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Once upon a decade ago...

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FC: Once upon a decade ago... By Xuan Truong & Lotus Dodson

1: Table of Content Armed Resistance to Slavery....pg 2 Early Slave Rebellions....pg 3 The Stono Uprising...pg 4 The Prosser Conspiracy...pg 6 Spreading the Word....pg 5 A Vision of Freedom...pg 6

2: A Failed Uprising...pg 7 The Vesey Conspiracy...pg 8 Desire for Revolution...pg 8 Betrayal...pg 9 "Old NAT'S WAR"...pg 10

3: Reaction to Turner...pg 10 Free African Americans in the North and South....pg 11 Neither Enslaved Nor Free...pg 12 The Free African American Population...pg 12 Routes to Freedom...pg 13 Limits on Freedom...pg 14 Earning a Living...pg 15 A Fragile Freedom...pg 16 Developing Businesses...pg 16

4: Paul Cuffe...pg 17 Getting an Education...pg 18 Mutual Aid...pg 19 Threats to Freedom...pg 20 Migration and Colonization... pg 20

6: Chapter 1 | Chapter 1 Page 1

7: Armed Resistance to Slavery A man named David Walker grew up which his freed mother, and enslaved father. David did not know much about the “pains of slavery”, He found out about everything through his father. In 1825, he moved North from North Carolina to Boston, Massachusetts, opening up a secondhand clothing store. Shortly, Walker taught himself to read and write. Soon, he was writing fierce article for the first African American newspaper name “ Freedom’s Journal”. Then he made a booklet called “Walker’s Appeal in Four Articles” in September 1829. The book talked about how he urged slaves to rebel against slavery. “Kill or Be Killed” was his remark towards slavery. Slave holders were afraid that slaves might just rebel. So officials burn Walker’s books and arrest him. Walker mysteriously died in 1830. Some say he was murdered, others have no clue as to what happen. In result, slave holders abolished the Appeal, and restricted the slaves even more. Page 2

9: Early Slave Rebellion A group of African Americans met up for rebellions, once again. They went to a slave holder’s house and, set the house on fire. When whites went to put out the blaze, the blacks ambushed them using axes, knives, and guns. Nine whites died, and six were injured. English soldiers tracked down the men and arrested them. New York had the most enslaved Africans besides Charleston, South Carolina. Winning freedom was difficult, due to the failed rebellion. Native Americans would rebel as well. They set fire to their master's homes and families that held them. In 1708, African Americans killed the family that held them on Long Island, New York. Thirty-four people were killed because of what New Yorkers called the Great Negro Plot. Fires and thefts broken out of the city, rumors spread Africans were the blame. Officials executed the rebels and laws became even tougher. Slaves could not move as freely as they once could. Whenever they went out they would have to take passes with them. Anyone who violated these laws would be severe whipped and some of the laws or “slave codes” gave officials the right to press a hot iron their forehead. For those reasons, “troublemakers” could be easily identified. Page 3

11: The Stono Uprising Throughout the colonies, slaves tried to get away from slavery by running away. Some Africans even fled to Native Americans. Some Africans from South Carolina and Georgia fled to Spanish Florida. The Spanish King offered fugitives their freedom in 1733. In 1738, a group of Africans built a fort near Saint Augustine, Florida. So Africans could protect their families from slave catchers. The Spanish provided them with weapons and also help Native Americans. Slave holders was horrified at the thought of forts being built near Saint Augustine, Florida. News of the forts spread back to enslaved Africans in South Carolina, because of the ships arriving in the Charleston harbour. The number of enslaved Africans increased rapidly. On September 9, 1739, a group of people lead by Jemmy. They destroy and arsenal for weapons. Then they head towards Saint Augustine. They burned plantation along the way, killing twenty to thirty whites. A white solider caught up with them and killed or wounded many of Africans. Once again, the officials made laws even stricter. Including, the South Carolina Assembly ordering white men in the colony to carry a gun or a pair of horse whips. Any African Americans spotted without a passed would be killed right there and then. Page 4

13: Spreading the Word Gabriel Prosser persuaded his brother and his wife to join the rebellion. They asked other slaves in Henrico County to rebel with them. Prosser told his followers to steal weapons or anything else that can be used as weapons. He wanted to arm his group with guns to have control over the local land owners. His plans was to lead his followers to attack at Richmond, Virgina. Slaves would be able to kill whites aside from ethic groups thought to be friendly to them. Page 5

14: The Prosser Conspiracy An enslaved African American named Gabriel was held by Thomas Henry. He was a craftsman. Surprisingly, his owner knew little of what Gabriel's name would be known for. In the season of spring and summer of 1800, he made plans to rebel. A Vision of Freedom Gabriel Prosser’s inspiration to rebel was from the Bible. He would compare African Americans to the ones in Egypt. Prosser was like Moses, because he dreamed of leading his people to the promise land. He believed that a successful rebellion can occur. On his journey, he learned about the uprising in Haiti under Toussaint. He also listened to whites talk about their struggle to gain freedom from the British. Page 6

