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Peru - Page Text Content

FC: The Perilous Revolution of Peru By: Jordan Ventura Steven Ross Aly Schmidt Richard Taylor Tommy Ready Grace Yang Sam Curran

1: Table Contents: Prologue: Map of key battles/events highlighted - Timeline of revolution-pages 2 to 3 Chart indicating which elements of Brinton's Anatomy of a Revolution pages 4 to 5 Diary Entries: Tupac Amaru -pages 6 to 11 | Female Rebel, Alejandra Diary Entries 12 to 16 Epilogue 18-23

3: 1808-The Napoleonic Invasions upset many Creoles in Spanish colonies,which sparked the ideas and revolts for a revolution to gain independence from Spain. 1812- The rebellion of Huánuco was one of the first rebellions in the Peruvian Revolution, as it sparked many conflicts between the creoles and Spanish people. 1812-The Constitution of Cádiz was promulgated by Cádiz Cortes (part of the national assembly in Spain). The Constitution stated out the basic laws of (classic) liberalism in Spain. This new ruling system was not seen a lot at the time, and was completely different from the monarchy Spain had just come from. 1814-1816-The rebellion of Cuzco was something that had defended the new liberal concepts of the Constitution of Cádiz. 1821-1822-José de San Martín proclaimed independence for Peru on July 28, 1821 in Lima. He was announced the protector of Peru for two years once his declaration was made. With the declaration he said, “From this moment on, Peru is free and independent, by the general will of the people and the justice of its cause that God defends. Long live the homeland! Long live freedom! Long live our independence!” 1824-The Battle of Ayacucho was the final battle for the fight of independence in Peru and many other South American countries. This battle was led by Antonio José de Sucre. This battle was the final step to Peru being independent.

4: Annatomy of a Revolution 1. People from all social classes are discontented. X 2. People feel restless and held down by unacceptable restrictions in society, religion, the economy or X the government. 3. People are hopeful about the future, but they are being forced to accept less than they had hoped for. 4. People are beginning to think of themselves as belonging to a social class, and there is a growing X bitterness between social classes. 5. The social classes closest to one another are the most hostile. X 6. The scholars and thinkers give up on the way their society operates. 7. The government does not respond to the needs of its society. X 8. The leaders of the government and the ruling class begin to doubt themselves. Some join with the X opposition groups. 9. The government is unable to get enough support from any group to save itself. 10. The government cannot organize its finances correctly and is either going bankrupt or trying to tax X heavily and unjustly COURSE Of REVOLUTIONS 1. Impossible demands made of government which, if granted, would mean its end. 2. Unsuccessful government attempts to suppress revolutionaries. 3. Revolutionaries gain power and seem united. X 4. Once in power, revolutionaries begin to quarrel among themselves, and unity begins to dissolve. X

5: 5. The moderates gain the leadership but fail to satisfy those who insist on further changes. 6. Power is gained by progressively more radical groups until finally a lunatic fringe gains almost complete control. 7. A strong man emerges and assumes great power. X 8. The extremists try to create a "heaven on earth" by introducing their whole program and by X punishing all their opponents. 9. A period of terror occurs. 10. Moderate groups regain power. The revolution is over Key: X = Yes Nothing= No

6: November, 1778 Dear Diary, My name is Jose Gaberiel Condorcanqui; I am not sure what most people say in these. So, I am sorry if I am not detailed enough about myself and how I became the man I am today. I am a descendent of the last Incan Emperor, and it’s my duty to fix this broken government and its corrupt officials who run it. But, let’s see how I got to this point. I was born in Tinta, Peru in March 1738. My parents were in charge of the providences in or of Tinta. So, when I became of age of twenty-one, I became heir to the cacicazgo. I became the leader of Tugasuca, Pampamarca, and Surimana in Tinta. I got this position, because I was a descendent of the last Incan emperor just like my parents. But, my parents died when I was young. I was so devastated by my parents’ death it took me months to get over. I was then orphaned and raised by my aunt and uncle. While living with my aunt and uncle, I went to school in Cuzco. There I learned what the government was really like and I knew I had to do something about it. When I was finally twenty-one, I went back to Tinta to claim my rule as the cacicazgo. I was entitled to this rule by my birth and I prospered with the business and money that my parents have left behind for me. But, I noticed that there was a growing dissatisfaction in the lower social classes. This was especially true of the indigenous people who were drafted to work in the mines of Potosí through the system of Mita. Some rebellious thoughts if I didn’t do something about it, I would be thrown out of my position of as the leader of Tinta. To quell the dissatisfaction I decided I would get Tinta an exemption from the labor quota and therefore pacify their rebellious thoughts before they rebelled and got killed by the government. I went to the dictatorship in Cuzco to talk to Jose Antonio de Areche. I asked him to exempt Tinta from the Labor quota, but to my utter surprise he declined my pled. I knew now that the revolution was inevitable, and I wanted to lead my people into battle.

