2: Polaris, the North Star, sits at the North Celestial Pole. All other stars appear to revolve around it while Polaris appears to stay stationary. There are 5 constellations that revolve around Polaris that are visible all year long are the circumpolar constellations
3: A moon that appears very large is at perigee.
4: As the edge of the sun begins to appear around the shadow of the moon, a "diamond ring" appears.