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Native Arcitc

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BC: We hope that now you know more about Arctic Natives. A special thanks to Ms. Shapiro for helping us with these mix books. | Noah Wolgelerenter, Tomer Zibman and Lauren Cohen

FC: ARCTIC NATIVES | By: Noah Wolgelerenter, Tomer Zibman and Lauren Cohen

1: Table Of Contents. | Page 2- Clothes Page 3- Shelter Page 4- Food sources and Examples Page 5- Role of Women Page 6- Special Events | Page 10- Weapons | Page 11- Geographic Location | Page 7- Art | Page 8- Transportation | Page 12- European Arrival | Page 13- Games and Recreation | Page 9- Food and Dishes | Page 14- Government | Page 15- Legends | Page 16 & 17- Bibliography

2: CLOTHES Arctic people mostly made their clothes from animal skins and furs. They wore many layers of clothes, to protect themselves from cold weather. Caribou skin was mostly used because it provided good insulation and was relatively light. But they also used many other types of animals for making clothes, including: dog, squirrel, marmot, fox, wolf, polar bear, bird and seal. During the winter, they wore layers of boots with stockings, trousers, parkas with hoods, mittens and fur slippers. The large hoods in parkas were used to carry babies and young children. Children's clothing was made from soft skin, from younger animals. | Arctic native jacket, worn daily | Arctic native boots, worn daily. | Native Gloves, worn mostly during winter

3: SHELTER The Arctic Natives rarely stayed in the same place for a long time. They had two homes: an igloo and a tent. During the winter, the Inuit built igloos. Igloos are made from blocks of packed snow. The builder would build the igloo around him. Then, once he was finished, he would cut a door threw to get out. During the summer, the Native family would pack up their stuff, and move to a new location. There they would build tents made from caribou or seal skin. | Arctic native family, standing in front of their family's tent | Arctic igloos

4: FOOD SOURCES AND EXAMPLES Mainly all Arctic Natives were hunters. They caught food year round. Depending on seasons, they would hunt different animals. During the winter, they would go ice fishing. Some animals they hunt include whales, seals, walruses, caribou, musk oxen, arctic hare, arctic birds, polar bear and arctic fox. The Arctic Natives used mostly bow and arrows to hunt animals. | Arctic Hare | An Arctic Native Ice fishing.

5: ROLE OF WOMEN The women of the arctic were raised in a traditional way. They would mostly stay home and cook, dress the animal skin, prepare food and make clothing. The Inuit women would also chew the skins to make them soft, clean and dry the men’s clothing when they came in. They also sewed new clothing. They would sometimes go out to fish, but mainly that was the men’s job. The woman would support the hunter, and look after the children. | Native woman

6: SPECIAL EVENTS The shamans preformed during rituals in ceremonial houses called “Kashims.” They also mainly had ceremonies called “Bladder Dance”, which is held after a successful large hunt. They held a few ceremonies for the Four Seasons. At many events, the Arctic Natives enjoyed playing the drums, dancing and singing. News of the special events were spread by word, and people would come from far to attend. | A native drum, used in special events.

7: Weapons Natives used weapons to hunt all kinds of animals. In the winter, the Inuit people were on boats and hunted sea animals. The most common type of weapon the Natives used was the bow and arrow. They would use the bow and arrow in the summer and hunt forest animals. Some other types of weapons they have used are the tomahawk, knife, and the star. | A bow and arrow made my the Arctic Natives, used for mostly hunting.

8: Transportation In the winter,they would travel by dog sleds. When the Inuit people finally arrived at North America they came with many dogs. The dogs would help them hunt and the dogs were also used to pull the sleds as one of their transportation. The Inuit people also put a special type of material under their boots called, “cram pons” which would give them more grip so they wouldn’t slip or fall on the ice and snow. For summer travel, the Inuit people made two types of boats: the umiak and the kayak. The kayak was a small and light boat. Those boats were mainly used for hunting. Only one person can fit in the kayak. If you were using the kayak you would have to wear the sealskin skirt in the boat. This skirt was wrapped around you to prevent water from coming in. The umiak boat was bigger and heavier than the kayak. It was also more open than the kayak. The umiaks were also wooden skin cover boats and 2 and a half m wide and they might carry about 10 to 15 people. The umiaks were used to hunt lager sea animals than the kayak. Sometimes the women would row the boat while the men hunt the sea animals and steer the boat. | A canoe built by the Arctic Natives. | A canoe built by the Arctic Natives filled with equipment used in their time.

