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Peace Corps: Venezuela

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Peace Corps: Venezuela - Page Text Content

S: Peace Corps:Venezuela By: Khadijah M.

BC: Last of Works Cited Kilgore, Adam. “Nationals’ Wilson Ramos back in Washington, thanks fans for support.” Washington Post. N.p., 18 Nov. 2011. Web. 21 Nov. 2011. . Toothaker, Christopher. “Anti-Chavez newspaper editor released in Venezuela.” Boston. N.p., 21 Nov. 2011. Web. 21 Nov. 2011. .

FC: Peace Corps: Venezuela By: Khadijah M.

1: Dear mom, Since I have been here in Venezuela I have been having a wonderful time. It is a very tropical place, located at the top of South America. It is filled with a mixed population of 27.64 million people with Europeans, Caucasians, African Americans, Indigenous, and the Yanomami. Venezuela is about twice the size of Sweden and has 4 geographic zones. The Andes Mountains takes over the west side of the country and has the highest peak called Pico Bolívar . The Pico Bolívar is 16,427 feet about sea level. The central zone of Venezuela consists of many large cities like Caracas, Maracaibo, Valencia, and Maracay; Majority of the population lives in the central zone of Venezuela. This country is the most urbanized one in South America. The homes that are on the coast of Venezuela reminds people of Italian styled homes, so this country got it's name because of the homes. The Orinoco River is Los Llanos, "The Plains", is about one -third of the country in the eastern area. Angel Falls is one of the highest water falls in the world at 3,212 feet and it is located in southeastern Venezuela. There is a reserve in the southern part of Venezuela for the country's Yanomami tribes.That area of Yanomami is about 32,000 square miles and the area is off-limits to farmers, miners, and all non-Yanomami settlers; so I obviously haven't been down there to explore. There are many places I have explored like, Los Médanos de Coro, a desert; Salto Kama, a waterfall; a beach called Morrocoy; and many other places. These are some very beutiful places, especially the beach. It looks like it could be part of Hawaii. The weather of Venezuela is kind of nice and tropical, it is better than being stuck with a lot of feet of snow being pilled up around you every winter. The rainy season lasts from May to November, which means there are many different crops that can be grown for the people that live there. Things like grains, sugar, coffee, rice, beans, plantains, potatoes, mangoes, lechoza (papaya), bananas, and watermelon are grown in Venezuela. Venezuela is wealthy in oil, but the poverty there is increasing. In the months of December to April, it is normally dry. The average temperatures of Venezuela are from 70–85F. This place is wonderful and I hope you can visit me one day. I love you mommy and I will talk to you soon, bye. Your daughter, Khadijah

2: This picture is of a waterfall called the Salta Kama in the Canaima National Park of Venezuela. When I saw this beautiful waterfall, all I could say is wow. It was so nice and the mist from the water felt refreshing.

3: This picture is of Los Médanos de Coro with a girl playing in the sand. Los Médanos de Coro is a desert in Venezuela. It was very hot there so I didn't stay long, but its a nice desert. | This picture is of a boy and other people at the beach in the nice clear blue water. This is one of the beaches in Morrocoy and families go there for vacations and etc. I have never been to such a nice beach like this. The beach just looked clean, especially the water. I never been to a beach with clear blue waters like this, let me just say this was a great experience.

4: New:Venezuelans used intelligence operation to find missing catcher A Colombian man, possibly linked with paramilitaries there, may be the mastermind behind the kidnapping in Venezuela of major league catcher Wilson Ramos, Venezuelan Justice Minister Tareck El Aissami said Saturday. Authorities have identified him and an arrest warrant is being issued, he said. Six Venezuelans have been arrested in the case, and more arrests are possible as the investigation continues, El Aissami said. Ramos was rescued Friday night after a shootout between his suspected captors and rescuers in the mountainous region of Montalban, about 60 miles from the north central Venezuelan city where he was last seen. He is healthy and unharmed, authorities said. After the suspected captors opened fire on authorities, "we responded in a proportional way, but not in a way that would put at risk (Ramos') rescue," El Aissami said at a news conference. The minister praised the bravery of the national guard troops who participated in the operation, singling out one guardsman who was under fire for several minutes "but did not retreat." The day after Ramos went missing, investigators found the SUV used in the kidnapping, but had few clues to lead them to the perpetrators, he said.

