S: The scientists of the periodic table & their contributions
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FC: The 11 scientists of the periodic table | Neeraj Kumar | 8-1
1: i | Introduction | The periodic table is something that has been groomed throughout the century's and is now the base of chemistry and particle physics. The periodic table has been given years of research and hard work and is now considered a work of art by many scientists. The periodic table now consists of 112 different elements
2: Table of contents | Page 4-5 Page 6-7 Page 8-9 Page 10-11 Page 12-13 Page 14-15 Page 16-17 Page 18-19 Page 20-21 Page 22-23 Page 24-25 | Aristotle Antoine Lavoisier John Dalton Johann Dobereiner Dechancourtois Stanislao Cannizaro John Newlands Julius Lothar Meyer Dmitri Mendeleyev Henry Moseley Glenn Seaborg
4: Aristotle | Even though Aristotle would not be considered a a scientists by todays standard, science was a subject he was deeply involved with. Aristotle believed that knowledge could be obtained through interaction with physical objects. He also discussed the topics of matter. In his book "Metaphysics" he said that matter was the physical substance of things that gave it identity. He believed that there were 4 elements fire, water, earth, air and the mixture of them would form a new one. Aristotle along being a scientists he was a philosopher who lived in ancient Greece.
6: Antoine Lavoisier | Antoine Lavoisier is widely known as the father of modern chemistry. He formulated a theory of chemical reactivity of oxygen and co-wrote the modern system for the nomenclature if chemical substances. His revolutionary approaches won the turning point in scientific and industrial community. Even in death Lavoisier's his love for experiments continued. He was beheaded during the French revolution due to his role in tax collection. He asked his friend to count the number of seconds he continued to blink after his head was cut off.
8: John Dalton | John Dalton was an English school teacher and public lecturer who came up with the idea of atoms and elements, thus laying th foundation for the periodic table and chemistry. John Dalton was highly educated and had many strong doubts and beliefs in science, many which were wrong. John Dalton made three principles of atoms. Elements are made up of atoms, all atoms of the same element are identical and Atoms of different elements occur in different weights. He later added his fourth principle that atoms cannot be created, destroyed or divided. John Dalton died of a stroke in 1844 and had a parade in his honor in London.
10: Dobereiner | Johann Dobereiner was a chemist who was deeply interested in the similarities of a few elements, his most famous finding were in the alkali and salt formers. He noticed that the reactions and appearance were similar to each other, He also noticed that bromine(35), a liquid was somewhat in between chlorine(17), a gas and Iodine(53), a solid. He also noticed that each triad's means if heaviest and lightest atomic weights were approximate. He was the one who started seeing the periodic table as a puzzle, this idea developed into other chemists who, then onwards started looking at similarities between elements.
12: Dechancourtois | Dechancourtois was a French and highly under-respected chemist. Dechancourtois studied at the school of mines and spent most of his life as a geologist and a mine-inspector.He introduced many safety measures like those to prevent methane explosions He is remembered for being the first scientist to create a table based on similarities. He submitted a paper called "vis tellurige" or "telluric spiral ". This paper contained 16 elements which revolved around tellurium(52). However this paper was poorly presented and difficult to understand.
14: Stanislao Cannizaro | Stanislao Cannizaro was an Italian chemist who studied and worked at the university of Genoa where he worked without the comfort of a lab. Cannizaro believed and used the theories of an older chemist "Amedeo Avagardo", although he stated Amedeo's idea's more clearly and effectively. He believed that things around us were made up of complex compounds and not elements, this stopped people from dumping garbage all over the table.
16: Newlands | John Newlands was a English chemist educated in the university of chemistry who gave the idea of groups on the periodic table. when forming a table of relative atomic mass he recognized that every element was similar to the element 8 steps further. He made a table which followed this principles, but his table was not accepted by the academy of sciences because of internal problems, he put Iron(26) in the same group as oxygen(8) and sulfur(16) which are non-metals. Even though his table was not accepted, other scientists created that followed his principles.
