FC: Photography | Julie Spangler
1: Photography Julie Spangler
8: Intro Photography isn't a new idea. The first photos were taken way back in the sixteenth century. In those days, they used a camera obscura. A camera obscura was a room with a small hole in one wall that projected the scene on the other side onto the opposite wall. An artist would then trace the scene, and voila,! a photograph was born. More advancements were made, including negatives, flash, using chemicals and film, into the late nineteenth century. By then, most of the technology had been discovered, and from then on it all came down to improvements and modifications. Now, photography can be as easy as pressing down a button. It's everywhere in our daily lives. It tells us what is in style and convinces us to buy every sort of item. Plus, over the years, different techniques and styles have been blooming. Effects with light and blurring have hatched and matured. Through all this change and new development, the basics are still the same. Shutter speed, aperture size, and focus are still essentials to every photograph.
9: Contents Background Information Components Ideas
11: Background Information | Uses & New Technology
12: Uses | Besides being a form of art, photographs are used in everyone's daily life. Pick up any newspaper, magazine or flyer and some sort of illustration, usually in the form of a photograph, will be seen. Commercials, TV shows, and the nightly news also use photography. Manuals and cookbooks have many photos to help people visualize the steps to a process. Advertisements and modeling magazines also have a large use for photographs. Millions of photos are taken in the modeling business alone. Don't forget post cards, letters, and calendars. Companies use pictures in catalogs and brochures. Photos sell clothes, animals, and food. They earn donations and are sold and bought and traded. Photographs were also taken in historical times, documenting events, people, and places. They can share a story of a Native American family in the 1930's or depict a woman by her demolished home after the Dust Bowls. Photographs don't lie, which is why so many were taken in World War II to show others what was happening and what war was like.
13: New Technology | Photographs have been used for decades to capture historical events, such as the flag being raised on the moon in 1969. Now, we can take pictures from probes of far away planets and comets. Other advancements include x-rays and microscopic photos, which are made possible by attaching a camera to a microscope, zoomed in on a particle. There are also high-speed cameras that can capture something on film forever that in reality took place in a fraction of a second. Thermographic pictures and ultra sounds used to see babies in a womb have been improved upon or developed recently. With water proof cameras, we can take clear pictures beneath the surface of water. Nowadays, there are also fairly decent cameras in mobile phones, as well as very small and portable digital cameras.
15: Components | Depth of Field Autofocus Shutter Speed Light Color
16: Depth of Field | The depth of field is the area of a scene or picture that is in focus. Depth of field is determined by the size of a picture, length of the lens being used, and the distance the subject is from the camera. With a small depth of field, everything will be blurry, except your subject, if it is too close or too far from the camera. With a large depth of field, everything would be in fairly sharp focus.
17: Autofocus | Today, most cameras have the ability to autofocus. Basically, cameras autofocus by focusing on whatever is in the middle of the view finder. If you do not want the subject to be in the middle follow these steps: Move the camera so that the subject is in the center. Gently push down the shutter button partway to lock in the focus. Carefully move the camera so that the subject is where you want it to be on the viewfinder. Push the button the rest of the way down. You can also switch to manual focus on most cameras. This enables the user to focus by hand. Although manual focus can be less effective and not perfectly clear, it can add some personality to your photo. In a scene with lights, an effect called bokeh can be produced. Originating from the Japanese word boke meaning“blur,” bokeh refers to the creative use of lens blur as a composition technique. The aim of bokeh is to deliberately blur the background, foreground, or both, in order to draw the viewer's attention to a particular area of the photo. It can also be used to blur lights into dots to create a fun spotted arrangement. | Manual Focus | Autofocus
18: Shutter Speed | Shutter speed is how long the shutter stays open when taking a photo. Most cameras have an auto light sensor which automatically sets the shutter speed to the correct time. The shutter can be open for a long amount of time in low light, but often it's open for only a fraction of a second. When taking a picture of a moving object, you want to use a very short shutter speed. This will prevent blurring. Using a long shutter speed will also blur your photo because of the constant movement of either your hand or the subject. SLR's have the option to customize shutter speed. This will help make your photos more personal and eligible to effects. | 4 Seconds | 1 Second | 1-8 Second
19: Color | Color and light go hand in hand. In some cases, a few very rich, deep colors partnered with one bright, vibrant color may cause the wanted effect. This would make the vibrant color stand out in an amazing way. Some people like to express a certain feeling in their photography. Sometimes they do this by using colors that provoke that emotion in people. This is not always accomplished because different people's memories or feelings for certain colors could be completely different than someone else's. Color is also a means of showing beauty. A photograph of a beautiful, full, red rose would be less impacting if it were taken in black and white. Black and white can be a good option when looking for a contrast in lighting or emphasizing a pattern. Details are also shown greatly in black and white. Other coloring effects, such as sepia, can add emphasis on different aspects of a photo.
20: Light is probably the most important factor in photography. Without light, not only would seeing be impossible, but so would have been the discovery of light reactive chemicals. Lighting is always changing, either because of the time of day, weather conditions, or the actual source. Light sources could be natural like sunlight, or artificial, such as fluorescent or incandescent. Candle and fire light are soft sources of light. These different types of light affect the color, feel, and texture of a photo. | Light | The direction in which the light is coming from is another factor to consider. Most people believe that a subject in front of a window with light streaming in would be appropriate lighting. As they would probably realize, this is the exact opposite of what is true. This creates a profile of your subject. In order to avoid having the subject end up looking like a black mass, stand positioned in front of the window, facing outward from it, and then take the photo. If a photo is taken head-on, the subject will probably look bland and flat. In some cases, lighting from the side will eliminate this problem. Consider the background as well. If there is a light object and a dramatic photo is wanted, place it in front of a dark background to emphasize its color. With a darker object place it in front of a soft, brighter background. | Over just a few minutes, the lighting, shown in the sky, has changed dramatically.