5: Venezuela | So investigators focused on intelligence work -- matching the description of the snatching to the modus operandi of known criminal groups -- and eventually located a home where they believed Ramos was held. Venezuelan President Chavez himself authorized the operation on the house, which included using helicopters to deliver the rescue team near its target, El Aissami said. This house was, the team learned, a logistical base used by the kidnappers. According to the minister, it was the place where food and other logistics were prepared and then transferred to another location, where Ramos was actually being held. The owners of the home, Lesbia Quesada, 60, and Aristides Sanchez, 64, were accused of being accomplices to the crime and were arrested, he said. The rescue team then learned of a second home in an isolated area where Ramos was believed to be hiding. The trek there took three hours for the rescue team, as there were parts they could traverse only on foor, El Aissami said. When they neared the second target, they were met with gunfire, and, according to the minister, that's how they knew Ramos was inside. Authorities arrested Alexander Sanchez, 27; Francisco Finamor Penna, 20; Yosnar Cubillan, 21; and Anyuli Tarazona, 22.

6: Dear dad, Venezuela is a very beautiful place; I'm glad that I came out here to do some Peace Corps work. The way that things are done around here in Venezeula is done some what differently than in the United States. Venezuela is a republic and it has presidents that would serve a 6 year term. The United States is a democratic federal republic and it also has presidents that serve a four year term. The president of this country now, is President Hugo Chávez and he governs with the Council of Ministers. He was elected president in the December of 1998. Chávez's job description involves him being chief of state and the head of government. In 1999, President Chávez transformed the political system of Venezuela by getting rid of the bicameral parliament and creating the National Assembly. Doing this gives the President, Hugo Chávez, more power over the country. The people in the National Assembly are elected by votes and it is made up of about 165 members. The voting age in Venezuela is 18, just like the United States, so either way I would have to wait until next year to vote.The Democratic Action Party and the Social Christian Party are some traditional political parties that have been challeneged by other political parties. Some political parties that challenge those two parties are the Movement for a Fifth Republic and Un Nuevo Tiempo. This country is amazing and I am not surprised that it has some similarities with the United States. I hope everything is going well in Pennsylvania, but it would be nice if you can come and visit me. I hope to see you soon and I love you, bye. Your daughter, Khadijah

7: Dear Devon,, I really like it here in Venezuela. It is a very great place with nice people. These people are very religious from what I can tell. A lot of homes here have a faith corner with pictures, figurines, and other things of Jesus Christ, the Virgin Mary, and etc. They celebrate the Semana Santa, the Holy week. There are festivals held in towns and cities to celebrate the patron saints. Some festivals that they have are the Feria de San Sebastian, the Feria del Sol, and the Feria de la Chinita. They celebrate the Diablos de Yare religious festival in San Francisco de Yare. This holiday is celebrated 60 days after Easter and they dance around in the street, wearing red, with masks of devils on them. The families are very close here, so they spend a lot of time together and share each other's values. The house hold is normally run by father while the mother takes care of the family. Often times, small families have their extended family live with them. Children normally stay home until they finish college and are able to fend for themselves. In the United States, the family order is very loose; mothers can be the ones in charge, the extended family usually have their own places, and there are many other differences too. People here get transportation by buses, taxis, and the por puesto; it is like a taxi, but it has a certain route it has to take. Some people have cars and if they do have one, it can only last for about 10 years. For communication, they have private phones that can be expensive, public, cellular phones, and they also use the internet. Their transportation and communication are not that different from ours, except for the por puesto, which is the most used transportation there, and a lot of Americans own cars, it is one of the top uses of transportation. The time I am having here is very fun and different and I really can't wait to see you soon. I love you, bye. Your sister, Khadijah

8: News:Nationals’ Wilson Ramos back in Washington, thanks fans for support Wilson Ramos walked this morning through the third floor at Nationals Park, the executive offices, and into General Manager Mike Rizzo’s office. He had returned to the United States on Thursday night, eight days after he had been abducted at gunpoint outside his home, six days after Venezuelan commandoes rescued him. Ramos came to Nationals Park to visit with Nationals team doctors and, in a larger sense, to find another layer of closure for his harrowing kidnapping. Rizzo called a small news conference today with Ramos “an exclamation point, finality to the incident. We’re happy it’s in our past.” The doctors found Ramos in “terrific” shape, Rizzo said. Ramos issued a brief statement to reporters, thanking fans who prayed for him and held a vigil outside the park last Friday night. He will return to Venezuela and plans to begin playing in Venezuela winter league games Tuesday. He intends to return behind the plate for the Nationals, still one of the best young catchers in baseball and brightest pieces of the Nationals future.