16: A Failed Uprising One the night of rebellion, thousands of slaves gathered around Richmond, Virgina. Even so, two slaves ratted them out to the whites. As the rebellion continued, a thunderstorm occur. It made it hard for Prosser’s army to march toward Richmond. Then, they encounter 600 troops sent by James Monroe, future president of the United States. James Monroe set out to stop the rebels. The group lead by Prosser tried to escape by sea but sadly was captured. Thirty five people and Prosser was put on trial after capture. Posser was hanged in October 7, 1800 and his legacy of rebellion failed to encourage African Americans. Within the time period, more plots were reported happening in Virgina and North Carolina. Charles Deslondes was a free African American, who led hundred of enslaved people to freedom. His rebellion ended up being a failed attempt near New Orleans. Page 7

17: The Vesey Conspiracy In 1800, Denmark Vesey got the chance to win 1.500 in a lottery. He decided to use half of the money to buy his freedom and open a carpentry show in Charleston, South Carolina. Desire For Revolution Denmark Vesey spent his time study the Haitian and French revolutions. As the increase in slavery grew, his hatred grew as well. He promised to lead enslaved African Americans to take over Charleston. A couple of years, Vesey would talk to African Americans of Charleston about rebellion. He would hold meetings in his house to try to convince others to join forces in attack on Charleston. One of his recruits, named Peter Poyans assisted with him to organize a plot. The group set up many points of attack throughout Charleston, giving them an advancement in control of the city’s weapons and harbor. Page 8

18: Betrayal Denmark Vesey believed that he had everything under control. Poyas and Vesey had been careful to not experience betrayal. They were the only one that knew the names of the people involve in the plot. Before they jumped into action, an enslaved African turn them and others to the authorities. Some officials arrested a hundred and thirty African people, only one person confess to the crime. In result, the confession sentenced Poyas and others were sentenced to death. Thirty- five were executed for the crime of rebellion and the other ninety-five were shipped to Caribbeans. South Carolina legislature rewards the traitor with fifty dollars a year. The South Carolina legistature passed laws in restricting the freedom of African Americans. “ No African American, could ever have the freedom of Denmark Vesey”, said the white officials in Charleston. The South Carolina legislature did not want African Americans (free or not), to think what Vesey did was a good thing. However, when the Civil War began and Fredrick Douglass was finding people to join the army. He urged people to think of Denmark Vesey to see what he tried to accomplish and sought out to do. Page 9

20: “Old Nat’s War” Nat Turner was an enslaved plantation worker in Southhampton County, Virgina. People used to think of him as a prophet. At an early age, he saw visions and voices of God. He strongly believed he had a special purpose in life. He waited for signs or message to help him. In 1825, he was thought to have a vision. The vision persuaded him to go after white planters. Then, he waited for another sign for him to strike the planters. Reaction to Turner Nat Turner was remembered as a legend among the enslaved African American of Southamption County. The whites saw him as a demon. Southern states made stricter laws and forced enslaved African Americans to follow them. For whites, that believed enslaved African Americans were satisfied with their life, hearing about the Turner rebellion came as a shock. Such rebellions continued to bring an uproar of violence in the South and during the Civil War. Page 10

21: Chapter 2 Free African Americans in the North and South An African American by the name of Nancy Gardner Prince, believed the color of a person doesn’t restrict people capability of occupying. Unfortunately, her words was describing Russia and not United States. She traveled with her husband, Nero, to Russia. Her husband was a sailor who took a job to be a servant to the ruler of Russia. Prince owned her own business in the dressmaking business. She made dresses for the empress of Russia and other wealthy women. Due to the harsh weather, Prince decided to return home for health reasons. When she arrived in Boston, the stage coach driver rejected her in a seat inside the carriage. She was oppressed by her race and had to face obstacles free African American had to overcame. Page 11

22: Neither Enslaved Nor Free In New England, African Americans were all considered free. At that time, slavery only existed in the Southern states of United States. Even though, African American had the right of freedom discrimination was faced everywhere. It was a cruel full treatment based a person’s color or belief. The Free African American Population The nation’s population of free African American had increased during the years of the American Revolution. In 1790, the population of freed African American came up to 59,000. In 1830, the number of freed African American increased up to 319,000. It was due to the banning of slavery in the Northern states and also several southern states. In 1860, Maryland had more freed African American than any other state. The population consisted of half African American to be free. Page 12

23: Routes to Freedom In the 1860s, almost half of the freed African American population lived in the South. People became freed by buying their freedom, their owners set them free, or many came from the descendants of free African Americans. An African American by the name of Pierre Chastang, was known for being a grateful citizen. Whites would raise money to buy his freedom for him. Due to his service in the War and his help during the yellow fever epidemic. Thousands of African Americans simply became by running away from slavery. Page 13

