debate | By: Delilah Hale | Richard Nixon and John F. Kennedy debate | Telstar Satellite | Telstar Satellite By: Delilah Hale

34: Walter Cronkite was the only anchor present to announce Kennedys assassination. He also was able to broadcast from Vietnam in 1965 and 1968 to inform everyone back home on the proceedings of the war. Television also had a big part in the civil rights acts. Martin Luther King Jr.s I have a dream speech was brought to life on camera. His speech was televised for the world to see. | The Kennedy assassination was broadcast to over 90% of the united states population in the 1960s. Back in 1945 only 2,000 people owned televisions in their homes. In the 1960s television started broadcasting politics, government issues, and advertisements. In 1962 a satellite was used to get news breaking news to everyones homes faster and more efficiently. | Kennedy Assassination By: Sarah Breeding | Walter Cronkite | Walter Cronkite By: Sarah Breeding | John F. Kennedy

35: Neil Armstrong By: Sarah Breeding In 1969 Neil Armstrong landed on the moon with a camera broadcasting back to earth. World wide people could see him climb down the ladder and step onto the surface of the moon. The world became so much close thanks to television. | Kodak By: Sarah Breeding The first portable digital camera was made by Kodak in 1975. They used multiple parts from different devices. The camera weighed around nine pounds and was nine inches tall. The lens was from a Super 8 camera and the tape recorded in black and white only. This camera was only 0.01 megapixels. | Kodaks first digital camera | Neil Armstrong

36: In 1975 , Barbara Walters became the first female anchor with ABC for their nightly news. Since she was young she had been interacting with famous people because her father owns a string of nightclubs that went from Massachusetts to Miami Beach, Florida . She got her first job which was at WRCA-TV as the assistant publicity director. She then moved in 1961 to NBC where she worked on the more feminine part of the Today show. By 1964 , she earned her name the “Today Girl” when she moved up in her rank. She started working with Hugh Downs and later she worked with Frank McGee. Barbara was not allowed to ask questions to their guest until after the male anchor was through. She didn't start getting paid for it until 1974. In 1975, Barbara received the best host in a series Daytime Entertainment Emmy Awards. | In 1962, Walter Cronkite helped start the NBC nightly news. Walter dropped out in his junior year of college and started reporting for a newspaper covering news and sports. After that he went to broadcasting for WKY in Oklahoma City , Oklahoma. His broadcaster name was Walter Wilcox. He had to go by this name because the station thought that if he was to leave then his listeners would stop listening to their stations. When he worked for NBC his nightly sign off was “and that's the way it is.” He retired from NBC in 1981 after 19 years of service. On July 17, 2009, Walter Cronkite died at the age of 92 in New York City, New York and left the world of journalism touch by his great career. | Barbara Walters By :Caitlyn Carey | Walter Cronkite By : Caitlyn Carey | Current picture of Barbara Walters. | A old portrait of Walter Cronkite from CBS. | |

37: The Vietnam war was the first televised war. It was often called “the living room war” or the “television war”.When the war began it was one of the biggest news stories to ever be covered. When the news networks found out that the people wanted action footage so that was what they got. It was a highly dangerous job but people still did it so that the people would be happy. While they were filming in Indochina, nine people were killed and many others were injured. The film that the news stations received was usually five days old because they had to fly it back to the United States and than they had to go through it to pick out what they wanted to show . | Vietnam War and Television by Caitlyn Carey | The AFVN ( AMerican Forces Vietnam Network's studio located in Pleiku , Vietnam |

38: Work Cited Page | Mary. Bellis. Vladimir Zworykin 1889-1982. n.d. web. 5 Sept. 2012 The History Of Television n.d. web. 6 Sept. 2012 Television n.d. web. 6 Sept. 2012 | Barbara Walter. “Biography”. n.d. web. 4 Sept. 2012. Hallin, Daniel. “Vietnam on Television”. .n.d. web 4 Sept. 2012. “Walter Cronkite”. . 27 August 2012. web. 11 Sept. 2012 | Telstar satellite- | Josie Crawford | Kelsey Fortner | Caitlyn Carey | Koppett, Leanord. Bakers Field: Birth Place of Sports Television. n.d. Web. 4 Sept. 2012. Stires, Christopher. Firsts in Television. 2007. Web. 4 Sept. 2012 Levi, Micheal. Television History - First 75 Years. n.d. Web. 5 Sept. 2012. New World Encyclopedia. New World Encyclopedia Terms of Use. 27 June. 2009. Web. 5 Sept. 2012