9: “See you in spring training,” Ramos said. “I had no second thoughts,” Rizzo said. “He plays for his country, in his country. He’s very prideful about his country, and he feels safe there. He plays for his country. He plays in front of his family. We can’t ask him not to do that.” Third baseman Ryan Zimmerman lingered around the clubhouse, taking a short break from his weightlifting session. He gave Ramos a hug and rubbed his head, and both players smiled. “We’re glad to have him back,” Zimmerman said

10: This picture is of a World Heritage Site called the port of La Vela. Traditional buildings like the port of La Vela are normally made with adobe. I really like this place because of the colonial style and I like the fact that its blue, my favorite color. I also love the woodens with black railings in front of them

11: This picture is of the Cathedral of Coro. It has a 16th-century architecture that influenced the architecture of other churches in Venezuela.

12: News: Venezuelan cult growing in popularity CARACAS, VENEZUELA (Catholic Online) - The cult is a 19th-century invention based on the writings of Frenchman Leon Denizarth-Hippolyte Rivail. According to his writings, people could summon the souls of the dead into living bodies where the deceased could been be questioned for guidance. The cult is known as "Maria Lionza." Practitioners engage in a number of rituals that are part Catholic, part voodoo, and part shamanistic. They typically gather around Sorte Mountain in Venezuela, which they believe to be sacred. According to the legend, Maria Lionza lived on that mountain in the 1400s. It is said that while she was gazing into a river, she was attacked and swallowed by an anaconda. From within the Anaconda, Maria Lionza made an agreement to marry the mountain if it would save her. Once saved from the Anaconda, Maria Lionza and the mountain became one. People come from all around the country each October to celebrate the cult's holiest days. The national holiday of Indigenous Resistance, October 12, is generally considered to be the most sacred. On that day, some of the pilgrims dress in native garb and perform a ritual known as "dance of hot coals." They claim that the spirits prevent their feet from being burned as they walk over beds of coals.

13: r. | But the chief feature of the religion is its rituals which involve summoning of the dead. Generally, famous people are summoned into the living with the possessed murmuring and chanting as their words are interpreted by a cult priest. However, ancestors and virtually any other dead spirit can be conjured up according to the faithful. Worshipers are then able to question the spirits and get advice. Virtually any topic from love, to prosperity, to other personal problems can be discussed. Priests and spirits are generally consulted before any major decisions are made. Researchers say the cult has become popular as crime and poverty skyrocket in the increasingly troubled country. More than a third of the population lives in poverty and is poorly educated. Established institutions are finding it difficult to meet the needs of the people, so when their basic needs remain unmet they become increasingly likely to turn to a religious cult -- it's that cult offers them solutions. Commonly, practitioners seek the advice of spirits instead of psychologists. Less often, but more dangerous are occasions when people approach the spirits with physical ailments. Witchcraft is commonly blamed for sickness, so practitioners seek healing from shamans rather than doctors. So long as Venezuela remains an impoverished country with many people lacking education and social services, the cult of Maria Lionza is likely to remain popular.

15: This picture is of a mountainside home that a Venezuelan family would use as a vacation home, like what some Americans. This was the house I am staying in this place while I am here and it has a very nice view over the cityr.

