S: The Periodic Table
FC: The Periodic Table | One Very Large Family of Families | By Kalie Holmes
1: Table of contents | - History -Modern Periodic table -trends - The Elements - S block elements - Hydrogen - Alkali Metals - Alkaline Earth Metals - P block elements - Boron Group - Carbon Group | - Nitrogen Group - Oxygen Group - Halogens - Noble Gases - D block elements - Transition Metals - F block elements - Inner Transition Metals - Works Cited
2: Antoine Lavoisier | John Newlands | He developed the concept of the chemical element and developed the metric system. He also formed the Oxygen theory , which states you can break water down into hydrogen and oxygen and then turn them back into water. | He found that when he listed the elements in order of increasing atomic weight, they seemed to fall into seven families that contained elements with similar chemical properties. His table listed these families in horizontal rows. He was also the first to assign atomic numbers to the elements. His work was rejected because he didn't leave room on his table for newly discovered elements. | The Five Fathers
3: Lothar Meyer | Dmitri Mendeleev | Henry Moseley | Developed a chart plotting atomic volumes against atomic weight. Then he arranged elements in groups based on a recurring pattern in volume vs. weight | He created the periodic table we use today using the 63 known elements by arranging them in groups of similar properties and leaving gaps for the elements that were not yet found. | He studied under Rutherfurd and developed the X-ray spectra to study atomic structure. This led to more accurate positioning of elements on the periodic table by closer examination of their atomic number
4: The Periodic table of the Present
5: Group | Period | All elements in the same group have similar chemical properties. | Elements of the same period have the same number of electron shells
6: Valence Electron | Nucleus | Outer most electron shell or/ energy level | Most chemical reactions occur in the outter most energy level of an atom because of it gaining and losing valence electrons | Valence Electrons determine which group an element is in on the periodic table. They increase as you move across a period.
7: Orbitals are a region of space in an atom that an electron occupies. The Heisenberg uncertainty principle states that it is impossible to know exactly where an electron is or where it's going next but depending on the electron's energy level, you can determine which orbital it will occupy. | S | p | d | f | s has 1 orbital and can hold 2 electrons p has 3 orbitals and can hold 6 electrons d has 5 orbitals and can hold 10 electrons f has 7 orbitals and can hold 14 electrons | Each orbital has its own "block" on the periodic table
8: The Trends
9: Atomic radius is the way you measure the size of an atom. The size of the atom depends on how far out the electrons extend. It usually goes up as you move down and element group and decreases as you move right on the periodic table because the electrons may become packed more tightly. The ionic radius is the size of the atom in its ionized state.
10: Ionization energy is how much energy is needed to remove an electron from an atom, ion, or molecule.
11: Electronegativity is how well an atom can attract electrons to form a bond. It is the result of the relationship between the number of protons in an atom's nucleus, its total number of electrons and the distance of its outermost electron shell from its nucleus.
12: And now... The Elements!
13: S Block Elements | Hydrogen | Alkali Metals | Alkaline Earth Metals | The s-block elements all have the properties of metals. They form metallic bonds. Because they lose their outermost shell electrons very easily, they have very low electronegativities.
14: P Block Elements | Boron Group | Carbon Group | Nitrogen Group | They have variable oxidation states. They form acidic oxides. They impart no characteristic color to the flame. Generally they form covalent compounds. They have high ionization potentials. They have very large electron gain enthalpies. They are solids/liquids/gases at room temperature.
15: Halogens | Noble Gases | Oxygen Group
16: D Block Elements | Transition Metals | They are metallic, have melting and boiling points, lower atomic volumes, high densities, complex formations, have color and variable oxidation states.
17: F Block Elements | Inner Transition Metals | Lanthanides- Silvery-white metals that tarnish when exposed to air, forming their oxides, They are relatively soft, have high melting points and boiling points, are very reactive, commonly bind to water, burn easily in air, and are strong reducing agents. Their compounds are generally ionic. Their ions tend to be pale colors. They react readily with most nonmetals. | Actinides- Found in the earth's crust, have radioactive instability, strong chemical resemblance to Lanthanides, Very reactive, atomic number increases, react with boiling water, combine with most nonmetals, very dense metals with distinctive structures, and highly electropositive
18: Uses of the Elements
19: http:www.chemguide.co.uk/atoms/properties/atomorbs.html www.ucc.ie/academic/chem/dolchem/html/elem/group.html - http:www.800mainstreet.com/4/0004-002-Periodic.html http:mattson.creighton.edu/History_Gas_Chemistry/Lavoisier.html http:profiletwist.com/study/guide.php?guide=1&ch=5 http:chemistry.about.com/od/chemistryglossary/a/Electronegdef.htm www.google.com http:chemed.chem.purdue.edu/genchem/history/newlands.html http:dl.clackamas.cc.or.us/ch104-07/lothar_meyer.htm http:corrosion-doctors.org/Biographies/MendeleevBio.htm http:www.chemistry.co.nz/henry_moseley.htm | Works Cited