39: Work Cited Page

40: Search Engines | Have you ever thought that now a days we have it made easy on finding stuff on the Internet? Thats all things to search engines. A search engine is Google, Yahoo, and stuff like that and if we didn't have them then if would take forever to find anything on the Internet. Peter Deutsch and Alan Emtage invented search engines. | By: Shelby DeShong | What are search engines? | Peter Deutsch | Alan Emtage | |

41: Search engines are a big part of journalism today. Journalist use them all the time to find things out like who came up with journalism and to find things out about what they are reporting. Journalist have been using search engines since 1969. | Search engines are so big now a days that in college you have to take more classes to know how to work all the things on search engines. As journalism gets bigger and more advanced new and older professors have to learn the new ways so that they can teach there students the new material. | Search engines in college | How journalist use search engines | Search Engines | College Class | |

42: The Invention of Email Ray Tomlinson was responsible for the invention of email. He worked for the Advanced Research Projects Agency Network(ARPANET), when he was assigned to come up with a way that that scientist and researchers could easily share their computer resources. So in 1971, Ray came up with the idea of email.This was the first program that allowed people to send messages to different people through the Internet. When this idea first came out people could only send emails to someone that used the same computer, but Ray later came up with using the “@” symbol to separate users from their computer. We still use that sign today in our email addresses. | By: Allyssa Napier | |

43: Email has helped journalism in many ways. Email is always reliable, unless of course you don't have Internet or power, other than that anyone can use it. Instead of writing down everything and sending it through the mail, which takes longer than you want, you can just email what you want and the other person receives it within minutes. If a journalist writes a huge story and it’s very important they are most likely to keep it in better condition and not lose track of it easier. | *Most emails that are sent are usually not actual communication, 88-90% of emails sent now are mostly spams or unsolicited commercial emails* | How we use email has not really changed over the past 40 years. Most people in businesses or older people prefer to use email to send messages because it is so easy to use. It’s also less time consuming because with instant messaging you have to reply when you open it because the other person is expecting your reply within seconds later, whereas with emailing you can open it now and reply later whenever you feel like it. |

44: Internet - Social Networking | Journalist see how important it is to connect with people through Social Media, they can make their stories more accessible for the news to stay alive! People use the Internet way more than they read the newspaper these days, who agrees? Most of the planet would agree, very few people use newspapers to find out their news, some people still do use the newspaper to find out information, but who would want to do that? When they can get on Facebook, Twitter, or some blogging site and just watch a video or have it read to them. Journalist finally found out how much easier it is for them to connect with adults, and even kids through the Internet, especially Facebook and Twitter. They even have it now were you can blog to your followers, or just so anyone can see too read. They are truing to make it were social media brings information and at the same time also make media interactive, informative, and entertaining. | By: Christina Stepp | |

45: Journalist found a much easier way to connect with adults, and even kids. They use Social media websites, Facebook, Twitter, or even blogging. Social Media makes journalist work more interactive, informative, and entertaining. Some journalist still need to learn how to use the Social Media websites though. The reason journalist need to learn how to use the Internet, or social media sites more is, because it lets people find out things before they even happen. Journalist can instantly in seconds talk to their followers, and speak out to them and maybe inspire them to take up journalism. When journalist use social media sites, there is a certain guide lines that they have to go by! Everyone wants journalist to use social media sites, but they do need to be very aware of what can happen, and they the many risk they are taken when using these social media websites. Social Media helps journalist, because more than likely people are going to see what journalist post and they are going to respond to it. | |

46: Without a news crew standing nearby, the news, a death may have gone unnoticed and unrecorded, but through the power of a cell phone the tragic event was captured forever Its so much different then the 1990’s your used to half to wait to get the mail or on the news or radio. now if you just type something in on the Internet you get it as soon as you want its a instant thing,That also helps Journalist access their information quicker and they get instant updates on whats going on world wide. Web producer's are now reporting that the social media is “ where we go; it’s what we turn to. | Mobile Devices | This is a example of what news looks like on a cell phone | Few of the mobile devices

47: This is a example of Mobile Devices LOTS of things can be done with a smart phone or just a phone with Internet, Journalists can update their news on the go!

48: Email/ Allyssa * * http * | Internet Work Cited | Shelby DeShong | How the Web Has Changed Journalism.Online Publishing, 3 June 2008, Web, 13 Sep. 2012. |

49: Stormey ----------- | - - - - | Christina Stepp

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  • Title: Movers, Shakers & Newsmakers 2012 Third Period
  • Movers, Shakers & Newsmaker- Journalists, events, and inventions that changed the world of news as we know it.
  • Tags: journalists, inventions, history
  • Published: over 5 years ago