9: Food and Dishes The Inuit people relied on the arctic animals as their main source of food. The Inuit people would catch as much food as they could all the time they went to hunt. Depending on the season it was, they would catch different types of food. When it was summer time, the Inuit people would go fishing and hunting. When it was winter time, the Inuit people would hunt sea animals like whales and seals. The most important animal to the Inuit were the caribou. | Spoons, shoes...made and created by the Arctic natives.

10: Geographic Location In the arctic the tempter range is 35 degrees. The precipitation is 200mm. The snow is 100-200cm. The landforms are ice cap cold and dry. Their natural resources are cod, haddock, salmon, sole, flounder and pollock. Their minerals are led, zinc and silver.

11: ART Inuit art was made from parts of some animals and stone. Some carvings were made out of stone and some were made out of bone and ivory. Most of the Inuit carvings were arctic animals or spirits. Masks were made out of driftwood or whalebone and were often used in lots of occasion like ceremonies and dances. Yuptik masks represented encounters with the spirit world. Many baskets were made out of arctic grasses. | An Inuksuk made by the Arctic Natives.

12: EUROPEAN ARRIVAL In the early 1600s the Europeans started to arrive to Canada. At first the Natives stayed away from the Europeans, but the Natives learned to get along with them. They learned their ways and were accepted into tribes. Some were actually considered Natives and today we can't tell if some of Native families are actually Native or not. This has formed a slight problem because some families don't know if they are European or not and if they do, they don't know from where in Europe. Although in some cases, families do know if they are from Europe and where from Europe. | The Europeans' Arrival

13: Games and Recreation Games like lacrosse and football were actually Native American games. The games were slightly different in the sense that they had hundreds of people in one game, but the concept was the same. The competitions were normally for items or workers. They would probably have one team that played every sport.When they played lacrosse, they played with a stone and a wooden stick with a rim and a net. For games like football,they used leather from an animal, than they would put wood or a rock inside and play like that. Also, they had no mercy; they would sometimes kill people during games. So I guess today’s football and lacrosse sounds slightly safer. | A very common game played by the Inuit

14: GOVERNMENT Native Americans didn't really have a government. Native tribes would have a leader or chief that would be from the son of most recent leader. If they didn't have a son the daughter would NOT be the next leader, they would choose a cousin or relative. The leader would make most of the decisions like when they should hunt, fish or challenge another tribe in game of lacrosse football or any other sport. They could also have loose alliances between non related groups. They would do trades and other things to help out the tribes.

15: LEGENDS They had legends or stories of their beliefs. Some were actually made up stories that eventually turned into beliefs. Many new religions were created off of stories alone. The stories also influenced the way they behaved. Legends back then were taken extremely seriously. | LEGEND

16: BIBLIOGRAPHY | Goldie productions Ltd. 2007 Canadiansfirstpeoples.com | Tyman, John. 2010. Inuit: People of the Arctic. 27 February 2012 http://www.johntyman.com/arctic/inuit201.html | 2 April 2012 | 2 April 2012 | 2 April 2012 | April 2 2012. Basic Needs, Inuit Shelter.

17: www.ucalagary.ca European Contact last updated in 2000 | www.museevirtuel-virtuelmuseum.ca last updated in 2000 Inuit culture | Inuit (Eskimo) Games Inuit (Eskimo) Games last updated June 15 2010 | Stanford, Queutin H. Canadian Oxford School Atlas 8th Edition. Don Mills: Oxford University Press, 2003

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