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Native Studies 30 Final

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FC: Aboriginal People Of Canada | Stefanie Fletcher Native Studies 30 Kristine Dreaver-Charles June 19/09

1: Aboriginal People Of Canada | By: Steff Fletcher

2: Unit One | Inuit people are Aboriginal people traditionally from Arctic regions. | Aboriginal and Treaty Rights

3: Aboriginal people are defined as any person who are of First Nations, Inuit, or Metis decent. | In 2006, 14.88% of the people of Saskatchewan self identify as Aboriginal (2006 census of Canada)

4: Saskatchewan's First Nation population has the youngest median age (20) of all of the province in Canada. 13% of Canada's First Nations population lives in Saskatchewan.

5: Inuit people are Aboriginal people who are traditionally from Arctic Canada. | In 2006 there was approx. 50,500 Inuit people in Canada, with approx 17,700 being ages 0-14

6: In 2006, 7 out of 10 Metis people lived in Urban areas. Also, in the same year 5% of Metis people could speak an Aboriginal language

7: In 2006, a Stats Canada census showed that there was 1,172,785 people living in Canada who identified as Aboriginal.

8: Aboriginal worldview is based on mutual respect for eachother, yourself, and nature.

9: In Aboriginal culture, people who carry alot of knowledge are refered to as "Elders" | Elders' roles in communities vary, but they most commonly are called on for advice or counciling | In some Aboriginal cultures, offerings of tobacco are expected in order to seek an Elder's advice.

10: "A Declaraction of First Nations" outlines these rights: • the right to keep their culture •the right to their own language •the right to their freedoms •the right to their traditions •the right to govern themselves •the right to self-determination | The same decloration also outlines these responsibilities: •follow the laws that the creator gave them •to live in harmony with nature and mankind •to practise their culture and languages to keep them alive •to take care of the land that the creator gave them

11: Treaties are a mutual agreement between two nations. | Canada has made many treaties with Aboriginal people, which are commonly refered to as 'the numbered treaties'

13: Aboriginal people have inherited rights because their ancestors were on the land that is now refered to as Canada long before European settlers came. | They also have rights that are outlined in the number treaties. These rights are covered under the Canadian Constitution, but can also be subject to change by the government.

14: Unit Two Governance

15: In Canada, one territory is self-governed by Aboriginal people. That territory is Nunavut. Although over the years Aboriginal people have aquired more say about governing themselves and Canada, they do not fully self-govern. Self governing is an inherited right that Aboriginals have that was taken away from them.

16: Traditionally, leadership roles in Aboriginal comunities had to be earned, learned, or inherited. In some Aboriginal communities, the mothers of the Clan would decide who would be leaders and could also take people out of leadership roles. After the Indian Act was inacted, this system of governming was effected because voting was then used to decide leadership roles.

17: An example of successful Aboriginal self-governing is the Metis Buffalo hunt. There were various leader positions, and laws to create a successful buffalo hunt.

18: The Indian Act was inacted in 1876. The Act outlined what the government viewed as an 'Indian' and what they wanted the said 'Indians' to do. Aboriginal people lost almost all of their self-governing ways, and many of their rights because of the Act.

19: The Canadian government gave Aboriginal people the choice to 'enfranchise', which meant giving up their Indian status. If they did this, they gained the right to vote. They were not given this right without enfranchising until 1960. It was a choice of giving up their heritage or being welcomed into their new brothering nation. If people voluntarily enfranchised, they were seen as having 'good character' and were given the right to vote, the right to buy and consume alcohol, and a plot of land on their reserve.

20: Passing On Indian Status | In Canada, there are two catagories of Indain Status: 6(1) and 6(2). What catagory a person's parents are in decide if the child will have status. | 6(1) + 6(2) = 6(1) 6(2) + 6(2) = 6(1) 6(1) + no status = 6(2) 6(2) + no status = no status

21: On June 28th, 1985 Bill C-31 was passed. This bill was made to create more equality between Aboriginal women and men. It also worked on re-instating Indian status for people who lost their status to enfranchinment. A new definition of status was made in Bill C-31.

22: Unit Three | Land Claims and Treaty Entitlements

23: "How can you buy the sky? How can you own the rain and wind? My mother told me Every part of the earth is sacred to our people. Every pine needle, every sandy shore. Every mist in the dark woods. Every meadow and humming insect. All are holy in the memory of our people. If we sell you our land, care for it as we have cared for it. Hold in your mind the memory of the land as it is when your receive it. Preserve the land and the air and the rivers for your children's children and love it as we have loved it."

24: Comprehensive Land Claims are made in areas that have had no treaties made. | In order to win a comprehensive land claim, proof of Aboriginal occupancy of land before Europeans need to be proved along with other things. There is a long process involved with a comprehensive land claim. The most prominate comprehensive land claim in Canadian history is the Nunavut land claim.

25: Specific land claims are land claims that are based on treaties, and the management of Indian lands, assets, and completion of treaty agreements. | The three types of specific claims are: treaty land entitlement claims, land surrender claims, and Indian assets claims. | Treaty land entitlement claims are claims that Aboriginal people file in order to request reserve lands that were outlined in a Treaty but were not fulfilled. Aboriginal people can file a land surrender claim if reserve land was illegally or improperly seized from them. Indian assets claims are filed if Aboriginal monies or assets were held in trust by the government then not properly managed.

