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FC: Performance and Product Evaluation By: Tashna Morris
1: "We should test students not to just give grades but to improve the quality of instruction"
2: "All testing to some degree is artificial because we seldom directly measure instructional goals or job performance" What are your thoughts about this statement? ~ | Artificiality of Conventional Cognitive Tests
3: Students are expected to prepare and give an oral presentation describing how two current political candidates use specific persuasion or propaganda techniques ~ How would you describe this task? ~How would you asses this task? Urban Academy
4: The Assessment Dilemma ~Assessment in these areas, Speech, Music, Physical Education, Drama etc., are de-emphasized because: 1. measuring mastery of instructional objectives can be quite difficult 2. the perception that the evaluation of processes and products is highly subjective unlike more academic subjects
5: 3. the belief that performances in these areas are influenced by prior ability or natural ability ~ There is a need to evaluate in a non-conventional way~ (Authentic Assessments). Performance -Based & Portfolio Assessments are the two most popular types. ~ Authentic Assessments are less abstract than more traditional forms of assessment & more “real world” and meaningful
6: Minute Check Suppose you are told that as part of your certification process, there will be a performance assessment. What do you think is the best performance assessment for your teaching skills? | Performance-Based Approach GIVE~ communicate what you know and can do USE~ apply what you know Learn~ new information skills etc. as needed Know~ concepts & information DO~ skills
7: Product vs. Process Assessment | Process assessment: specifically targets procedures used by students to solve problems Product assessment: results in tangible outcomes Teachers are usually more interested in one or the other, although the task may require both ~When is process more important than product?
8: Evaluating Cognitive Objectives using Performance Assessments | Constructed Response Items: Students generate answers in response to questions or prompts rather than choosing from a set of available alternatives Portfolios: Measure educational performance in context. It is a collection of students' work in a given area.
9: Scoring Performance-Based Assessments | Process, Products & Performance Checklists: Lists of behaviors, skills; indicate whether each behavior or skill has been observed.
10: Constructing a Checklist 1. Designate the appropriate performance or product 2. List the important behaviors or characteristics 3. Include common errors the person being evaluated might make 4. Put list in appropriate format
11: Rating Scales: ~Permit teachers to indicate frequency or degree to which behavior or skill is exhibited. ~ Used in much the same way a checklist is used. However, the observer provides a number or rating for each behavior. ~For processes that are ongoing, checklists are preferred as they are not as time consuming
12: Rubrics Scoring guides consisting of specific pre-established performance criteria; used in evaluating student work on performance assessments
13: Two Types Holistic Rubric: score assigned to overall process, performance or product Analytic Rubric: individual components of the product, performance or process are scored separately. Results are summed to give a total score
14: ~ One of the major goals with this assessment is to obtain student's mastery of specific educational objectives ~Compare a student's work to a pre-determined performance standard rather than the performance of peers. ~ Using a criterion-referenced evaluation makes the evaluation more appropriate & straightforward | Assessing Products and Performance
15: ~ Comparisons can be made to obtain information about the reliability of the assessment ( If responses are the same, the judgments are reliable). ~ A more accurate score can be obtained by pooling the responses of several observers. The errors of each observer can compensate for the errors of others. | Multiple Observers in Educational Settings Performance Tasks Should Be Observable Advantages
16: ~ Used to obtain information about personality traits and attitudes ~ It avoids the "halo effect" (categorize people based on a small number of salient observations and apply the general impressions to all traits ~It is organized, directed and systematic ~ Most fully developed with studies of young children | Systematic Observation
17: ~ What Should Be Observed? the observation must have some focus ~ What Behaviors Represent a Personality Attribute? a decision must be made as to what behaviors will be acceptable indicators of that attribute ~ When and For How Long Should Observations Be Made? where, when and how long each person is to be observed | Conducting the Systematic Observation
18: ~ How Should Observers Be Trained? 1. Training sessions in which two or more observers make records, compare notes, discuss discrepancies and reconcile differences 2. Get a trained observer to sit in on sessions to offer suggestions ~ How Should Observations Be Organized? Recorded immediately after they are made | Conducting the Systematic Observation Cont'd
19: 1. A record of actual behavior 2. Useful in real life situations 3. Useful with young children | Advantages of Systematic Observation
20: 1. Cost of making the observations 2. Problems of fitting the observer into the setting 3. Difficulty in eliminating subjectivity and bias 4. Difficulties in determining a meaningful and productive set of behavior categories | Disadvantages of Systematic Observation
21: Validity and Reliability of Performance-Based Assessments Validity ~ Enhanced by sharing with students the criteria that will be used to judge their work ~Students must possess the necessary prerequisite skills to demonstrate the complex skills that may be required of the task ~ tasks should be fair for all students
22: Reliability ~ rubrics should be designed to reduce subjectivity ~ teachers must avoid their personal biases in scoring rubrics
23: Tasks | Group 1~ Assessing Process Group 2~ Assessing Product Group 3 - Assessing Performance Group 4 - Systematic Observations Define your Task, then develop a Rubric to Assess the task.