7: These experiences shaped my life and made it easy for me to become the leader of the revolution. I feel that it is my duty to help those below me, unable to make a life for themselves, stuck in those awful mines. I will lead the charge to overthrow this cruel dictatorship and install a democracy. Sincerely, Jose Gaberiel Condorcanqui | Diary Entry inspired from: Orozco, Monica. "Túpac Amaru II." World at War: Understanding Conflict and Society. ABC-CLIO, 2010. Web. 4 Nov. 2010. Mead, Karen. "Túpac Amaru Rebellion: Latin American Wars of Independence." World at War: Understanding Conflict and Society. ABC-CLIO, 2010. Web. 4 Nov. 2010.

8: January, 1779 Dear Diary, It has been a while, but the revolution has just started. I find the government to be corrupt in so many ways that I can’t count. Like how they make the peasants pay tributes to the government to protect them, but the nobles don’t have to pay it. Also, during this rebellion I was the most prominent leader of the all the leaders during the rebellion. This is because I was the person who instigated the whole rebellion, by planning the whole thing. I was not the only one who wanted the corrupt government to fall, as many more revolts broke out throughout the Andes. For my actions I was excommunicated by the Bishop of Cuzco and I changed my name to Tupac Amaru. With this name, I summoned all the power, which was associated with the name. This came from the fact that it was the name of the last Incan emperor. I captured the Corregidor of Tinta; he was the representative of the Spanish government. After we captured him we made an example of him to the government by hanging him. I got most of my support from the indigenous people, Mestizos and Creoles. When I called for the emancipation of slaves, this built up most of my army. But, because when our revolution did have the same goals the war was being fought for and they turned their little behinds and ran back to the dictatorship and re-pledged their allegiance to him. So if I win this war then, I will destroy those Creoles and Mestizos for deserting us in the middle of the rebellion. But, I will never know if I have won until all of the nobles in Peru and Spain are at my knees begging for mercy and surrender to me as well. Finally, I had big success during the battle of Sangarara. I am now a huge threat to the Spanish empire, not just here but also to upper and southern Peru. To rally my troops for battle I told them this, “There are no accomplices here but you and I. You, the oppressor and I, the liberator. Both of us deserve death!” (As quoted on the web site “Tupac Amaru II”). This speech made recruitment of troops

9: harder because I never knew the royalists would try to infiltrate my camp and kidnap me. If they did the royalists would take me back to Cuzco for interrogation and execution. Areche increased troop activity and supplies to Cuzco because he didn’t know when we would strike and wanted to be ready for me and my troops. By this time I had amassed an army of about 40,000 to 60,000 troops and used them to seized Cuzco with them. While I got settled in Cuzco writing up a new Peruvian government, the royalists got passed our scouts that I had been posted to warn us of any armies of royalists coming through. But, I guess the royalists bribed my troops not to send me that message because royalists’, caciques come to the aid of Cuzco. I was so distraught that my troops were so simple minded that they could be bribed and hadn’t look at the bigger picture before taking those bribes. The royalist’s defeated my troops in open combat in Cuzco and anyone who survived fled the city for safety like I did. The rebellion wasn’t as successful as I wanted it to be and I was very distraught and it had spread to the troops I had commanded. So I guess my troops had lost the will to fight the royalists. Since I had such a high position in government, my treason was that much more unforgivable. So, when they found me in Tinta the royalists took me back to Cuzco for interrogation. Sincerely, Tupac Amaru | Diary entry inspired:"Túpac Amaru II." Encyclopdia Britannica. 2010. Encyclopdia Britannica Online. 06 Nov. 2010 . "Túpac Amaru Plan." Encyclopdia Britannica. 2010. Encyclopdia Britannica Online. 06 Nov. 2010 .

