FC: The Oregon Trail By: Olson, John, and Amelia
1: Table of Contents | Pages 2-11: Cities Along the Way Pages 12-13: Diseases and Hardships Pages 14-15: African Americans Pages 16-17: Women on the Oregon Trail Pages 20-25: Native Americans Pages 26-28: Provisions Pages 29-31: Works Cited
2: Dedication Page We, as in Olson, John, and Amelia, dedicate this little book to our amazing teacher ,Mr.Herzog, who spent hours on end finding good websites for us to search and shared his knowldge with us about the Oregon Trail. Thanks Mr.H! We would also like to thank all the travelers on the Oregon Trail for sharing their journeys from the trail with us. We loved and teared over all of stories we read and hope you all lived a happy long life! Thanks emigrants. The last people we would like to thank are the Native Americans that helped the travelers get out of tough situations and letting them share their stories. Also, that you for all the stories you lent us. We will be sure to pass them on!
4: Oregon Cities | The Oregon Trail was founded in 1842 near where the Willamette River flows into the Columbia River. Oregon City was the first territorial capital of Oregon.
5: Willamette Falls at Oregon City
6: Soda Springs | Emigrants used the pools of water for medicinal and bathing purposes.Many animals got sick if they drank too much of the water.
8: Soda Springs | Soda Springs is a natural spring with pools of bubbling, carbonated water caused by ancient volcanic activity.
10: Chimney Rock | Chimney Rock was one of the most picturesque landmarks along the Oregon Trail. Many drawings were drawn of this amazing rock.
12: Independence, Missouri,founded near where the Missouri River flows into the Mississippi River.
13: Independence grew rapidly as a trading post by the 1840's. It was the most popluar "jumping off" point for the pioneers to stock thier wagons with supplies before heading out to Oregon or Calfornia.
14: Hard Ships and Diseases River Crossings drowned many people. They were all trying to cross the Kansas, North Platte and Columbia Rivers and many didn't know how to swim, and many slipped on rocks and such. Walking was lots of times not an option for emigrants, they overloaded the wagons, and there was no extra room for more people, so most walked. Many actually made it through the the 2,000 mile journey on foot. The worst part is that if the wagons were too badly over loaded, Many would fall under the giant wheels, instant death. A half dozen emigrants died of lightning strikes, Others were injured but hail the size of apples! The worst of the worst along the Oregon Trail was Cholra, a disease with no cure. Emigrants would go from healthy to dead in just a few hours. Sometimes they recived a proper burial, but often the sick would be abandoned in their beds or on the side of the trail!
16: African Americans went westward as workers, both slave and free. The slave men were used as cattleman, and worked to clear land and they used the logs they cleared to build log cabins. They had to provide food or crops for themselves and their masters. | African Americans Along the Oregon Trail
17: Many of the slaves knew how to negotiate and hunt. | The negotiating came in handy with the Native Americans when hostile encounters occured. It was helpful when they went westward. Slaves moved into Native American territories and were let into Native American tribes. Some black slaves married, had children and lived in Native American villages. Those groups became known as the "Black Indians."
18: The women on the Oregon Trail drove wagons, herded livestock, yoked oxen, sometimes took a turn at guard duty. Womens work was all the same unless they stopped and there was many jobs to be done, like: *washing, *making light bread, some women had to help out around the camp, like: *getting wood and water, *making the fire, *unpacking at night and *packing in the morning, somtimes even *milking the cow if they're fortunate to have one. | Women on the Oregon Trail
19: Women's Work On and Off the Trail Women were in charge of work that they had at home. On the trail women didn't have to make soap, and tend to the garden, while on the trail they had to cook, clean, mend clothing, tend to the little ones, and other "women's work," after walking all day in dust and the beating sun.
20: 19th Century Women | Married women in the 19th Century were expected to put the welfare of their families above their own well being, tending to the sick and injured even when they were sick themselves. The women were the family's "last line" of defense against, diseases, and other misfortunes. | Women in the 19th Century
21: Keeping everyone full wasn't easy. Women dealt with it by sharing and using time-saving tricks, such as using embers of the campfire to slow-cook a kettle of beans for breakfast the next day ,or filling the butter churnbefore hanging it off the back of the wagon.
22: Women did this to churn the butter while traveling instead of starving everyone at night. Some women had no clue that they were going to Oregon, but other women had a clue and had enough time to get packed and ready.
24: In early years, Native Americans would never attack whole wagon groups. If you were alone, well that's a whole other story, long story short, you would be in HUGE trouble. Historians found that between the the years of 1840-1860, Indians killed about 326 Emigrants, but Emigrants killed about 426 Native Americans.
25: During the years of the emigration, residents of the Willamette Valley rode east over the Oregon Trail to meet their families and friends coming east. Usually they carried food or even had a trial of cattle following them for fresh meat for the travelers.
26: Native Americans The first section of the Oregon Trail was split between two major tribes, the Cheyenne to the North and the Pawnee to the south. The emigrants were worried about both tribes, but the expected attacks never came. The Native Americans were actually very nice and helpful, such as pulling out stuck wagons, rescuing drowing emigrants, even rouding up loose cattle. Most encounters with the natives were for only business. Native Americans were very tolerant to the pioneers in wagon trains that rode through their lands. The Native Americans traded buffalo skin robes and mocassins for knives, clothes, foods, and other items in return.
27: The Cheyenne Tribe Leader | The Pawnee Tribe | Emigrants and Natives doing buisness.
28: Grattan Massacre The most important confrontation with the natives occurred near Ft. Laranie in 1854, and became known as the Grattan Massacre. It began innocently enough, a single cow wandered away from an emigrant wagon train. When the cow showed up at a nearby Sioux village, the tribe promptly ate it. An aggressive Lt. Grattan abd 28 men then left the Fort Laranie witha single objective, punnish the Sioux. The Sioux recognized their error and offered one oftheir horses in return for the cow, but grattan wasn't interested. He ordered his men to fire on the tribe. The Sioux cheif told his warriors to withhold retaliation. Grattan fired again and killed the cheif. Strikes and counterstrikes escalated into all-out-war-the battles con tinued for decades.
30: Provisions/Food | Flour Hardtack Bacon Coffee Baking Soda Molasses Dried beans Dried beef Dried fruit | Salt Vinegar Pepper Eggs Sugar Rice Tea Corn Meal
32: Provisions/Clothes | Wool sack coats Cotton shirts Palm-leaf sun hat Buckskin pants Duck trousers Felt hat Wool pantaloons Brogans Boots Cotton dresses Cotton socks Sunbonnet Rubber coats Flannel shirts Green goggles
33: Works Cited | Digital image. 00Independence1906.jpg.
34: Digital image. Famous-oregon-trail-photo-dad-mom-kids-.jpg.
35: Digital image. Tmi00450c.jpg.
36: Oregon Trail + Historical Trails and Indians.