BC: Have you ever wondered about Native changes and contributions? If you have, then read our book! You'll love it!
FC: Natives- Changes and Contributions | By: Brooke Stockhamer, Ben Traubici, Omer Bahat, Sami Falkenstein and Yarin Gurevich
1: TABLE OF CONTENTS | CHANGES THAT OCCURRED WHEN EUROPEANS CAME PAGE 2-3 RESIDENTIAL SCHOOLS PAGE 4-5 WHAT NATIVES INVENTED PAGE 6-9 FAMOUS NATIVES PAGE 10-11 BIBLIOGRAPHY PAGE 13-17
2: Changes that Occurred when the Europeans Came to Canada During Native times, the Europeans came to Canada on large boats to discover new land. At first, each thought the other didn’t have the right religion. They used each other’s things for their own benefits. The Natives used the Europeans' knives and sharp tools for hunting and the Europeans used Native inventions, such as canoes, toboggans and snowshoes. The Natives and Europeans also traded with each other for things such as fur. The Europeans basically relied on the Natives for their survival. Even though things started off friendly, the Europeans brought deadly diseases to Canada, such as measles, smallpox and scurvy. All these diseases made the Native population drop from 350,000 to 100, 000!
3: ! The Europeans didn’t respect Native customs and beliefs. They hunted buffalo for sport while the Natives hunted buffalo for survival. Even though there were now newcomers who were different from them, the Natives tried very hard to keep their customs and beliefs. The Europeans began to persuade the Natives to give up their land for money, cattle and knives. They were sent to live on pieces of land just for them, called “reserves”. The Natives felt cheated and wanted all their land back. They could no longer hunt and live the lifestyle that their ancestors lived. Their children were taught just French and English, not Native languages. They were punished for speaking Native languages. There are unfortunately still Natives who live hard lives on the reserves today.
4: Residential Schools Residential schools are schools that Aboriginal students were forced to attend. They were created by the Canadian government to take the “Nativeness” out of the Natives and make them forget their culture and traditions. They were forced to do things they did not want to and got abused. For Aboriginals this was a very sad event. | The children in residential schools didn’t see their family members, children didn’t even see siblings who went to the same school. The school made sure they were separated. In total, about 150 000 kids were removed from their families and homes and were forced to go to residential schools.
5: In 2007, the government gave $1.9 billion to Native families in order for the children to go to Native schools, relearn their religion and attend any programs that their parents want to send them to. The Canadian government also apologized for creating the residential schools and for all the kinds of abuse that took place there. It gave families $ 10 000 for the first year of residential schools and $ 3 000 for the other years. Whatever was left from the $ 1.9 billion went to the programs that help children to learn their traditions.
6: WHAT NATIVES INVENTED | Native people across North America developed dyes to add colours to their clothing. The dyes were made from natural materials such as roots, flowers, bark and fruits just like today when you take any of these materials and rub it on paper it will make colours. The Natives learned quickly to use what was around them to make the things they needed.
7: WHAT NATIVES INVENTED | The Natives discovered the hacky sack. Natives made the ball from deerskin and stuffed deer or buffalo hair. Players tried to keep the ball up by hitting it up in the air with their feet as many times as possible.The game was really popular and many people had competitions. Hacky sack was a woman's game; if a man were to play, he would be teased.
8: Lacrosse was invented by the Natives in North America. Players used curved sticks that had a net at the end for catching the ball.The ball was passed between team members, who tried to score on the other team's net.There were a lot people playing.
9: I think it's pretty cool how the Natives invented bow and arrows.In the time of the Natives, they used bow and arrows to hunt or disable animals. Various kinds of wood were used, depending on what was available in their area.