16: Andrew Jackson: annual message (1834) The sixth of his eight annual messages, President Andrew Jackson presented this written report to the U.S. Congress on December 1, 1834. Fellow Citizens of the Senate and House of Representatives In performing my duty at the opening of your present session it gives me pleasure to congratulate you again upon the prosperous condition of our beloved country. Divine Providence has favored us with general health, with rich rewards in the fields of agriculture and in every branch of labor, and with peace to cultivate and extend the various resources which employ the virtue and enterprise of our citizens. Let us trust that in surveying a scene so flattering to our free institutions our joint deliberations to preserve them may be crowned with success. Our foreign relations continue, with but few exceptions, to maintain the favorable aspect which they bore in my last annual message, and promise to extend those advantages which the principles that regulate our intercourse with other nations are so well calculated to secure. The question of our North East boundary is still pending with Great Britain, and the proposition made in accordance with the resolution of the Senate for the establishment of a line according to the treaty of 1783 has not been accepted by that Government. Believing that every disposition is felt on both sides to adjust this perplexing question to the satisfaction of all the parties interested in it, the hope is yet indulged that it may be effected on the basis of that proposition. With the Governments of Austria, Russia, Prussia, Holland, Sweden, and Denmark the best understanding exists. Commerce with all is fostered and protected by reciprocal good will under the sanction of liberal conventional or legal provisions. In the midst of her internal difficulties the Queen of Spain has ratified the convention for the payment of the claims of our citizens arising since 1819. It is in the course of execution on her part, and a copy of it is now laid before you for such legislation as may be found necessary to enable those interested to derive the benefits of it. Yielding to the force of circumstances and to the wise counsels of time and experience, that power has finally resolved no longer to occupy the unnatural position in which she stood to the new Governments established in this hemisphere. I have the great satisfaction of stating to you that in preparing the way for the restoration of harmony between those who have sprung from the same ancestors, who are allied by common interests, profess the same religion, and speak the same language the United States have been actively instrumental. Our efforts to effect this good work will be persevered in while they are deemed useful to the parties and our entire disinterestedness continues to be felt and understood. The act of Congress to countervail the discriminating duties to the prejudice of our navigation levied in Cuba and Puerto Rico has been transmitted to the minister of the United States at Madrid, to be communicated to the Government of the Queen. No intelligence of its receipt has yet reached the Department of State. If the present condition of the country permits the Government to make a careful and enlarged examination of the true interests of these important portions of its dominions, no doubt is entertained that their future intercourse with the United States will be placed upon a more just and liberal basis. The Florida archives have not yet been selected and delivered. Recent orders have been sent to the agent of the United States at Havana to return with all that he can obtain, so that they may be in Washington before the session of the Supreme Court, to be used in the legal questions there pending to which the Government is a party. Internal tranquillity is happily restored to Portugal. The distracted state of the country rendered unavoidable the postponement of a final payment of the just claims of our citizens. Our diplomatic relations will be soon resumed, and the long-subsisting friendship with that power affords the strongest guaranty that the balance due will receive prompt attention. The first installment due under the convention of indemnity with the King of the Two Sicilies has been duly received, and an offer has been made to extinguish the whole by a prompt payment—an offer I did not consider myself authorized to accept, as the indemnification provided is the exclusive property of individual citizens of the United States. The original adjustment of our claims and the anxiety displayed to fulfill at once the stipulations made for the payment of them are highly honorable to the Government of the Two Sicilies. When it is recollected that they were the result of the injustice of an intrusive power temporarily dominant in its territory, a repugnance to acknowledge and to pay which would have been neither unnatural nor unexpected, the circumstances can not fail to exalt its character for justice and good faith in the eyes of all nations. The treaty of amity and commerce between the United States and Belgium, brought to your notice in my last annual message as sanctioned by the Senate, but the ratifications of which had not been exchanged owing to a delay in its reception at Brussels and a subsequent absence of the Belgian minister of foreign affairs, has been, after mature deliberation, finally disavowed by that Government as inconsistent with the powers and instructions given to their minister who negotiated it. This disavowal was entirely unexpected, as the liberal principles embodied in the convention, and which form the ground-work of the objections to it, were perfectly satisfactory to the Belgian representative, and were supposed to be not only within the powers granted, but expressly conformable to the instructions given to him. An offer, not yet accepted, has been made by Belgium to renew negotiations for a treaty less liberal in its provisions on questions of general maritime law.

