FC: Year 9 PDHPE Assessment 2012 | Fitness Testing By Sarah Azzi
1: Fitness is an vital component in order to have a healthy wellbeing. It can be defined as a measure of the body’s ability to function efficiently and effectively in work and leisure activities. Physical fitness is generally achieved through correct nutrition, exercise, and enough rest. There are many components which come together to make up fitness and they are generally divided into two areas - health related and skill related. The quality of an individuals' fitness level, comprising of the various components, can be measured by carrying out several tests. Each test assesses a different component in order for an individual to gain full understand of their fitness level and adjust their lifestyle accordingly.
2: The Sit and Reach Test
3: The sit and reach test is a common assessment measuring the fitness component of flexibility, specifically analysing the lower back hamstrings and hamstring muscles. This is a general health related flexibility test, measuring the range of movement around a joint. The test requires the individual to sit with their legs straight out, knees against the floor and their feet against a flat surface, such as a box. The person then reaches out in front of them, aiming to stretch their fingers past their feet. A partner then records the distance with a ruler. A positive reading means that the individual has reached past their toes; a negative reading means that the individual has failed to reached their feet. This test may help determine a person’s risk for future pain and injury. Having good flexibility enables you to increase your physical performance in all areas, allowing the joint the ability to move further with less energy.
4: The Basketball Throw
5: (FIRST NAME) | The basketball throw fitness test is assessing an individual's upper body muscular strength and power. This is a health related test, examining the amount of force that can be exerted by a muscle in a one single contraction. This test relates to upper body muscles. The task requires you to secure a tape measure on the floor and against a wall and measure out 15 metres. The person being assessed sits against the wall with their back against the wall and their legs straight out and a partner holds a hoop on top of the person's toes. The aim is for the person sitting against the wall to throw the basketball as powerfully as possible through the hoop, without touching the hoop at all. The best throw is then recorded from two attempts. Maintaining adequate upper body strength of the chest and arm muscles is important as a basic component of functional health. The basketball throw test measures upper body strength, with particular emphasis on triceps, biceps and torso muscles. Muscle strength is important in being fit because it slows down muscle loss that comes with aging, it increases joint flexibility, improves mood, it manages and reduces pain from arthritis, it burns calories, improves metabolism and blood pressure and increases bone density.
6: Standing Long Jump
7: A standing long jump is often used as an assessor of leg power and is a health related task. Athletes use as much strength and speed as possible to propel themselves from the ground. It was registered as an olympic sport up until 1912 and is used as a fitness test in the American NFL. A starting point is marked on a non slip floor surface. The athlete stands with their toes on this point and their feet slightly apart. They then bend their knees, preparing for take off (arms can also be used to support propulsion). Next, they jump as far forward as they can, making sure to land on two feet and without falling backwards. The distance from the starting point and the back of the heel upon landing is measured as the result.. The muscles used during this activity are the gluteus maximus, the quadriceps, hamstrings and calf muscles. The body begins to move with the power of the gluteus maximus and quadriceps, and speed is then added by the hamstrings and calf muscles. Almost all physcial activities rely on some kind of power, therefore power is essential to staying fit.
8: Stork Stand
9: The stand fitness test is a simple task developed to assess the fitness component of balance. Balance is a skill related exercise which involves maintaining equal stability while moving or stationery. It is the controlled ability to counteract forces which may disturb equilibrium. This activity entails participants to stand comfortably with their hands on their hips, before lifting one foot and placing it on the supporting knee. When the timer starts, the participant lifts onto the support toes and attempts to balance in this position. Another person will time how long they can stay on their toes for without removing the foot from the knee. The test ends when participant places their raised foot on the ground. Their time is recorded as their result. As well as a physical test, the stork stand balance test is also a test of the mind. Balance requires the difficult skill of being able to focus on a particular movement calmly without disturbances. The calf muscles are directly used to support the body while on the ball of the foot.