10: April, 1780 Dear Diary, While I wanted to rid my government of its dictatorship in a nonviolent manner, Jose Areche declined my request to release Tinta from the labor quota; this made rebellion is my only option. While the rebellion is ultimately unsuccessful in changing our government, our efforts are remembered in history as a symbol of resistance to oppression. These last few months have been fun, but tomorrow I am going to be tortured and killed, but I don’t know how. My Government is trying to find the best way to kill me and at the same time instilling as much fear into then people of Peru and other Latin American Countries they rule over as they can. After I was defeated at Cuzco and the royalists took back the city, the Spanish government was so concerned with capturing me that they went to great lengths to find me so it would put a stop to all the revolts throughout Peru. But, they were also afraid that the other nations in Latin America would get the idea to revolt against them. This is because by now Spain is very weak and couldn’t quell rebellions as fast as they used to. Unfortunately, the Spanish government was going to do anything to capture me and they finally did defeat me in my home county Tinta in April 1781. They dragged me all the way back to Cuzco for interrogation for the locations of the other leaders of my rebellion. They wanted to stop the rebellion ideas from spreading into other countries of South America. Also, the royalists brought me to Cuzco for a trial and then execution. Even if I told the government everything I knew about the rebellion. They would then use the information to strip down it down until my troops couldn’t go on. Then still execute me in the most gruesome ways because they wanted to send a huge shock wave as an example of what happens to people who think they can try to overthrow the government and commit treason too. I by a rebellion supporter who had infiltrated the prison and told me that while I had been under guard before me being executed, that I had become a symbol of resistance to oppression in Latin America. I know my death is about to come because I can hear the guards coming down the hallway

11: to get me for my execution. I have readied myself for this ever since I first thought we should be exempt from the labor quota. Also, I knew I was putting my life on the line for my country Sincerely, Tupac Amaru P.S. Please anyone who finds this journal, finish it with a final entry describing what happens to my family, and me. Please write about how cruel the Spanish government really can be. Also, tell what happened to my rebellion after I die from the execution as well. | Diary Entry inspired from: Minster, Christopher. "Tapac Amaru." Latin American History. N.p., n.d. Web. 6 Nov. 2010. . "Rebellion of Tupac Amaru II - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia." Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. N.p., n.d. Web. 6 Nov. 2010.

12: Dear diary, December 3rd, 1779 I’ve been hearing rumours around town that a man by the name of Tupac Amaru is starting a rebellion in Upper and Southern Peru. Knowing this, I’m growing even more nervous than usual. Lately, I’ve been busy with my own confrontations demanding for women’s rights to be able to get a good education in order to get a civil job as a teacher or any occupation of our choice. It’s been a tough few weeks, and I’ve been trying my best to work through them each day at a time. The struggles are tough, but I’m glad I have a good amount of women that feel the same way I do. Us women have been plotting ways to incorporate the rights we deserve into law yet it isn’t a simple achievement. On top of all this, my husband keeps ranting about this upcoming battle yet when i ask about it, I’m never given too much information. I’ve talked to many of my close female friends to see if maybe they’ve heard more from their husbands yet they’re receiving the same amount of information that I am. Maybe they don’t want to worry us too much or maybe they’re going to fight in this man’s rebellion as well. A couple days after confronting my husband about the situation, I heard more news around town. Apparently Tupac is making his way through the countryside gathering followers from different classes. I hear his army is growing larger and larger and that his goal is to rid the Peruvian government and make Peru a democracy. Knowing this, I’ve been growing more and more anxious because I’ve realized that his goal is exactly what us people have been striving for for a while now.

13: But, at the same time, I’m still very nervous. All I can think about is the negative outcomes of this battle. What will i do if my husband something goes wrong? We have 3 kids to worry about and take care of and I don’t know if I can do it on my own. Sincerely, Alejandra ___________________________________________________________________ Diary Entry inspired by information from:

14: Dear Diary, December 17th, 1779 About a week ago, I officially found out that both my husband and I will be attending this battle, fighting in Tupac’s army of several thousand men. Women will be joining in order to cater these men when it comes to food and medical attention. Although want to be by my husbands side helping him whenever he needs me. I’ve begged, pleaded to fight by his side but he has his mind set on achieving their goals and women fighting would just be too dangerous. We left a few days after i found out we were really going, I didn’t have much of a reaction at the time but I could just imagine it now. The deafening sound of guns firing back and forth, hundreds to thousands of different men crawling on the ground with their poor bodies torn apart. No matter how hard i try, i can’t seem to get this picture out of my head. What if? is the big question that keeps crossing my mind. What if my husbands injured for life? What if he doesn’t return with me? All i can do is wait. Another thing i must worry about is my own rebellion to continue. I’ve been determined for a while now to make a difference for me and the fellow women around me. I’ve decided to plan ahead to prepare myself in case I am left alone with our 3 children. I told myself I’d keep going with the women’s rights rebellion to achieve our set goals and get a promising occupation to help support our kids. Although it has been a struggle, I am determined now more than ever to receive our rights and raise our kids no matter how tough times get.