17: Our newly established relations with the Sublime Porte promise to be useful to our commerce and satisfactory in every respect to this Government. Our intercourse with the Barbary Powers continues without important change, except that the present political state of Algiers has induced me to terminate the residence there of a salaried consul and to substitute an ordinary consulate, to remain so long as the place continues in the possession of France. Our first treaty with one of these powers, the Emperor of Morocco, was formed in 1786, and was limited to fifty years. That period has almost expired. I shall take measures to renew it with the greater satisfaction as its stipulations are just and liberal and have been, with mutual fidelity and reciprocal advantage, scrupulously fulfilled. Intestine dissensions have too frequently occurred to mar the prosperity, interrupt the commerce, and distract the governments of most of the nations of this hemisphere which have separated themselves from Spain. When a firm and permanent understanding with the parent country shall have produced a formal acknowledgment of their independence, and the idea of danger from that quarter can be no longer entertained, the friends of freedom expect that those countries, so favored by nature, will be distinguished for their love of justice and their devotion to those peaceful arts the assiduous cultivation of which confers honor upon nations and gives value to human life. In the mean time I confidently hope that the apprehensions entertained that some of the people of these luxuriant regions may be tempted, in a moment of unworthy distrust of their own capacity for the enjoyment of liberty, to commit the too common error of purchasing present repose by bestowing on some favorite leaders the fatal gift of irresponsible power will not be realized. With all these Governments and with that of Brazil no unexpected changes in our relations have occurred during the present year. Frequent causes of just complaint have arisen upon the part of the citizens of the United States, some times from the irregular action of the constituted subordinate authorities of the maritime regions and some times from the leaders or partisans of those in arms against the established Governments. In all cases representations have been or will be made, and as soon as their political affairs are in a settled position it is expected that our friendly remonstrances will be followed by adequate redress. The Government of Mexico made known in December last the appointment of commissioners and a surveyor on its part to run, in conjunction with ours, the boundary line between its territories and the United States, and excused the delay for the reasons anticipated—the prevalence of civil war. The commissioners and surveyors not having met within the time stipulated by the treaty, a new arrangement became necessary, and our chargé d'affaires was instructed in January to negotiate in Mexico an article additional to the pre-existing treaty. This instruction was acknowledged, and no difficulty was apprehended in the accomplishment of that object. By information just received that additional article to the treaty will be obtained and transmitted to this country as soon as it can receive the ratification of the Mexican Congress. The reunion of the three States of New Grenada, Venezuela, and Equador, forming the Republic of Colombia, seems every day to become more improbable. The commissioners of the two first are understood to be now negotiating a just division of the obligations contracted by them when united under one government. The civil war in Equador, it is believed, has prevented even the appointment of a commissioner on its part. I propose at an early day to submit, in the proper form, the appointment of a diplomatic agent to Venezuela, the importance of the commerce of that country to the United States and the large claims of our citizens upon the Government arising before and since the division of Colombia rendering it, in my judgment, improper longer to delay this step. Our representatives to Central America, Peru, and Brazil are either at or on their way to their respective posts. From the Argentine Republic, from which a minister was expected to this Government, nothing further has been heard. Occasion has been taken on the departure of a new consul to Buenos Ayres to remind that Government that its long delayed minister, whose appointment had been made known to us, had not arrived. It becomes my unpleasant duty to inform you that this pacific and highly gratifying picture of our foreign relations does not include those with France at this time. It is not possible that any Government and people could be more sincerely desirous of conciliating a just and friendly intercourse with another nation than are those of the United States with their ancient ally and friend. This disposition is founded as well on the most grateful and honorable recollections associated with our struggle for independence as upon a well grounded conviction that it is consonant with the true policy of both. The people of the United States could not, therefore, see without the deepest regret even a temporary interruption of the friendly relations between the two countries—a regret which would, I am sure, be greatly aggravated if there should turn out to be any reasonable ground for attributing such a result to any act of omission or commission on our part. I derive, therefore, the highest satisfaction from being able to assure you that the whole course of this Government has been characterized by a spirit so conciliatory and for bearing as to make it impossible that our justice and moderation should be questioned, what ever may be the consequences of a longer perseverance on the part of the French Government in her omission to satisfy the conceded claims of our citizens. The history of the accumulated and unprovoked aggressions upon our commerce committed by authority of the existing Governments of France between the years 1800 and 1817 has been rendered too painfully familiar to Americans to make its repetition either necessary or desirable. It will be sufficient here to remark that there has for many years been scarcely a single

18: This is a picture of a Nativity and they are put up to celebrate the birth of baby Jesus. It is one of the main focus of a home during Christmas time; it is like the Christmas tree we put up for Christmas. I put up a Nativity to try something new | Venezuela

19: This picture is of a Faith corner that is in every Venezuelan home. The corner consists of “Figures and images of Jesus, the Virgin Mary, and Catholic saints” and a candle that would be lit. I don't have one myself, but I have been to other people's homes and seen them.

20: News: Painted bodies transformed into art in Venezuela CARACAS, Venezuela (AP) — Artists used paint, ornaments and glitter to transform the human body into artwork at a festival in Venezuela, showing off designs that ranged from pure fantasy to indigenous myths. The weekend's annual World Meeting of Body Art included body painting, tattoo art, performances and workshops. Fifty-two artists from 18 countries shared their creations at the gathering in Caracas, joining about 2,000 Venezuelans, organizers said. Participants had their bodies painted in bright hues from orange to lime green. Vines appeared to wind down the shoulders of one woman, and a man posed as a statue with his skin painted to look like marble.