26: Economic Development | Unit four

27: After European settlers came, Aboriginals struggled with economic sufficency and development because of the control the government had on their economic situation in the past. Without this control, Aboriginal people were not able to learn how to be economically self-sufficient. | Aboriginal people are working towards economic self-sufficiency by creating businesses (and jobs), and by using the resources they have to better their financial situations (example: tourism in the north)

28: Many factors have stunted economic growth, such as: loss of control of their land and resources; discrimination against them in the work force; new forms of economic activity (manufacturing, agriculture) were taken over by non-Aboriginal people, so Aboriginal people did not have equal chances to obtain the amount of success non-Aboriginal did because of competition in those fields; treaty promises made by the government to ensure Aboriginal self-sufficiency were not fulfilled; legislations made by the government (especially the Indian Act) stunted Aboriginal self-sufficiency by restricting the flow of capital and the ability for First Nations leaders and entrepreneurs to make their own choices; and the lack of educational facilities that accept Aboriginal people as students and create equity between them and non-Aboriginal students. s.

29: It is difficult for many Aboriginal people to become self sufficient again because for many years they have been forced to become dependant on government funding, not out of choice but out of necessity. Although there are a few jobs that have the credentials to do, many Aboriginal people did not receive sufficient education to have a career to support their families, and also there are not enough jobs to cater to the growing Aboriginal population. This is shown in the 1991 study that 54% of Aboriginal people were making <$10,000 annually; this is compared to only 34% of other Canadians that were making this small of an amount. Unfortunately, with the recent population swell it is possible that a higher percent of Aboriginal people will be in this economic position in years to come. The last barrier in the way of revitalization to be discussed is the lack of power Aboriginal people have over the natural resources that they have on their land. Without the ability to benefit and manage these resources themselves, Aboriginal people will struggle to once again achieve self-sufficiency.

30: Some Aboriginal people are setting out to create jobs and careers for their fellow Aboriginal people. They are doing this by opening buisinesses such as gift shops, construction buisinesses, tourism buisinesses, and many more types of buisinesses. | One example of a successful Aboriginal buisiness is the Candor Shop in Winnipeg, Manitoba. It was open by a Metis couple because of their strong love for bluegrass music. They saw a need for a jazz and bluegrass music store and created it. Candor Shop quickly became popular, and also quickly became a stage for many local artists.

31: Owners of Candor Shop, Jules Adolphe and Amanda Darnley

32: Unit Five | Social Development

33: This Unit is about: Aboriginal Justice, Education, Health, and Childwelfare

34: Justice | Traditional Aboriginal Justice is not codified, it was passed down orally through teachings and religion. | Conflict resolution was based on respect, balance, sharing, and caring. | Being a role model for younger generations played a big part of Aboriginal justice

35: A sentencing circle is a traditional Aboriginal approach to restorative justice. In order to have a sentencing circle, the offender’s defence or the judge will put in a recommendation which goes through an application process before it is accepted. The victim’s views on whether or not a sentencing circle should be used are also taken into account. Sentencing circles are usually used in conjunction with the court process, and they are usually used against less than violent crimes, or crimes against the community. The sentencing circle process starts with a healing circle for the victim, then a healing circle for the offender. The healing circle is a process of what can be done to heal both victim and offender, and what situation will be the best for both of them. The next step is the actual sentencing circle, where it is decided what consequence the offender face and what he/she needs to do to make things better. There is follow-up circles to ensure that the consequences and promises the circle agreed on are being met, and if they are not it is dealt with in court. In most situations, sentencing circles are an effective way of restorative justice.

36: Education | Before their Education was taken over by the government, Aboriginal children learned by listening, observing, and experiencing lessons. Storytelling was often used as a way to teach lessons also. | During the mid 1800's, after the Indian Act came about, Aboriginal children were taken from their homes to residential schools, mostly ran by Christian religions. These schools encouraged Aboriginal children to lose their heritage by not allowing them to partake in traditional cerimonies or activities, speak their own language, or wear their traditional clothing. Many children were sexually, physically, emotionally, and mentally abused at these institutions. The emotional scars of residential schools are still seen in Aboriginal society today, and causes many problems for Aboriginal people.

37: A nun and children from a residential school. | A map of Residential schools in Saskatchewan

38: Health | Traditionally, Aboriginal healthcare was looked at in a mental, physical, spiritual, and emotional sense. If one was not balanced, none could be. Aboriginals believe that if relationships in a person's life are not positive, their health can not be either. Some traditonal remedies of cures for sicknesses are sweetgrass, sweat lodges, and other herbs.

39: Child welfare | The Aboriginal child welfare situation is an ongoing problem in Canada. Aboriginal children are the highest population in the system everywhere in Canada. This is especially prominate in Saskatchewan. In the 1960's-1980's the Canadian government took many Aboriginal children from their parents, which caused some bands to lose a whole generation. The effects of this sweep of children was terrible, with many children growing up to be confused about their identity. The effects of this are still shown in the child welfare system today.

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  • Steff Fletcher Native Studies 30 Kristine Dreaver-Charles June 19 2009
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