10: Alternate / Handwall Toss
11: The alternate/handwall toss is completely focused on the skill of coordination. The aim is to coordinate eye movements with hand movements, using visual input for guidance together with the hands to guide the eyes. The movements should be controlled and smooth during this skill related exercise. The student should face a blank wall from a distance of 2 metres. A tennis ball should be underarm-thrown at the wall with their right hand and the bounce off the ball should be caught with the left. The ball is then thrown with the left hand and caught with the right. This is then repeated alternating right and left hands accordingly. The total number of catches in 30 seconds is the personal result. Coordination is the key to many activities, from typing on the computer, to driving and also various sports and exercises. It can assist you from childhood into adulthood in many ways, keeping the brain active at all ages. Hand eye coordination is developed in young children, but sometimes difficulties arise. This fitness test exercises can assist in redeveloping the necessary skills. Developing coordination can also assist in other areas of fitness, such as agility training.
12: Beep Test
13: The Beep Test, also known as the multi-stage fitness test, is a common cardiovascular fitness test used by coaches, teachers and trainers to estimate an athletes' maximum oxygen intake (VO2 max). The test is especially useful for players of sports like rugby, soccer, hockey and netball because of the high running times during the games. This is a health related physical test of stamina (the capacity of the lungs to take in air and capacity of the heart to pump blood to fuel muscles) but also requires a test of speed when time increases in the later stages of the beep test. This activity involves a pre-recorded beep test tape and a flat floor surface with two lines, 20 metres apart. When the test begins, the start speed is quite slow, The student begins by running between the two lines, turning when signaled by the recorded beeps. After about one minute, a sound indicates an increase in speed, and the beeps will be closer together. This continues each level. If the line is not reached in time for each beep, the subject must run to the line to turn and try to catch up. If the student cannot maintain the pace for two successive runs, they are forced to withdraw and their level is recorded as a result. In order to succeed at this task, an individual must have an ability to perform movements quickly but also an adequate stamina level to maintain breathing. If a student has a high stamina level, their lungs will take in enough air to fuel muscles and will have enough energy to complete the test..
14: 50 metre sprint
15: The 50 metre sprint fitness test is a skill-related assessment, directly aimed at determining speed and acceleration. This activity focuses on one's ability to perform movements quickly. Speed is not just determined by how strong your muscles are, but also by how quickly they react and contract. The hamstrings are the major muscles used when testing speed with running, as well as the abs, calves, quadriceps and many other arm and leg muscles which are also used. After a thorough warm-up, the participant runs a single maximum sprint over a 50 metre course to the best of their ability. They should stay low and should not slow down before thy reach the finish line for maximum speed. Their time is recorded to the nearest one hundredth of a second. Speed is a relevant factor in all areas of sport, with the key to almost every activity being speed and endurance. This test enables a person to understand their speed and velocity, in order to control exhaustion while running.
16: Agility Run
17: Agility refers to the skill related ability to move the body from one position to another with speed and precision. The agility run uses a variety of muscles in the body, testing the ability to change direction quickly and easily. Many sports, such as netball, ice skating, skiing and basketball are focused directly on changing directions, and agility levels must be high in order to succeed while playing these sports. On a field on flat surface, an agility course is laid out like the figure on the opposite page. Two parallel lines are needed 9.15 metres apart, with four witches hats (3.05 metres apart) down the middle. Witches hats are placed at the start and finish points (on the same line) and two cones are placed at the same point on the parallel line. Student starts lying down with hands beside chest and forehead on starting line. On the start signal they complete the course in the direction shown in the diagram, in the fastest time possible. Their finish time is recorded. Agility combines a number of components, including balance, coordination and speed, therefore the agility test comprises other tests of balance and coordination within it. Improving these can affect agility training directly.