21: "The body is a canvas with infinite possibilities," Venezuelan artist Ivan Hernandez Rojas said. "I think it's fascinating that colors, clothing, makeup, masks, wigs, combs ... and accessories allow the human being to change from one identity to another." The festival, which began Thursday and ended Sunday, included participants from various Latin American countries as well as others who traveled from the Japan, Luxembourg, Poland, South Africa, Australia, the United States and Austria, among other nations. One presentation by Venezuelan David Aranguren and 11 other artists focused on the mythology of the country's Warao indigenous group, who live in the Orinoco River Delta. Actors' bodies were painted and adorned with leaves and feathers, and they played parts such as the wind and the "crocodile god."

22: This picture is of a child being baptised at a church. Majority of the population of Venezuela are Catholics and baptism is an important sacrament to Catholics. I went to church with other Venezuelans and I got the chance to witness a baptism and I never got baptized so this was all new to me.

23: This picture is of an imitation mask of the real masks that are used in a religious festival called the Diablos de Yare. S seen these in little shops and they are kind of cool. The festival is only a week away so I can't wait to join the festivities.

24: Bretton Woods Agreement (1944) The Bretton Woods Agreement grew out of the work of the Bretton Woods Conference, held in Bretton Woods, New Hampshire from July 1 to July 22, 1944. Attended by delegates from 44 nations, the conference focused on ensuring economic stability in the postwar world, although World War II continued to rage around the globe. The conference produced two agreements toward this end, supplemented by an act of Congress confirming U.S. support for the endeavor the following year. All three items are presented here. (A) ARTICLES OF AGREEMENT OF THE INTERNATIONAL BANK FOR RECONSTRUCTION AND DEVELOPMENT, July 22, 1944 The Governments on whose behalf the present Agreement is signed agree as follows: INTRODUCTORY ARTICLE The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development is established and shall operate in accordance with the following provisions: ARTICLE I. PURPOSES The purposes of the Bank are: (i) To assist in the reconstruction and development of territories of members by facilitating the investment of capital for productive purposes, including the restoration of economies destroyed or disrupted by war, the reconversion of productive facilities to peacetime needs and the encouragement of the development of productive facilities and resources in less developed countries. (ii) To promote private foreign investment by means of guarantees or participations in loans and other investments made by private investors; and when private capital is not available on reasonable terms, to supplement private investment by providing, on suitable conditions, finance for productive purposes out of its own capital, funds raised by it and its other resources. (iii) To promote the long-range balanced growth of international trade and the maintenance of equilibrium in balances of payments by encouraging international investment for the development of the productive resources of members, thereby assisting in raising productivity, the standard of living and conditions of labor in their territories. (iv) To arrange the loans made or guaranteed by it in relation to international loans through other channels so that the more useful and urgent projects, large and small alike, will be dealt with first. (v) To conduct its operations with due regard to the effect of international investment on business conditions in the territories of members and, in the immediate post-war years, to assist in bringing about a smooth transition from a wartime to a peacetime economy. The Bank shall be guided in all its decisions by the purposes set forth above. ARTICLE II. MEMBERSHIP IN AND CAPITAL OF THE BANK Section 1. Membership (a) The original members of the Bank shall be those members of the International Monetary Fund which accept membership in the Bank before the date specified in Article XI, Section 2 (e). (b) Membership shall be open to other members of the Fund, at such times and in accordance with such terms as may be prescribed by the Bank. Section 2. Authorized Capital (a) The authorized capital stock of the Bank shall be $10,000,000,000, in terms of United States dollars of the weight and fineness in effect on July 1, 1944. The capital stock shall be divided into 100,000 shares having a par value of $100,000 each, which shall be available for subscription only by members. (b) The capital stock may be increased when the Bank deems it advisable by a three-fourths majority of the total voting power. Section 3. Subscription of Shares (a) Each member shall subscribe shares of the capital stock of the Bank. The minimum number of shares to be subscribed by the original members shall be those set forth in Schedule A. The minimum number of shares to be subscribed by other members shall be determined by the Bank, which shall reserve a sufficient portion of its capital stock for subscription by such members. (b) The Bank shall prescribe rules laying down the conditions under which members may subscribe shares of the authorized capital stock of the Bank in addition to their minimum subscriptions.