15: Before the battle, Tupac was quoted to have said, “There are no accomplices here but you and I. You, the oppressor and I, the liberator”. Recently, I’ve received news that Tupac’s army of around 50,000 people seized Cuzco. I was happy to hear this, maybe my husband was returning sooner than i thought. Waiting for the men to return back to us Women at our base everyday is the worst part of it all. You never know what could happen. Wish me luck! Sincerely, Alejandra __________________________________________________________________ Diary Entry inspired by information from:

16: Dear Diary, May 18th, 1781 Everything was going great up till around 2 days ago. Though this prolonged war was becoming an agony, things were about to get a lot worse. Suddenly, our base was attacked. More than 80,000 Indians and Mestizo’s were killed during the battle along with around 10,000 Spaniards and Criollo’s as well. The women were forced to flee the area and make our way back home while the men were impelled to stay and fight. I knew there was no possible way for my husband to have survived. Days and days went by slower than any other as we waited to find out the fate of our husbands and other family. The war had been going on for over a year now and we were doing so well. Though many men returned to the base with gruesome injuries, the women were able to take care of them as best as we could and most were ready to get back out there and fight within a few days, maybe a week at most (depending on the injury). I heard a knock come from my door a few hours ago, the news i had been waiting for was finally here. Was it my husband? or was it another random soldier here to tell me he was killed? Turns out i guessed right and as i write this entry with burning tears beating down my cheeks, i ask myself why? Why did they make me leave him to die? Why couldn’t i have stayed with him? Maybe there’s a purpose for me to have lived. To take care of our kids and help them grow up believing they can achieve anything they set their mind to just like my husband. I know my husband would want me to continue with our rebellion for more women’s rights and begin to make a difference. That’s exactly what i am going to do in order to make my husband proud. He fought for what he believed in so I’ll follow his inspiring lead.

17: In the end, after Tupac and his army were defeated, i heard he was brutally executed by being quartered and pulled apart by four horses. Though things turned out in a negative way, to conclude my final entry i would like to say that Tupac and his army will always be known for their courageous hearts and prominent positions during this rebellion. Sincerely, Alejandra _____________________________________________ Diary Entry inspired by information from: .

18: Epilogue Peru's success is their amount of agriculture. They cultivate main crops such as maize (corn), rice, sugar cane, cotton, plantains, and coffee. Plus, a thing that adds to success is the illegal cultivation of coca, which is sent to Colombia processing into cocaine, it is also widespread. It is an illegal thing but so many people do it for money. The human rights of its citizens are free to go anywhere. There are no restrictions on where they want to go. When the citizens travel inside the country, they do not need to have an passport or stamp, they will only need their IDN (National Document of Identity, ID). Peru, covering a land area of 149 million square kilometers, is the third largest country in South America behind Brazil and Argentina. The country is home to 25 million people. In Peru, 54 percent of the population faces bad poverty which means that the people do not have enough income for their every day meal. Therefore, they do not have the ability to own a home. What they have been doing is they build unsanitary houses around the hills of the large cities. There is no law that reinforces private poverty or preventing low income people building houses. Another thing that has remained the same is the social status of Peru since the revolution. In Peru, because of the level of corruption and poverty, high class people do not hire or contract lower class because people need to have influence if they want to find a good job. This why most people immigrate overseas to get out of the corruption. There is a terribly wide gap of inequality between the rich and the poor. A staggering 54% of the population is below the poverty line.

19: The poor and the rich are divided in social and economic status. This could directly lead to the revolution because the government never was never fully established. Now that it is, they don't have the money to meet the peoples needs. More than 50% of the people in Peru are impoverished. Poverty is the single most important issue that needs to be addressed. Peru is a multi-party republic with an executive branch that controls the legislature and the judiciary branch to the democratic. There is no help from national agencies but more from foreign agencies that provide food, clothing and other important things to the people in bad poverty

20: From this graph, it is clear that the USA today has a much higher literacy rate than modern day Peru. This means that it's been proven that residents in the USA have a higher capability of reading and writing. This could also be due to the fact that Peru suffers from a high rate of poverty leading them to have fewer books for educational purposes.

21: This graph exemplifies the percentage of life expectancy between the USA and Peru. By taking a look at it is apparent that the USA has a higher percentage due to the fact that the country is overall healthier (proven by the other few graphs). Peru struggles from poverty which causes a majority of the people to have a lot of struggles throughout their life such as deadly diseases that they are not able to treat.