21: Daylight can be difficult to work with. Too direct and it can be harsh, showing bright color but producing dark shadows. Light bouncing off water in the air on a humid day can create a mystical light. An overcast day can produce vibrant colors and little dramatic shadowing. Experimenting with different lighting is vital to deciding which lighting is best. It is totally based on your opinion. Indoor lighting is much more controllable than outdoor lighting. Lighting a subject indoors by a window is effective as long as the sunlight from outside is reflected off something or dispersed by clouds. The main sources of artificial lighting are incandescent, fluorescent, and halogen. Every type has its own characteristics. An incandescent light can cast a yellow-orange color onto the scene. Fluorescent lighting would create a greenish tint to photos. Using flash can help because of its pure white light. The thing about flash is that it can be harsh and create dark shadows. Bouncing the flash's light off a wall or ceiling will deflect and soften it. By adding flash to harsh sunlight, you can reduce shadows in your photo. Flash portrays accurate colors because of its white light. Remember, light from a flash can only go so far - about twenty feet. Flash also reflects off the retina in the eye and causes red eye. Some cameras solve this problem by having a flash that shrinks the pupils then a real flash while the photo is being taken. This reduces red eye dramatically. Not looking directly at a camera can also reduce this problem. | Halogen | Incandescent | Flash | Fluorescent | Harsh sunlight causes dark shadows behind the subject.
23: Ideas | Frame Timing Reflections Pets Level Background Fill Candid vs. Staged Rule of Two Thirds Picture Story Photo Editing
24: Frame | Remember, as a photographer you are imagining a frame around what you're seeing. You must ask yourself, what do I want to be in the frame? What do I want its focus to be? How do I want people to see it? Should I shoot from straight ahead or from an angle? These questions are considered before a photographer takes or decides on a scene to photograph or publish.
25: Timing | Timing | In a world that's always moving, catching a single millisecond on film is not an easy task. Photographing a moving object or person at exactly the right time to show what you want for your photo can be difficult, but not impossible. Be patient and alert. Take many photos in fast procession to capture all movements you might want. Don't give up on a shot just because the right second was missed on the first try. There will be another chance.
26: Reflections | Using reflections such as the sky on water or a sunset off a glass building can add an extra dimension to your photographs. Some instances can produce a beautiful double image, making the photo look more intricate and complicated. | Some photographs use reflections in modeling to display the back of a product or subject. | Reflections can also be captured in windows.
27: Pets Level | When taking a picture of a pet or animal, don't be afraid to get down to their level. This will result in a more interesting photo and a touch of personality. This can also capture details that would be missed if shot from your regular height. Photos at a pet's eye level can also bring out the unique perspective from their height. It might be fun, while adding some spunk to a photograph.
28: Background | Sometimes factors other than the main subject are needed in the background to complete the story trying to be told. Keep these factors in and be rid of those that are unneeded. Also, be aware of your background. Be careful of someone in the distance making a funny face or a street light “growing out of” your subject's head. | While some factors besides the subject need to be included, others do not. Although, in your mind your whole focus is on the subject, cameras and other people may not know what the most important thing is. Moving closer or zooming in on your subject so that it fills up the space will remove unnecessary factors that could distract others from seeing the photo as it is intended. | Fill | What a pretty picture...except the people working with a mower in the background...
29: Candid vs. Staged | While staged or posed photos of people or objects are useful in some instances such as modeling, in others they are not quite right. Some people like staged photos more than candid, which are more honest in a way that people find either refreshing or distasteful; I personally prefer candid because it shows what would naturally be happening with honesty. Posed photos have their advantages as well. They can present a product in an attractive way or appear more organized. Instead of having a group of people look unconnected, posing them closer around a common object can bring them together. It mostly just depends on what one likes or what one feels is more suitable for that photo. | Candid | Staged
30: Rule of Two Thirds | The rule of two thirds is a clever way of producing interesting photographs. Get to an angle or distance from which your main focus takes up two thirds of the view finder. This will show movement and add character to a photo. | Picture Stories | A series of photos shown one after another in a sequence to tell a story is called a picture story. Picture stories can be used to instruct, such as in a cookbook or manual. They can also be used to show somethings progress over time, like a plant's development. They can be used to show traffic or how much snow has fallen. It can also display how far an object has traveled over time.
31: Photo Editing | After a photo is taken and uploaded onto your computer, do you like how it turned out? If you do, leave it be. If you don't, there are options for editing a photograph. Going online is one option. A popular website is Picnik. There you can change the exposure, or the intensity of light falling on a photograph, the color, saturation, and temperature, or add effects and stickers. There are other websites but Picnik is probably the most popular. Another option is to buy photo-editing software. Gimp or Aperture are applications for the Mac that are great. The PC Image Editor is software on PC that you could try. This software can cost from zero dollars to over 130 dollars. Which software a photographer uses depends on their needs and level of expertise. Nowadays, you can also try different apps on an iTouch, iPhone, or iPad. I do not suggest using these over a computer but they can still get the job done. | More Saturation | Less Saturation | Warm Temperature | Cool Temperature | Dark Exposure | Brighter Exposure