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Phyla of Living Plants

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FC: Phlya of Living Plants Nonvascular and Vascular Plants by Kaja Alford | Standard SBO1. Students will use current plant phylogenetic principles and describe the structural changes used to delineate the plant divisions. a. Describe the major structures and evolutionary changes of major organs, tissues, cells, and organelle types in nonvascular/seedless and vascular/seed plants.

1: Nonvascular Plants | Hepatophyta Ex. Liverworts Number of Species: 6,000 Main Characteristics Simplest plants: small, having a dominant gametophyte with a flattened or "leafy" body that lasks vascular tissue, a cuticle, stomata, roots, stems, and leaves

2: Anthocerophyta | Ex. Hornworts Number of Species: 100 Characteristics: Small, with a flattened, dominant gametophyte that has stomata but lacks vascular tissue, roots, stems, and leaves

3: Bryophyta | Ex. Mosses Number of Species: 10,000 Main Characteristics: Small; most have simple vascular tissue, a sporophyte consisting of a bare stalk and a spore capsule, and a dominant, "leafy green gametophyte that lacks roots, stems, and leaves

4: Psilotophyta | Ex. Whisk Ferns Number of Species: 21 Main Characteristics: Seedless, with a small, independent gametophyte and a dominant sporophyte that is highly branched and has tiny leaves but is not differentiated into roots and stems | Vascular Plants

5: Sphenophyta | Ex. Horsetails Number of Species: 15 Main Characteristics: Seedless, with a small, independent gametophyte and a dominant sporophyte consisting of roots and ribbed and jointed stems with soft needlelike leaves at the joints

6: Lycophyta | Ex. Club Mosses Number of Species: 1,000 Main Characteristics: Seedless, with a small, independent gametophyte and a dominant, mosslike sporophyte with roots, stems, and leaves

7: Ex. Ferns Number of Species: 12,000 Main Characteristics: Seedless, with a small, independent gametophyte and a dominant sporophyte consisting of roots, horizontal stems, and leaves called fronds; spores are produced in clusters of sporangia on lower surfaces of leaves | Pterophyta

8: Ex. Conifers Number of Species: 550 Main Characteristics: Gymnosperms (seed plants with tiny gametophyts, a large sporophyte, and ovules not enclosed by an ovary) that produce cones: mostly evergreen trees and shrubs with leaves modified as needles or scales | Coniferophyta

9: Cycadophyta | Ex. Cycads Number of Species: 100 Main Characteristics: Gymnosperms with palmlike leaves: produce male and female cones on separate plants

10: Ginkgophyta | Ex. Gingko Number of Species: 1 Main Characteristics: Gymnosperm; deciduous tree with fanlike leaves; produces conlike male reproductive structures and uncovered seeds on separate individuals

11: Gnetophyta | Ex. Gnetophytes Number of Species: 70 Main Characteristics: Gymnosperms; diverse group of shrubs and vines

12: Anthophyta | Ex. Flowering plants Number of Species: 250,000 Main Characteristics: Angiosperms (seed plants with tiny gametophytes, a large sporophyte, and ovules enclosed by an ovary); a very diverse group including trees, shrubs, vines, and herbs that produce flowers and fruit

13: References | Hepatophyta pic http://faculty.clintoncc.suny.edu/faculty/michael.gregory/files/bio%20102/Bio%20102%20Laboratory/Seedless%20Plants/Seedless_Plants.htm Anthocerophyta pic http://www.botany.hawaii.edu/faculty/webb/bot311/cyanobacteria/cyanophyta-5.htm Bryophyta pic http://www.cartage.org.lb/en/themes/sciences/botanicalsciences/classificationplants/cryptogamia/bryophyta/nonvascular/nonvascular.htm Psilotophyte pic http://www.infoescola.com/biologia/psilotales-filo-psilotophyta/ Sphenophyta pic http://www.sfu.ca/~fankbone/biol/index4.html

14: References Continued | Lycophyta pic http://www.botany.hawaii.edu/faculty/webb/bot201/transition/invasion_landsporangia.htm Pterophyta pic http://explore.ecb.org/videos/VLC_file?TYPE=Image&P1=1403&REFERER=OTHER Coniferophyta pic http://crescentok.com/staff/jaskew/ISR/botzo/class2.htm Cycadophyta pic http://www.uic.edu/classes/bios/bios100/summer2003/cycadophyta.htm Ginkgophyta pic http://www.biodiversityexplorer.org/plants/ginkgophyta/ Gnetophyta pic http://www2.mcdaniel.edu/Biology/botf99/gynopsperms/4dividp1.htm

15: Anthophyta pic http://www.increasemyvocabulary.com/definition/of/anthophyta/ Campbell, N. & Reece, J.(2002) Biology. San Francisco, Ca. Benjamin Cummings

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  • Title: Phyla of Living Plants
  • Summary of Nonvascular and Vascular Plants
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