22: By comparing the amount of poverty in the USA and Peru today, it is clear that Peru outweighs the USA by a landslide. To this day Peru is home to 25 million people and around almost half of these people suffer from bad poverty causing them not to have enough income for things such as ever day meals or clothes. You’ll typically see these types of people living in unsanitary households and a great amount of the country experiences struggles to receive healthy food and shelter from a day to day basis.

23: By examining this graph it is clear that the USA has less of a percentage of infant mortality while Peru has a bit of a higher rating. Peru could possibly have a higher percentage due to the fact that their level of health throughout the country isn’t as high as the USA. Families in Peru also lack access to food, shelter, and other vital goods that are needed in our everyday life especially to keep an infant healthy. This could be another effect of their high percentage of poverty throughout the country.

24: From this graph that compares the registered voters in the most current year, we can see that the United States has a tremendous higher voting rate than Peru. This is because the United States has a larger population rate which impacts the amount of registered voters compared to Peru who has less registered voters.

26: December 2nd, 1824 Dear Diary, So many battles have taken place during the past few years. I am tired. I wish it would end. Now we worry that the end of this battle - they have been calling it the Battle of Ayachcho - will not turn out to be in our favor. I think I may agree. This will be the end of the Revolution I fear. The damn Independents have the support of multiple countries on our borders. I fear they will be too strong for us to continue to hold on. Lima does not have the power or the money it used to. Oh, I have seen so much. When I was a much younger man I witnessed the rebellion of Tupac Amaru II a bloody and horrible time when so many honorable Spaniards died at the hands of Incan descendants . What an economic crisis we had at that time. I should have known then that it was the beginning of the end as we watched the commercial center shift from

27: Lima to Caracas and Buenos Aires. When Jose de San Martin (an Argentinean - not even a Peruvian) and Simon Bolivar declared Independence from Spain, we did not even take it seriously. How could we? We were under the control of the great Spanish Monarchy. Their threats and rebellions seemed only like a piece of dust on our shoulders, yet little did we know. Thank God we still have Callao and in the ability to ship and trade goods to our neighboring countries. I do not know what will become of my beloved Peru if my dear friend, the Viceroy, Jose de la Serna, is taken out of power. I may be out of a job and a home. Diary Entry inspired by information from : "Battle of Ayacucho." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Web. 22 Nov. 2010. .

28: December 8, 1824 Dear Diary, It has been days since we have had word about the fate of Jose de la Serna. He was captured, and we heard he was wounded but we don’t know any more than that. He may already be dead. I fear that he may be the last Viceroy that Peru will ever have. If the Independents succeed and they continue their bond with Argentina and Venezuela I am concerned that the initial declaration of Independence they made a few years back will hold and that will ruin the ties with Spain forever. The Lima Oligarchy which has had such wealth and power will not know what to do. I suppose they will be run out and their businesses taken over. The silver business, which at one time was such a boost to the coffers of the Spanish Monarchy, has been in decline in recent years, but still, without any offer of riches to the Spanish Monarchy, why would they continue to be interested in keeping a Viceroy and hold in our small country? I wish I knew what is going to

29: happen. The Viceroys have been in power here for almost 300 years. When Francisco Pizarro in 1528 conquered Peru, gold and silver from the Andes mountains became the principal source of wealth and power for Spain. Peru was at it’s best back then as far as I’m concerned. We’ve had many Viceroys over the years. We don’t know anything else. I have never understood the discontent of the peasants. We have been taken care of, protected. What do they think will happen now? We are a small country, how do we take care of ourselves? Who will decide who will be in charge? I wish I had the answers. With all the revolts and revolutions we’ve had I suppose I know the answer. Our ties to Spain will be ending. I would guess that the famous Senor Bolivar and San Martin will take over some form of control of the country, after all, they already think they are in charge. They have so much support already from the independents I can see where this is headed. 300 years of Spanish rule and it has to come to this . This Diary Entry is influenced by information from : José De La Serna." Wikipedia, La Enciclopedia Libre. Web. 22 Nov. 2010. .

