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Pacific Coast Natives

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S: Pacific Coast Natives AbbyFenwick,Ariel Oren, Daniel Albo, and Jenna Baer.

BC: Canada has existed for a long time, and the past is very important. In this book you will be able to learn about one of the Native tribes, known as the Pacific Coast Natives. Now, you too can know who they were, and what they did.

FC: Pacific Coast Natives | by:Abby Fenwick, Ariel Oren, Daniel Albo, Jenna Baer.

1: Table of Contents | Food - pages 2 and 3 | Totem Poles - pages 4 and 5 | Potlatches - pages 6 and 7 | Homes - pages 8 and 9 | Bibliography- page 10

2: Food! The West Coast Natives ate many foods. Their main food source was the ocean. They ate a lot of fish such as salmon, eulachon, cod, halibut and herring. They also hunted seals and sea lions in the ocean and they collected shellfish, oysters, clams, roe, mussels, and razor clams. They would dig in the sand on the shore to find shellfish. Seals were very hard to catch so the Natives would have to sneak up behind them and club them. Fishing, on the other hand, was easier and the Natives used nets and spears to catch the fish. Not all of their food was from the ocean. They also hunted elk, deer, mountain goats, wolves, beavers, foxes and bears. They collected berries such as cranberries and huckleberries. To preserve salmon they would smoke it. They preserved most of their foods in bent boxes. To preserve berries they cooked them and dried them in the form of a cake. A bent box is made out of wood. It is steamed at three corners and turned into a box. The fourth corner is usually hit with copper nails.

4: Totem Poles Most people think that all Natives made totem poles, but most of them were made on the northwest coast. Totem poles can be up to 80 feet (24 m). Usually totem poles are used to tell a story. To tell the stories the totem poles would consist of large carvings of figures. Those figures are called crests. Those crests would be in the form of family members or animals such as a bear, bird or a wolf. It would also have creatures like the thunderbird or a sea serpent. To make a totem pole, first they would chop down a cedar tree or a birch tree. Next, if the tree was large they would hollow out one side. After that was done the carver would sketch what he wanted to carve onto the totem poles. Lastly, he would carve it and paint the carvings. This paint was made of natural ingredients such as berries or crushed flowers. Once the paint was dry, they would have a big party called a potlatch in honor of the raising of a new totem pole.

6: Potlatches The word potlatch means giving. It was a ceremony that was held to mark important dates, such as: the death of a tribe member, a wedding, a new chief, the raising of the totem pole, or the birth of a new baby. The main hosts of a potlatch were chiefs or nobles. The guests were also chiefs or nobles. A potlatch would last up to two weeks, and hold up to 500 guests. If you were to attend a potlatch, you would see singing, dancing, acting, speeches, and lots of eating. Another form of entertainment was proving how wealthy you were. When you attended a potlatch you had to wear your finest clothes. You would receive a gift for attending. The higher your rank the better your gift. If you were rich you would try to break a piece of copper. One big piece of copper was worth 3 000 blankets. The main reason they broke it was to show that they were so wealthy that they didn't need it. Potlatches are still held today in some Native communities across Canada.

8: The Houses of the Pacific Coast Natives! The Natives of the Pacific Coast had many styles of houses. They had houses that were able to fit 1-3 families. Each family had its own fire which they put in the middle of their area. The houses were made out of wood. The wood was usually bark from trees and wood from red cedar trees. Many houses were lined up near the beach in a row. The Pacific Coast Natives sometimes put totem poles near their houses or in front of their houses. The size of the small houses were 5x8 meters. The Pacific Coast Natives had plank houses. The plank houses were good for cold weather. They were able to make permanent houses because all of their resources were close by, like the fish in the ocean. Living in the houses of the West Coast Natives was fun because you had a lot of company.

10: Garrod, Stan Indians of the Northwest Coast Canada Fitzhenry & Whiteside 1986 Ruddel, Nancy Ravens Village Hull, Quebec 1996 Hull, Quebec Northwest Coastal Indians." ~Mountain City Elementary School. Web. 04 May 2012. . Native Americans in Olden Times for Kids - Homes." MrDonn.org. Web. 04 May 2012. . | Bibliography

11: Franklin Watts 1989 West Coast Art Gallery “Native Bentwood Boxes 2009 24/04/12 MacDonnell, Linda January 9 2009 “Northwest Coast Indian Tribes” 19/04/12 Francis, Daniel Discovering First People and First Contacts Don Mills Ontario Oxford University Press 2000

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