18: Ruler Test
19: This test uses the known properties of gravity to determine how long it takes a person to respond to the dropping of an object. This is done by using a ruler to measure how far the object can fall before being caught. This is a skill related evaluation, assessing the component of reaction time. The student places their forearm on a flat surface, making sure their wrist is over the edge for movement. A partner holds the zero end of a 30 centimetre ruler between the students thumb and index finger. Without warning, the partner drops the ruler and the student must try to catch the ruler as fast as possible. The point on which the ruler is caught and the thumb and index finger meet is recorded as the result. They have three attempts to record their best score. Reaction time assesses the amount of time taken to respond to something and plenty of sports incorporate this idea. In many sports, maximum speed is rarely reached or needed, but explosive reaction is often necessary. It is important to respond and make decisions quickly and appropriately during any activity.
20: GO DUKE! | Push Up
21: Push ups are one of the most common health-related tests of muscular strength, endurance and upper body composition. By raising and lowering the arms, push ups exercise the triceps, chest muscles (pectoral muscles), shoulder muscles (deltoid) and many other smaller muscles from the chest to the arms. It is a simple and effective way of testing the upper body muscles, and their ability to contract repeatedly over a period of time. The overall health of an individual and several body factors (including body fat) have a direct effect on the result of the test. This test involves the subject to place a 46cm high chair against a wall and rest their hands on the seat. Their feet should be behind them and their back should be flat in the push up position shown. The subject should then lower their chest to the chair and raise their body again to a level where their arms are straight. This is repeated to measure how many times they can do this in 30 seconds. Improving muscular endurance provides a variety of health and fitness benefits to which promote improved wellness, decreased fatigue and injury, increased metabolism, and good posture. Push ups build and improve muscle endurance and strength. This simple test helps you compare your own upper body muscular endurance to others of your age and gender.
22: Sit Ups
23: The sit up test is a standard assessment of abdominal muscular endurance and strength. This health related test is important in testing the abdominal areas, especially related to core body stability and back support. Both competitive athletes and everyday trainers can benefit from core fitness training, with sit ups and other exercises building balance, reducing muscular imbalances, changing body shape, preventing pain and improving overall performance. The aim of the sit up test is to complete as many sit ups as possible within a 60 second time period. The subject's feet should be tucked in as close as possible. They then slide their hands up the thighs to the knees, raising the body slightly with each movement. The student then slides back down to the ground, making sure that their head touches the mat beneath them on each down phase. Subject should be counting their own number of sit ups as they continue. Sit up exercises tone abdominal muscles areas and also focus on strengthening hip flexors. This type of muscle endurance training does not tone muscles overnight, but comes with regular training along with fat loss in the chest area. Muscle endurance changes body shape and makes everyday activities easier to complete. Having strong muscles is a key factor in overall wellbeing.
24: Bibliography Unknown. (2010). Jumpstart Textbook Online. (Internet). Cambridge Education. http://www.cambridge.edu.au/education/companion/jumpstart/files/jump_start_268-278.pdf (accessed on 15/3/12) Burron, A. (2011). The Importance of Strength Training (Internet). Nurse Together Lifestyle. http://www.nursetogether.com/Lifestyle/Lifestyle-Article/itemid/457/The-Importance-of-Strength-Training.aspx (accessed 12/3/12) 'Alex'. (2012). The Importance of Hand Eye Coordination Exercises. (Internet). Restoire Eyesight. http://restoreeyesight.com/the-importance-of-hand-eye-coordination-exercises/ (accessed on 17/3/12, 18/3/12)
25: Unknown. (2012). Beep Test Instructions. (Internet). Top End Sports. http://www.topendsports.com/testing/tests/20mshuttle.htm (accessed on 19/3/12) Ellyn, S. (2011). Muscular Endurance Benefits. (Internet). Livestrong. http://www.livestrong.com/article/89973-muscular-endurance-benefits/#ixzz1oynceIwm (accessed 13/3/12, 19/3/12)
26: Fitness Testing | By Sarah Azzi