25: (c) If the authorized capital stock of the Bank is increased, each member shall have a reasonable opportunity to subscribe, under such conditions as the Bank shall decide, a proportion of the increase of stock equivalent to the proportion which its stock theretofore subscribed bears to the total capital stock of the Bank, but no member shall be obligated to subscribe any part of the increased capital. Section 4. Issue Price of Shares Shares included in the minimum subscriptions of original members shall be issued at par. Other shares shall be issued at par unless the Bank by a majority of the total voting power decides in special circumstances to issue them on other terms. Section 5. Division and Calls of Subscribed Capital The subscription of each member shall be divided into two parts as follows: (i) twenty percent shall be paid or subject to call under Section 7 (i) of this Article as needed by the Bank for its operations; (ii) the remaining eighty percent shall be subject to call by the Bank only when required to meet obligations of the Bank created under Article IV, Sections I (a) (ii) and (iii). Calls on unpaid subscriptions shall be uniform on all shares. Section 6. Limitation on Liability Liability on shares shall be limited to the unpaid portion of the issue price of the shares. Section 7. Method of Payment of Subscriptions for Shares Payment of subscriptions for shares shall be made in gold or United States dollars and in the currencies of the members as follows: (i) under Section 5 (i) of this Article, two percent of the price of each share shall be payable in gold or United States dollars, and, when calls are made, the remaining eighteen percent shall be paid in the currency of the member; (ii) when a call is made under Section 5 (ii) of this Article, payment may be made at the option of the member either in gold, in United States dollars or in the currency required to discharge the obligations of the Bank for the purpose for which the call is made; (iii) when a member makes payments in any currency under (i) and (ii) above, such payments shall be made in amounts equal in value to the member's liability under the call. This liability shall be a proportionate part of the subscribed capital stock of the Bank as authorized and defined in Section 2 of this Article. Section 8. Time of Payment of Subscriptions (a) The two percent payable on each share in gold or United States dollars under Section 7 (i) of this Article, shall be paid within sixty days of the date on which the Bank begins operations, provided that (i) any original member of the Bank whose metropolitan territory has suffered from enemy occupation or hostilities during the present war shall be granted the right to postpone payment of one-half percent until five of two percent referred to in (a) above; (ii) not more than five percent of the price of the share shall be called in any period of three months. Section 9. Maintenance of Value of Certain Currency Holdings of the Bank (a) Whenever (i) the par value of a member's currency is reduced, or (ii) the foreign exchange value of a member's currency has, in the opinion of the Bank, depreciated to a significant extent within that member's territories, the member shall pay to the Bank within a reasonable time an additional amount of its own currency sufficient to maintain the value, as of the time of initial subscription, of the amount of the currency of such member which is held by the Bank and derived from currency originally paid in to the Bank by the member under

26: The Los Angeles County Museum of Art started putting up Latin American art into their museum and this just happens to be a piece of Venezuelan art, It is also said that there is much more art from Venezuela there too. | This artifact is from the Timoto Cuica culture of the ancient Venezuela and figures like this are really hard to find these days. They were auctioning this off and it was just very interesting to me because I never seen an artifact like this before.

27: Masks like this are worn by Venezuelans of African decent, Known as the Devils of Yare. The mask symbolizes the struggle betwwen good and evil. I would have to say that this is my favorite artifact because its a very cool mask. I wouldn't have it in my house because it would creep me out but its a nice mask. | Venezuelan artifacts | This is figure that has a wide head and body and a flat top. It is almost like the Colombian figures of the Quimbaya region. | These are a few animal figurines that someone had took pictures of and on flickr it didn't have much information on it, but it was a page just about arts from Venezuela and other places..

28: News: Anti-Chavez newspaper editor released in Venezuela CARACAS, Venezuela—A jailed newspaper editor who staged a hunger strike for nearly two weeks to protest what he calls persecution by allies of Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez was let go Monday and then hospitalized. Leocenis Garcia entered a private health clinic. The local Globovision television channel broadcast video of Garcia raising a fist in the air while lying on a stretcher being wheeled into the Vista California clinic. The editor's sister, Maria Lucia Garcia, said he was experiencing intense stomach pains. Garcia's lawyer, Pedro Aranguren, said a judge ordered his client freed from jail, but added that the editor still faces charges of insulting public officials and instigating hatred. Garcia insists he is innocent. "He was unjustly jailed for a journalistic opinion," Aranguren told Globovision shortly before Garcia was released. Garcia had been held at the headquarters of Venezuela's national intelligence agency, Sebin, since he surrendered to authorities Aug. 30.

