S: The Periodic Table
FC: The Periodic Table | One Big Happy Family | By Samaria West
1: Inside you will see... | The 'Family'History The Fathers of the Periodic Table The Modern Periodic Table Trends The Elements --S block elements - Hydrogen - Alkali Metals - Alkaline Earth Metals --P block elements - Boron Group - Carbon Group -Nitrogen Group -Oxygen Group | P Block elements cont... -Halogens - Noble Gases D block elements - Transition Metals F block elements - Inner Transition Metals -Works Cited
2: Antoine Lavoisier | John Newlands | He wrote Traité Élémentaire de Chimie which is considered to be the first modern chemical "textbook." It had a list of elements in which he beleived couldn't be broken down further. These were oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen, phosphorus, mercury, zinc, and sulfur. | Newlands an English chemist classified 56 elements that had been discovered during that time into eleven different groups based on similiar properties. He noted that many pairs of similar elements existed which differed by some multiple of eight in atomic weight. "Law of Octaves" | The "Fathers of the Periodic Table
3: Lothar Meyer | Dmitri Mendeleev | Henry Moseley | His work was published in 1864, and was done independently of Mendeleev. Still few historians regarded him as a co-creator of the periodic table. However, Meyer's table only included 28 elements. Also, Meyer classified elements not by atomic weight, but by valence alone. | He was Russian chemist, was the first scientist to make a periodic table much like the one we use today. Mendeleev arranged the elements in a table ordered by atomic weight, corresponding to relative molar mass as defined today. Leaving gaps for elements that were yet to found. | He modified the table by nuclear charge rather than atomic weight. Before this discovery, atomic numbers were just sequential numbers based on an element's atomic weight.
4: Modern Periodic Table
5: GROUP | Period | All elements in the same group have similar chemical properties. | Elements of the same period have the same number of electron shells
6: Valence Electron | Nucleus | Outer most electron shell or/ energy level | Most chemical reactions occur in the outter most energy level of an atom because of it gaining and losing valence electrons | Valence Electrons determine which group an element is in on the periodic table. They increase as you move across a period.
7: Orbitals are a region of space in an atom that an electron occupies. The Heisenberg uncertainty principle states that it is impossible to know exactly where an electron is or where it's going next but depending on the electron's energy level, you can determine which orbital it will occupy. | s has 1 orbital and can hold 2 electrons p has 3 orbitals and can hold 6 electrons d has 5 orbitals and can hold 10 electrons f has 7 orbitals and can hold 14 electrons | Each orbital has its own "block on the periodic table
9: Atomic radius is the way you measure the size of an atom. The size of the atom depends on how far out the electrons extend. It usually goes up as you move down and element group and decreases as you move right on the periodic table because the electrons may become packed more tightly. The ionic radius is the size of the atom in its ionized state.
10: Ionization energy is how much energy is needed to remove an electron from an atom, ion, or molecule.
11: Electronegativity is how well an atom can attract electrons to form a bond. It is the result of the relationship between the number of protons in an atom's nucleus, its total number of electrons and the distance of its outermost electron shell from its nucleus.
12: The Elements!
13: S Block Elements | Hydrogen | Alkali Metals | Alkaline Earth Metals | The s-block elements all have the properties of metals. They form metallic bonds. Because they lose their outermost shell electrons very easily, they have very low electronegativities.
14: P Block Elements | Boron Group | Carbon Group | Nitrogen Group | They have variable oxidation states. They form acidic oxides. They impart no characteristic color to the flame. Generally they form covalent compounds. They have high ionization potentials. They have very large electron gain enthalpies. They are solids/liquids/gases at room temperature.
15: Halogens | Noble Gases | Oxygen Group
16: D Block Elements | Transition Metals | They are metallic, have melting and boiling points, lower atomic volumes, high densities, complex formations, have color and variable oxidation states.
17: F Block Elements | Inner Transition Metals | Lanthanides- Silvery-white metals that tarnish when exposed to air, forming their oxides, They are relatively soft, have high melting points and boiling points, are very reactive, commonly bind to water, burn easily in air, and are strong reducing agents. Their compounds are generally ionic. Their ions tend to be pale colors. They react readily with most nonmetals. | Actinides- Found in the earth's crust, have radioactive instability, strong chemical resemblance to Lanthanides, Very reactive, atomic number increases, react with boiling water, combine with most nonmetals, very dense metals with distinctive structures, and highly electropositive
18: Uses of the Elements | Mercury | Radium | Neon | Helium
19: Helmenstine, http:chemistry.about.com www.google.com http:www.ehow.com http:chemwiki.ucdavis.edu http:www.edu.pe.ca | Cited Works