30: December 10, 1824 Dear Diary, My concerns about losing power have come to be true. My friend, Jose de la Serna, did in fact survive but did not prevail. Jose staged a brilliant fight, but apparently was no match for Simon Bolivar. He was released from capture and sailed for Europe where he was welcomed at court in Spain. There will not be another Viceroy of Spain in Peru. I am desolate. Perhaps I should set sail for Spain myself, but no. I must stay in my country and be of help to the new government. How, I do not know. My hope is that I will be able to maintain a position where I can continue to support what is best for my country. We do not even know who will be in charge. It does not seem like there is any talk of elections or choice of who is best suited to run this country. Everything will change. There are rumors going around that Simon Bolivar is considering to become a dictator, yet that will do anything but benefit my beloved Peru. The moment we consider a dictator, Peru will struggle with society considering many people will revolt due to unhappiness and little decision

31: making for the choices they believe in. Today there was word from Jose de San Martin, as he was quoted of saying, “The presence of a successful soldier is dangerous to the States that have just been constituted”. We as a government feel a slight threat in the words that San Martin has slipped past his lips, as he appears to be implying that a revolt or battle with always beat out the government. This feels more of a threat towards myself, as of my high position with the government, but even I fear for my job and the government that seems to be crumbling with each day. This Diary Entry is Influenced by information from : José De La Serna." Wikipedia, La Enciclopedia Libre. Web. 22 Nov. 2010. .

32: September 22nd, 1809 Dear Diary, As I stand here listening to my husband, the Argentine general and the leader of Upper Peru explain to me about the struggle for independence, I feel the urge to gain more information. I wonder if we will gain the independence and finally branch out from the rules of Spain. I strongly believe that we need a revolution to fight for our independence once and for all. Because of the Spanish monarchy it made the royalists aware of Peru’s struggle for independence and decided to fight with us. As the Spanish monarchy weakens our military and affects our government in a negative way I feel it is necessary for Peru’s harsh and powerful revolts against them. I have heard from neighbors and my husband that Tupac Amaru II is starting a rebellion in Upper Peru. My husband is now off to a meeting with the royalists and other supporters to discuss the plans they will be using in order to win our independence. I’m sure as a general who fought in many other battles such as the Battle of Bailen and the Battle of San Lorenzo, starting to put into action a plan to defeat the Spanish Monarchy wouldn't be as difficult. Jose de San Martin has a brave soul to take on this important role. Although I wish I can help my husband in this war, I am but a woman.

33: My duties of cleaning, cooking, and taking care of my three children will be put on hold for a while because the stress and worry I am feeling about this war. Oh my husband just came back and I believe he has secret tactics to overthrow the enemy. There are signs of the Spanish Monarchy preparing for the upcoming war conflicts and so we must be careful and plan our attacks well. Little do they know we have all the time in the world to fight for our independence that we have been wanting for a long time. -María

34: July 8th, 1818 Dear Diary, The battle for independence has started a couple years ago and I finally feel the chance for our freedom will arrive. I would like to see Peru as an independent state so that we can finally make choices for our own. Without the dictators of the Spanish Monarchy, we will get to improve our military, political, and also economic powers. I gather all my information from my neighbor Jose who is also in favor for fighting for our independence. So far I’ve heard that the Spanish government had increased taxes and creoles were replaced with Spanish hierarchy. Also, officially the campaign of San Martins had started. I have also heard from my neighbor that Jose de San Martin created a new army called the Army of the Andes in the Province of Cuyo, Argentina. After, I heard he led the Crossing of the Andes which was an army of Argentine soldiers, to Chile and took over the Spanish forces at the Battle of Chacabuco and the Battle of Maipu. I’m very proud and a little stress is relived after hearing that my husband’s tactics of overthrowing the Spanish Monarch is going as planned. I’m also hearing that Jose de San Martin is setting sail to attack the Spanish by sea. Upper Peru and the royalists are holding strong to fight for what they believe in. This War for independence of Peru may go on for several months, even years, but whatever it takes, I believe my husband and the

35: royalists will try the best of their ability to hold strong. We will all not forget all the military conflicts afflicting before this war of independence so fighting strong is what we’ll do. P.S I will not write for awhile because I have a feeling this Peruvian War of Independence will be going on for a long time. Until then, I will be gathering more information from my neighbor who has contact with someone in the war. I will also be doing all those household chores of taking take of the kids, cooking and cleaning that I haven’t done in a while because of all the stress and worry this battle has given me. Until later, -María __________________________________________________________ Diary Entry inspired by: htp://