10: Red Cloud 1822-1909 Conceivably one of the most skilled warriors from the Oglala Lakota (Sioux) tribesmen ever faced by the US military, Makhpiya Luta, his Sioux name, led his people in what is known as Red Cloud’s War. This battle was for the rights to the area known as Powder River Country in Northern Wyoming and Southern Montana. Eventually he led his people during their time on reservation. | Cochise 1815-1874 though actually pronounced K-you Ch-Ish, this Apache leader is second only to Geronimo when it comes to that tribe’s historical significance. Often described as having the classical Indian frame; muscular, large for the time, and known to wear his long, black hair in a traditional pony tail, Cochise aided in the uprising to resist intrusions by Mexicans and American in the 19th century.
11: Maria TallChief 1925- born Elizabeth Maria Tall Chief to an Osage Nation father, she became an eventually well-known ballerina. In 1947 Maria began dancing with the New York City Ballet until her retirement in 1965. Soon after she founded the Chicago City Ballet and remained its artistic director for many years. Since 1997 she has been an adviser in the Chicago dance schools and continues to astound future dancers with her always-ahead-of-her-skill abilities and will be featured in a PBS special from 2007-2010. | Squanto 1581-1622 Assisting the Pilgrims during their first, harsh winter, the Patuxet, Tasquantum (Squanto) befriended the group in order to see them safely through to spring. In 1608, alas, Squanto and several others were kidnapped by Georgie Weymouth and taken aboard ship to England. Though eventually earning a living and learning the English language, Squanto made his return home in 1613 aboard John Smith’s ship only to find his tribe completely wiped out by the plague.
13: Silvey, Diane. The Kids Book of Aboriginal Peoples in Canada. Toronto: Kids Can Press, 2005. Wikipedia. 28 April 2012 at 23:33. Wednesday April 25 2012. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carey_Price. Wikipedia. 26 April 2012 at 21:06. Tuesday April 24 2012. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jordin_Tootoo. Website: www.cbc.ca/news/background/aboriginals/residentialschools.html Posted: May 16, 2008 11:12 AM ET Last Updated: Jun 14, 2010 12:55 PM | Bibliography
14: Francis, Daniel Discovering First Peoples and First Contacts Don Mills, Ontario Oxford University Press 2000 | Wikipedia 1 May 2012 at 18:12 Wednesday May 2 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Red_Cloud Wikipedia 1 May 2012 at 11:22 Wednesday May 2 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cochise | Wikipedia 13 April 2012 at 18:52 Wednesday May 2 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maria_Tallchief
15: Wikipedia 1 May 2012 at 17:00 Wednesday May 2 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Squanto Wikipedia 7 April 2012 at 15:55 Wednesday May 2 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crazy_Horse Wikipedia 27 April 2012 at 20:07 Wednesday May 2 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sacajawea Wikipedia 6 April 2012 at 01:20 Wednesday May 2 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Will_Rogers Wikipedia 7 April 2012 at 14:25 Wednesday May 2 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chief_Pontiac Wikipedia 1 May 2012 at 17:00 Wednesday May 2 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Squanto Wikipedia 7 April 2012 at 15:55 Wednesday May 2 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crazy_Horse Wikipedia 27 April 2012 at 20:07 Wednesday May 2 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sacajawea
16: Wikipedia 6 April 2012 at 01:20 Wednesday May 2 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Will_Rogers Wikipedia 7 April 2012 at 14:25 Wednesday May 2 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chief_Pontiac Wikipedia 3 April 2012 at 15:51 Wednesday May 2 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geronimo Wikipedia 1 May 2012 at 01:28 Wednesday May 2 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tecumseh Wikipedia 29 April at 05:20 Wednesday May 2 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sitting_Bull Wikipedia 2 May 2012 at 15:55 Wednesday May 2 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Black_Hawk_(Sauk_leader) Wikipedia 2 May 2012 at 15:16 Wednesday May 2 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sequoyah Wikipedia 1 May 2012 at 02:12 Wednesday May 2 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pocahontas
17: Wikipedia 25 April 2012 at 22:53 Wednesday May 2 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hiawatha