FC: MUGHAL EMPIRE
1: Early Mughal Imperial Standard From 1655 | 1526–1857 | In 1526, Babur, a descendant of Genghiz Khan, came to India and established the Mughal Dynasty, defeating Delhi Sultanate. 30 years later, Akbar takes the throne and endorses religious tolerance, especially for Hindus. His reign would come to an end in 1605. Around 1700, religious tolerance is ended as Muslims begin to persecute Hindus, and as a reaction, Hindus also stand up and revolt against the Muslim rulers. After a while, | religious fighting and endless wars began to take its toll on the region. In 1757, the Battle of Plassey ends, and the British East India Company gains control of the Bengal region. Over the course of the next century, the British would continue to gain territory, even though a Mughal ruler stayed in power. Finally, in 1858, the last ruler Bahadur Shah II is forced to exile to Rangoon for complicity with sedition, all but ending the Mughal Dynasty in India.
2: The Mughal Empire was located in Northern India. By its height in 1707, the Mughal Empire stretched across the Deccan Plateau and touched all three water borders around India (Arabian Sea, Bay of Bengal, and the Indian Ocean). | The Hindu Kush and Himalayan Mountains to the North served as the subliminal borders for the region. The Ganges and Indus River Valley stretched throughout the land, providing transportation and fertile farmlands. This area also became a rich trading market with Calcutta serving as a trading outpost.
3: People: | The people of the Mughal Dynasty were very interested in science and technology, especially astronomy. They were also known for their unique architecture. Monuments were often built by Muslim emperors, especially the ruler Shahjahan. Mughal influence was strongly a fusion of Persian and Indian cultures. This lead to their Mughlai cuisine which would vary from extremely mild to spicy with a distinct aroma. Gardening and a good road system for trade were other important aspect of Mughal society. Persian was the dominant language in the Mughal Empire until it evolved into the Urdu language which combined Persian, Arabic, and Turkic aspects of literary conventions. Finally, a uniform currency provided stability for a region that was very diverse in culture. Conflict between Hindu and Muslim powers would play a role in the decline of the Mughal Empire.
4: Government: | The Mughal Empire was a Turkic imperial power with a central form of government. After Akbar, Salim reigned from 1605 -1627, taking the title of Jahangir. His high culture in art and beauty was his most well-known attribute. He also preserved the highly centralized form of the government. His son Shah Jahan was probably the most influential emperor of the dynasty, mostly because of the vast and rich empire he inherited. Like his Father, he was a patron of the arts, leaving behind the Taj Mahal. Perhaps the most controversial figure was Aurangzeb. His reign lasted for 49 years from 1658 until his death in 1707. He was a devout Muslim who broke down the religious toleration policies for Hindus that his predecessors installed. As a result, after he left the throne, the Mughal Empire began its decline.
5: References: | Cover Photo) http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/4d/TajMahalbyAmalMongia.jpg Dates Page Photo #1) http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/f3/Lion_and_sun-_Mogul_Empure-India.jpg Dates Page Photo #2) http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/1c/Flag_of_the_Mughal_Empire.svg Information) http://www.sscnet.ucla.edu/southasia/History/Mughals/mughals.html Information #2) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mughal_Empire