29: He began a hunger strike on Nov. 8 to demand the charges be dropped. Authorities took him to a military hospital over the weekend, saying the move was a preventative measure aimed at safeguarding his health. A warrant for Garcia's arrest was issued shortly after his newspaper, Sexto Poder, published a photomontage referring to "Chavez's women in power" that depicted the Supreme Court president, the elections chief and four other prominent women officials as cabaret dancers in revealing skirts and high heels. An accompanying article suggested that various people who hold top independent offices in the government had subordinated their posts to the president. Garcia's case drew the attention of Chavez opponents and press freedom organizations, which demanded the editor's immediate release. Reporters Without Borders condemned the criminal charges against Garcia as part of a broader government strategy aimed at muzzling critics. The Paris-based group also questioned the validity of charging him with insulting public officials and instigating hatred. Chavez denies cracking down on his detractors within the media. He notes that many newspapers and broadcasters are strongly critical of his government and says some openly insult and mock him.

30: Works Cited Nativity. 2006. Photograph. Collection of CultureGrams. ProQuest, 2011. Web. 14 Oct 2011. Faith Corner. 2007. Photograph. Collection of CultureGrams. ProQuest, 2011. Web. 14 Oct 2011. First Sacrament. 2006. Photograph. Collection of CultureGrams. ProQuest, 2011. Web. 14 Oct 2011. Colonial Architecture. 2007. Photograph. Collection of CultureGrams. ProQuest, 2011. Web. 10 Nov 2011. First Cathedral. 2007. Photograph. Collection of CultureGrams. ProQuest, 2011. Web. 10 Nov 2011. Decorative Mask. 2006. Photograph. Collection of CultureGrams. ProQuest, 2011. Web. 10 Nov 2011. Mountain House. 2005. Photograph. Collection of CultureGrams. ProQuest, 2011. Web. 10 Nov 2011. Morrocoy. 2007. Photograph. Collection of CultureGrams. ProQuest, 2011. Web. 10 Nov 2011. Salto Kama. 2007. Photograph. Collection of CultureGrams. ProQuest, 2011. Web. 10 Nov 2011. Los Médanos de Coro. 2007. Photograph. Collection of CultureGrams. ProQuest, 2011. Web. 10 Nov 2011. "Flag of Venezuela." Image. CultureGrams Online Edition. ProQuest, 2011. Web. 14 Nov 2011. no name. "RARE Pre-Columbian Timoto Cuica Figure, Venezuela". Trocadero. 26 November 2011. http://www.trocadero.com/riverbendgallery/items/794410/item794410.html

31: No name. "Venezuelan Native Art III". 26 January 2011. Flickr. 21 November 2011. http://www.flickr.com/photos/51246079@N07/5389966194/in/photostream/ No name. "Ancient Venezuela". Beloit. 26 November 2011. http://www.beloit.edu/logan_online/collections/catalogue/south_america/venezuela/ancient/ancient_venezuela.php VenWorld. "L.A. Museum of Art Gets Venezuelan Goods". 26 July 2008. Worldpress. 26 November 2011.http://venworld.wordpress.com/2008/07/26/la-museum-of-art-gets-venezuelan-goods/ Masks of the World. Venezuelan Diablo mask. N.d. Carribean Masks. Mask of the World. Web. 21 Nov. 2011. . "Bretton Woods Agreement (1944)." American History. ABC-CLIO, 2011. Web. 21 Nov. 2011. "Andrew Jackson: annual message (1834)." American Government. ABC-CLIO, 2011. Web. 21 Nov. 2011. Associated Press. “Painted bodies transformed into art in Venezuela.” My San Antonio. N.p., 21 Nov. 2011. Web. 21 Nov. 2011. . Castillo, Mariano. “Venezuelans used intelligence operation to find missing catcher.” CNN. N.p., 12 Nov. 2011. Web. 21 Nov. 2011. . Catholic Online. “Venezuelan cult growing in popularity.” Catholic. N.p., 21 Nov. 2011. Web. 21 Nov. 2011. .

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  • By: Khadijah M.
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  • Title: Peace Corps: Venezuela
  • project about Venezuela
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  • Started: about 5 years ago
  • Updated: about 5 years ago

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