36: February 20th, 1825 Dear Diary, After several years in the Peruvian Battle of Independence, Peru has finally cut off from the Spanish Monarchy and officially became an independence country. As the battle ended, I waited for my husband to arrive home. The kids and I congratulated him on his success and his first main battle that he planned for finally gaining our independence after sixteen years. Unexpectedly San Martin and the family left the country after the war and he resigned from the command of his army. He took himself out of all the politics and military and we all decided to move to France in 1824 to start a new life. Anyways, He was very happy knowing that Peru won their independence but he also had a very troubled and worried look because he knew there would be upcoming problems associated with gaining the independence. Some of the problems that he discussed were that getting Peru organized was a difficulty. This is because of the different sectors of the Criollo society and certain individual caudillos had drastic different interests. Even though my husband, Jose de San Martin didn’t make it into presidency during the independent life, I’m still very proud for his courage and strength to go through a tough battle to start a new day as an independent country. I realized how one person can impact a whole

37: community that believes in the same aspects and opinions as you. Years after the Peruvian War of independence, the Peru-Bolivian Confederation was created a loose union between the states in Peru. But the confederation was seen as a threat and the confederation did no longer exist after two years because of the combined Peruvian Patriots and the Chilean Military. Also, we went into lots of territorial disputes which caused lots of collision and chaos such as the wars with Ecuador. A good thing always follows multiple issues but July 18th, 1821; the day we won our independence will never be forgotten. My husband is now known to be a national hero of Argentina and one of the Liberators of Spanish South America. I can finally say, I am very proud of him. - María __________________________________________________________ Diary Entry Inspired by: 1. 2.

38: July 6, 1820 Dear Diary, What a fine day it is today. I wish you could be here on this beautiful sunny morning...Anyway, as you know I am Viceroy of Peru. It’s an honor in its self to serve Peru as it is in need of so many reforms. What I am writing you today is not about how great the revolution is going but how it isn’t going to smoothly. I do not think that we will stand a chance because we are such a small country compared to the rest of Spain. We used to be completely controlled by Spain, now Peru is breaking off from it. It is a big step that I believ is risky and dangerous, but needs to be done for the independence and freedon of the people. A big concern that I have is we do not have the power and experience of running a country because we are a new country that is standing alone with no real established government. Peru’s government was entirely from Spain which means if we leave them we are on or own looking for trade. We also have to re-establish new relationships with other countries because we are no longer using the goods we get from Spain. Either we have to figure out a way to trade with the same countries as Spain or we need to cross a different ocean like the Pacific and trade with other countries. I am very concerned how this will all play out. Not only is trade going to affect us but the Juntas of the Rio De Le Plata have been coming over to Peru to try to take Peru back again. In the past few weeks though I have created an army called the Royalist Army. I am having them defend different areas of Peru. The area that is in most need of protection is upper Peru. All of the upper regions have been helping each other in the defense of the country. In return for the Peruvian people in upper Peru I have annexed them vice royalty which will benefit the Lima merchants because trade will be directed towards the Pacific.

39: Jose Fernando de Abascal

40: July 7 1820 Dear Diary, Something bad is about to happen and there is little I can do to control it, the people are participating in the Cadiz Cortes which I am happy about and they all want a Democracy or something but all that I have been doing is showing little Resistance towards it. The big problem, these political reforms are not doing anything good for Peru alone because now the people are seemingly re-connecting to the rest of Spain. Peru needs to be an independent country, but I don’t think its going to turn out the way I want it after all. I do not know what will happen to the government of Peru. Since breaking off from Spain there have been huge uproars in the cities of Spain. Many fights have occurred and I don’t think that the Peruvian army will last any longer. The government of Peru was based off the rest of Spain and now that we are alone there is not an organized government. I have tried my best to lead the country in reforms and establish and help the army get better in defending, but the army is not matched to fight against the Juntas of Spain. These armies keep assembling outside of Peru and then come in and try to take over. But I am still trying to keep Peru a whole country alone and on its own. I have established trade across the Pacific ocean so we are bringing in new culture from America and showing our own culture to America. One thing that I stopped was Slave trade and all slaves we had are freed. The last slave that was sold went for 600 pesos. I am trying to establish a government so that Peru will be able to function without Spain all together. Plus the amount of troops we have established, we have better defence against Juntas and other countries than we have ever had before. I am afraid and happy to see what the future will look like but hopefully in the end of the Revolution Peru will have what it wants, Independence.