24: Limits on Freedom The fear of African American helping or planning on rebellions made Southern lawmakers to limit the right of free African Americans. The laws would not allow African Americans to vote, to have a trial, or even to go against whites. African American children was not able to be in public schools. Free African American were not able to move freely in the South. They had to carry passes showing that they are free. They would be rejected the right to reenter in a state after they have left the state. In some places, they were not allowed to be together in a church setting or without a white person present. In the Northern states, people faced discrimination. Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, and Vermont allowed African American the right to vote. In New York, white males can vote if their over 21 years old but, African American men had to own about two hundred fifty dollars of property to vote. All Northern states would also ban African Americans from being a part of court. Some states ban them from testifying against African Americans or signing contacts. African American would have to show a certificate that they are free. There were separation of races in the Northern states. Even though, laws did not keep them apart but, churches in the North required African American to sit in separate seats. Public school didn’t let African American children to attend. In a way, African American in the North neither free or enslaved. Page 14

25: Earning a Living Free African Americans in the South, seem far out better than in the North. There was a labor shortage which allowed several free African Americans to build businesses. Charleston was among the cities populated with free African Americans workers. There were 122 carpenters, 87 tailors, and 30 shoemakers. The city contain more than half a dozen African American innkeepers. Numerous amount of free African Americans became rich. In the North, people worked as furniture makers, barbers, tailors, or other skilled jobs. Many were just laborers or serving others. Addition to, African Americans being discriminated people from other lands started migrating to the North. Majority of immigrants were Irish, because of their skin they were able to get jobs and housing in which was an advantage over African American. Page 15

26: A Fragile Freedom Despite the struggles African Americans had to go through, there were success stories in both North and South. Godfrey Brown was an African American who bought his freedom for his family and achieved in owning a shoe making business. Thomy Lafon build a territory worth up to 500,000 dollars. Aaron Ashworth own acres of land and around two thousands of cattle. Developing Businesses Numerous amount of free African American had the chance to be employed in business, such as restaurants, hotels, barbershop, and many others. Some even became entrepreneurs, such names as James Forten. He invented a device which help for handling sails. He built a sailing making factory and employing Africans Americans and whites. Many African was able to earn money for their business and help with the ending of slavery. For instance, James Forten would give money to the Liberator, a newspaper run by white abolitionist William Lloyd Garrison. Page `16

27: Paul Cuffe Paul Cuffe was sent over sea at the age of 16. After his time at sea, he wanted to build his own fishing fleet. Gradually, he owned three ships, smaller vessels, and a warehouse on Connecticut’s Westport River. He hired African American crew members to travel around to different place, like Great Britain, West Indies, Russia, and Africa. He believed African were better off if they had been in African than in the United States. He would pay for African Americans to go back to Africa in his ships. Page 17

28: Getting an Education Many African American realize that education can lead to success. In the North and South, they would pay for their own education and their children. Some teachers opened school for the purpose of to educate African Americans. During 1833, townspeople burned down a school for girls when they allowed African Americans to attend. Despite the dangerous actions of other, teachers and other still continue to set up school and to let African Americans to attend. Free African American started going to colleges and universities. Through perseverance some became doctors, dentists, teachers, ministers, writers, and many others. Free African American continued to ban slavery by writing hundreds of pamphlets, books, thousands of delivered speeches and sermons. Page 18

30: Mutual Aid In the 1800s, laws have been passed to prevent African Americans to gather together. In the Northern states, African American established mutual aid societies which provided help to families. They built libraries and reading rooms, and offer lectures. These societies would later on help runaway slaves to freedom. Page 19

32: Threats of Freedom As African American became more verbal of their freedom, they were faced with harsh treatment in both the North and the South. In 1840, white people beaten African American workers in Cincinnati. Frederick Douglas could recall how the train conductor would be him for sitting in an all-white cars. There were continuous threats of how slave catchers would take free African American and resell them in the Deep South. Migration and Colonization Many free African American supported moving to Canada for a better life for themselves. Some free African American believed it was better off sending free African American back to African. White Southerners were gladly to support the idea of sending free African Americans back to Africa. They formed the American Colonization Society to build a colony in Africa for them. President James Monroe was even planning on establishing a place in Liberia for free African Americans. Few African American didn’t want to leave the United States. They felt the United States was their home. After the colonization society was form, a meeting was held where free African American rejected the idea of being resettled. Many free African American felt there was no need to separate themselves from the slave population since they are family tied by the blood of suffering and wrongfully justice of this country. Page 20

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  • Title: Once upon a decade ago...
  • The book shares the story of slavery and the development of how enslaved African Americas came to have a huge contribution towards North America.
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  • Published: over 4 years ago

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