18: Julius Lothar Meyer | Julius Newlands Meyer was a German chemist who was originally a physicist, towards the end of his career he started leaning towards chemistry and the periodic table. His original studies were concerned with radioactivity and wave lengths and spectra's. Meyer was the first one to propose a expandable table. Meyer made his own table based on atomic weight and atomic similarities, this table was not very simple and understandable. Julius was not very recognized for his work, having had, such a contribution to the table.
20: Dmitri Mendeleyev | Dmitri Mendeleyev Mendeleyev was a Russian scientist who revolutionized our knowledge of the things around us. Dmitri was in the suburbs of central Russia. When Dmitri's father went blind, his mother had to restart her family's old glass factory and struggled to make ends meet. The glass factory was destroyed by fire not far from his fathers death. The now poor Mendeleyev family moved to St. Petersburg where his mother did domestic labor to put Dmitri through college. In 1816 he started his big achievement, th periodic table. He arranged all the 63 elements ( of that time), which were back then, known by their atomic weights
21: He managed to organize them into groups possessing similar properties. He had to leave three gaps for later scientists to discover, this interested other scientists and within 15 years all the 3 were found gallium, scandium, germanium (32,21,32)
22: Henry Moseley | Henry Moseley was a British chemist who worked under Rutherford at the university of Manchester, where he worked until the outbreak of World War 1, when he entered the army and fought for Britain. Moseley was one of the first ones to arrange the periodic table in order of atomic number, comparing to the older version which used atomic mass. This made the periodic table simple enough for even students to use. His first researches were concerned with radioactivity and beta-radiation of radium. He then turned to the study of the study of the x-ray spectra of the elements. In a paper published in 1913 he concluded that there are 93 elements
23: including Uranium and 14 rare earth elements (lanthanide's). Henry Moseley died an honorable death at Sulva Bay, Turkey, fighting for his country in World War 1.
24: Glenn Seaborg | Glenn Seaborg was born in Michigan,United States in 1912 and took a bachelor's degree in chemistry and sciences in the university of California in Los Angeles and took a PHD from Berkly. Glenn Seaborg was an advisory of many presidents of the united states and typically known for creating the lanthanide's and the actinides which are found on the bottom of the periodic table. Glenn Seaborg, Joseph Kennedy and Arthur Wahl first produced plutonium in the university of Berkeley. Plutonium is well known for its use in the "Manhattan Project". Glenn Seaborg, along with his co- workers discovered and labeled 8 new elements.
25: Americium-Nobelium(95-102) and Seaborgium(106) Seaborg also recognized 14 elements heavier than Actinium. (heavy elements are used in nuclear reactors for generation of energy, Actinium was the standard element used for this purpose)
26: Bibliography | Henry Mosely-http://katringale.wikispaces.com/B1,+Wallace,+Kaylee,+Henry+Moseley John Dalton- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Dalton_John_desk.jpg http://www.1902encyclopedia.com/C/CHE/chemistry-014.html Antoine Lavoisier- http://www.answers.com/topic/antoine-lavoisier http://www.propertiesofmatter.si.edu/massofmatter.html Doberiner http://institutomodernoamericano.edu.co/moodle/grados/decimo/contenido/qui_10/qui_01_0022.htm http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Johann_Wolfgang_D%C3%B6bereiner Stanislao Cannizaro http://www.chemheritage.org/discover/online-resources/chemistry-in-history/themes/the-path-to-the-periodic-table/cannizzaro.aspx https://sites.google.com/site/cursodequimica3b/stanislao-cannizzaro Dmitri Mendeleev
27: http://www.glogster.com/brycef3/dimitri-mendeleev/g-6n3vmv0a7jr0qv7a1u0m4oa http://www.nndb.com/people/593/000091320/ Glenn Seaborg http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/chemistry/laureates/1951/seaborg-bio.html http://www.atomicarchive.com/Bios/SeaborgPhoto.shtml Aristotle http://www.iep.utm.edu/aristotl/ http://www.philosophypages.com/ph/aris.htm Dechancourtois http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alexandre-%C3%89mile_B%C3%A9guyer_de_Chancourtois John Newlands http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Alexander_Reina_Newlands Julius Lothar Meyer http://www.zsndvory.estranky.cz/clanky/chemie/julius-lothar-von-meyer.html