41: Jose Fernando De Abascal

42: July 10 1820 Dear Diary I am tired this morning and I feel that I am running this country almost entirely on my own at the moment. It is putting a lot of stress on me but for now I will keep reforming and making this country better, one step at a time. I have fought hard to suppress the independence movements in Spanish America, converting Peru into a center of royalist reaction. After the proclamation of the liberal Spanish Constitution of 1812, there were revolts in Spain, so recently I’ve sent 2,400 troops under Brigadier Antonio Pareja to fight in Chile. I heard that when he got there, they were joined by a large number of other men, and they also gained reinforcements from cities such as Valdivia and Talcahuano. After Antonio gained help from those cities he told me there were over four thousand troops and two thousand of them became royalist. At the moment I believe Peru will be able to survive attacks from Spain and other countries so for now I am trying to establish a government that has more people than just me. Jose San Martin would be a great leader with me because he has lead so many men to victory during the revolution and he is a good friend of mine. Anyway, I have to get back to my job of defending this country. So long till I write you again and hopefully I will have some good news, Jose Fernando Abascal y Sousa

46: July 28, 1821 Dear Diary, My master (Jose de San Martin) was very stressed out because he just got involved in helping lead the revolutions against the Spanish rule in Peru. When I asked him what he would like for lunch he quickly replied “nothing now go away.” The fact that he thought he could treat another human being like that was very offending but there was nothing I could do about it he controlled me. That whole day he was in his library scratching his head thinking about something. I once heard him mutter the words “From this day on Peru is free and independent”. I wanted to know if I could help but I was too nervous to ask him and risk upsetting him. So I kept my distance from him the rest of the day. Later that day it rained and rained I found it ironic because my mom always said that it rained when you or someone you were around was sad. I knew then that Jose was very upset or confused about his decision that he made to help the revolutions against the Spanish rule in Peru. I wondered what it was like to have the power to make a decision that could have a large impact on people's lives. I have never had a chance to do something like this. I have always been a servant and I always will be a servant. sincerely, INTI CUSI HUALLP Diary entry inspired by: *

47: June 16, 1822 Dear Diary My master was stressed but he was able to calm down to the point that he was able to talk to me about what he wanted to eat. When I would bring his food to him I could hear him talking to some men that he had over about them making progress against the Spanish rule but they still had a ways to go. When I went in to give Jose his dinner I heard one of them say that they believed that they could win the revolution. I saw Jose nod his head but not say anything I could tell that he thought it was possible for them to win it but he didn't want to say something and put every-one's spirits up for something that he cant guarantee will happen. When I saw all the people there it showed me the pressure that came with freedom and wealth. The men in the room were making decisions that didn't only change there lives but changed the people that they didn't even know. It got me wondering if I would want that responsibility because if you made the wrong choice you could lose thousands of lives. That night I came to the decision that I would want to be in there position because at least they have the freedom to make there own decision I am forced to do what my owner tells me to. I have no freedom in my decision. sincerely, INTI CUSI HUALLPA Entry inspired by: *

52: 1783- My name is Adolfo Chavez, and for the past two years I, as well as the other rebels from my area have joined Tupac Amaru, descendant of the last Incan emperor on an effort to rid Peru of the Spanish who have settled in our land. Back in 1780, Amaru decided it was time that colonial leader Antonio Arriaga be tried for sustained cruelty against the native people of Peru. After finding him guilty, Amaru executed the official onl to trigger a nation-wide rebellion against Spanish Hierarchy. Strategically combining interests of the common man, Amaru was able to unite the people of Peru and rise againts the elite’s, striking fear into their hearts with his vast following of mestizos and indians. Though the rebellion lasted two years since the execution of Arriaga, Amaru was | captured only months after the execution at which point he and his family were tortured vigorously. After this, the followers, including myself, went on violent rampages, killing white peopl and destroying Churches andproperty of the nobles.

53: 1817- As i woke this morning i was bombarded with screams that Chile had finally won its independence. though i know that we are not quite ready to make our final blow against the Spanish, a sudden rush of hope was sent through my body and i could see Peru, but not this Peru, a free Peru. And then, like the pieces of destinies puzzle falling into place, there was news of José de San Martín using Chile as a base to prepare for the Independence of Peru. I knew right then that my vision of a free Peru wasn’t as far off as i had believed. I look forward to living in independent Peru with my wife and my new born son, and please god, allow him to not have to deal with the hardships with which i have dealt.

54: 1824- It is august and the dead leaves begin to fall from the trees just as the Spanish have so recently this morning fallen away from our now, independent nation. Though they have greatly influenced our identity as Peruvians, their devious plans to mooch off of us prevail no longer and for the first time in centuries, we are given the god-given right to think for ourselves. It has been more than forty years since that first rebellion which i remember oh too well and wish i didn’t, and now it is over. With the succession of Simon Bolivar and Antonio de Sucre at the battle they so swiftly won at junin and then again at Ayacucho, the grasp which was once so tight has loosened and fallen away allowing me for the first time in my life to live a normal life withe my wife and son.

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