FC: By: Bryson,Bradley,Alexys | The Oregon Trail
1: Table of Contents | Pg.2-4 Historical sites Pg.5-9 Native Americans Pg.10 Diseases Pg.11-12 African Americans Pg.13 Hardships Pg.14 Wagons Pg.15 Wagons Pg.16 Food
2: Historic Sites On The Trail. | MISSOURI: St. Louis Independence St. Joseph Westport | NEBRASKA Rock Creek Station Fort Kearny Ash Hollow Courthouse Rock Chimney Rock Scotts Bluffs | IDAHO Fort Hall Craters of the Moon Shoshone Falls 3 Island Crossing Fort Boise
3: Historical Sites Cont. | IOWA: Council Bluffs | WYOMING Fort Laramie Fort Caspar Independence Rock Devils Gate South Pass Fort Bridger | OREGON Grande Ronde The Dalles Oregon City Barlow Road
4: Historical Sites Historical sites | KANSAS: Shawnee Mission Alcove Spring | WASHINGTON: Whitman Mission Fort Vancouver
5: Most of the encounters with the Native Americans were simply bussiness transactions. The emigrants often offered the Native Americans clothes,tobacco,rifles in exchange for Native American horses or food. | Native soup. | Tobacco | Native Americans
6: Perhaps the most important confrontation with the Native Americans occurred near Ft. Laramie in 1854, and became known as the Grattan Massacre. It began innocently enough, a single cow wandered away from an emigrant wagon train. When the cow showed up at a nearby Sioox village the tribe promptly ate it. | Grattan Massacre | Indian Trade
7: Within a few years, the emigrants had overgazed the prairie grasses, burned all the available firewood, and depleted the buffalo. Soon many tribes along the platte were impoverished. | Indians Native Americans | The emigrants worried a great deal about possible native attacks, but very few wer killed by tribes.
8: For years,the Hudson's Bay company had been stabilzing force on the Native Americans who lived near the Snake River but when the British furtrading company pulled out in the early 1850's, attacks on emigrants increased substantiallyl. | Massacre rocks incident | Hudson Bay companys fort
9: Indians | The first section of the Oregon Trail bisected two major Native American tribes the cheyenne to the north and the pawnee to the south. | Cheyenne | Pawnee | The emigrants worried about both. But the expected attacks did not come.
10: Walking Because most emigrants overloaded their wagons, few could ride inside. Instead most walked--many made the entire 2,000 mile journey on foot. | One of the bad diseases was lice on the body and head. Another disease was cholera, a diarrhea illness, causesd by infection of the intestine. Some of the effects of cholera were watery diarrhea, vomiting, and leg cramps. Cholera is spread by contaminated water and food.
11: Moses Harris Moses Harris was a wagon train guid on the oregon trail after years of exsploring and furr trapping in the mountains. Moses Harris was the first person to adventure into the west in 1823. Also he was consider a exspert in winter traveling.In 1836 Harris helped guid the whitman spalding party to oregon. He was credited for building fort Laramie.
12: Reuben Shipley and Mary Jane Holmes Reuben Shipley's owner granted him his freedom upon arriving in the Oregon Territory in 1853. Because his wife and sons were owned by another family, Shipley was forced to leave them behind in Missouri. After arriving in Oregon, he tried to buy his family, but the owner informed him that his wife had died the previous year, when he was on the Oregon Trail. He refused to sell Shipley his sons
13: River crossings were a constant source of distress for the pioneers. Hundreds drowned trying to cross the Kansas, North Platte and Columbia Rivers--among others. In 1850 alone, 37 people drowned trying to cross one particularly difficult river--the Green. | Hardships | Walking 2,000 miles barefoot--and that was the easy part | Because most emigrants grossly overloaded their wagons, few could ride inside. Instead most walked--many made the entire 2,000 mile journey on foot.
14: Above: These are the different parts of the wagon.
15: The wagon had to be strong enough to carry 2,500 lbs.
16: FOOD: Flour Hardtack Bacon Coffee Baking Soda Molasses Dried beans Dried beef Dried fruit Salt Vinegar Pepper Eggs Sugar Rice Tea Corn Meal
17: Weaponry: Rifle Gunpowder Bullet pouch Pistol Lead Holster Knife Bullet mold Hatchet Powder horn
18: Clothing: Wool sack coats Cotton shirts Palm-leaf sun hat Buckskin pants Duck trousers Felt hat Wool pantaloons Brogans Boots Cotton dresses Cotton socks SunbonnetRubber coats Flannel shirts Green goggles
19: Cooking Utensils: Dutch oven Skillet Coffee pot Ladle Butcher knife Reflector oven Water kettle Tin tableware Kettle Coffee Grinder Teapot Matches
20: Starting from Monroe County, Iowa, Saturday, April 9, 1853, and Ending Near Millwaukie, Oregon Territory, September 17, 1853. Saturday, April 9th, 1853 -- STARTED FROM HOME about 11 o’clock and traveled 8 miles and camped in an old house; night cold and frosty. Sunday, April 10th -- Cool and pleasant, road hard and dusty. Evening Came 18 miles and camped close in to the Fulkerson’s house. Monday, April 11th -- Morn. Cloudy and signs of rain, about 10 o’clock it began to rain. Atnoon it rains so hard we turn out and camp in a school house after traveling 11 miles; rains all the afternoon and all night, very unpleasant. Jefferson and Lucy have the mumps. Poor cattlebawled all night. Tuesday, April 12th -- Warm and sultry. Still cloudy, road very muddy. Traveled 10 miles andcamp on Soap creek bottom. Creek bank full; have to wait till it falls. http://www.isu.edu/~trinmich/00.ar.knight.html | Diary of Mrs. Amelia Stewart Knight (1853)
21: Some women had only a few weeks notice that the family was moving to Oregon, while others had enough time to prepare as best they could.Once the husband's mind was made up, however, woman were at best able to delay the journey to Oregon. Not all women were against the idea of their families undertaking the journey to Oregon --in fact ,some shared their husbands enthusiasm. I was possessed with a spirit of adventure and a desire to see what was new and strange.
22: "All our work here requires stooping. Not having tables, chairs, or anything it is very hard on the back." - Lodisa Frizzel ... "One does like a change and about the only change we have from bread and bacon, is bacon and bread." - Helen Carpenter "Had a rather disagreeable tome getting supper. Our [buffalo] chips burn father poor as they are so wet." - Cecelia Adams "I have cooked so much out in the sun and smoke that I haedly know who I am and when I look into the little looking glass I ask,"Can this be me?" - Miriam Davis | Women's Voices From the Trail
24: Works Cited Diary of Mrs. Amelia Stewart Knight. 9 June 2009
26: Http://www.legendsofamerica.com/photos-nativeamerican/pawnee%20scouts.jpg. Digital image. Http://www.legendsofamerica.com/photos- nativeamerican/pawnee%20scouts.jpg. 9 June 2009