FC: Cabeza de Vaca | Francisco Pizarro | Valentina Ríos
1: Welcome to the world of explorers, to the 15th century. This is the Renaissance, where men challenge every limit that has been set in the world of Exploration. European kingdoms such as Spain and Portugal are hiring countless men to sail around the world, seeking trade routes. riches, converts to Christianity and glory in the name of their country. Of those countless men, however, there were two who stood out in many ways from other explorers. Their courage, wit and desire for adventure overcame the boundaries that had been set before in the world of exploration The two daring explorers were named...
2: Francisco Pizarro The Ruthless
3: Cabeza de Vaca The Merciful
5: de Vaca
6: When Cabeza de Vaca arrived at the new world for the first time, he was not leading the expedition; his leader was a man by the name of Pánfilo Narvaez. One day, when Narvaez left the two ships in charge of de Vaca, a massive hurricane tore the ships from the sea, leaving no survivors. Cabeza de Vaca had seen the storm coming and told his men to go to shore with him, but they had not listened.
7: When Narvaez came back and saw the wreck, the remaining sailors convinced him to stay in Hispaniola until spring came for fear of storms. But when they tried to leave for Havana, storm after storm prevented their departure and finally the weary adventurers had to leave for Florida without their companion ship. In Florida, Narvaez demanded for his men to split in two groups, and put Cabeza de Vaca in charge of the second group.
8: After a series of disastrous events, de Vaca’s group was reduced from eighty to four men and then enslaved by the Native Americans (ironically).They could only escape after three years of hardship. As they traveled overland, other natives began to idolize them, thinking that their Christian prayers could heal the sick. Cabeza de Vaca befriended the natives, learned their language and customs and strived to understand their culture.
9: Cabeza de Vaca wrote an account of his journey later on with tales of the natives , the land, and the strange new animals like the American bison. La Relación, as it was called, was the first document to account about the lifestyles of Native Americans in their natural environments. | A short while after that, Cabeza de Vaca was appointed to govern Río de la Plata after a journey in 1541 along the Brasilian coast. However, he enraged people of power with his endless vouching for the natives, and was removed of the post and exiled to North Africa. A few years later he was allowed to return to Spain, where he died in 1559. | Cabeza de Vaca's Route Around Mexico
12: Francisco Pizarro was the illegitimate son of a fairly wealthy coronel. Born in Truxillo on 1471 and rejected by his parents, Pizarro was denied of an education and wasn’t taught how to read or write. He spent his entire youth tending to pigs, but he wasn’t content with his life. | Pizarro attempted to excel as a military, but failed to rise in rank. Frustrated with his unproductive life, Pizarro left everything behind to begin a new life in Seville, where he embarked to seek fortune in the new world.
14: In 1502, Pizarro left Spain and sailed to Hispaniola, an island where the Spanish had set up a colony. On 1513 Pizarro participated on an expedition led by Vasco Nuñez de Balboa, in which the Pacific Ocean was discovered. From 1513 to 1523 he was appointed as the ambassador from Spain in Panama. It was not until 1522 that he began to hear of rumors of natives rich in gold and silver.
15: After two reconnaissance trips to Peru, Pizarro returned to Spain to plead for the emperor to grant him the titles and authority necessary to begin the conquest of the land he had discovered and the natives who resided there, the Incas.The king agreed, and Pizarro headed to Cajamarca to imprison and murder the Incan emperor, Atahualpa.
16: After that Pizarro marched to Cuzco, capital of the empire, and on 1533 he conquered the mighty city. However, for his new empire, Pizarro wanted a capital which was beside the sea. Since Cuzco was a landlocked city, Pizarro declared Lima to be the new capital. Pizarro dedicated the rest of his life to the Spanish conquest of Peru. It was there that he died on 1541, but he was buried in Lima. | Francisco Pizarro's route around South America and Panama
18: In the 15th century, slavery took an especially harsh toll on the natives of Africa. Africans made great slaves because of their strength and ability to withstand working in the sun longer than other slaves.
19: At first, when the Europeans arrived at the West African coast, local rulers began to capture slaves from other tribes to trade with the newcomers. The slaves were traded for goods such as alcohol, guns and cloth. But the slave trade wiped out more than 12 million Africans and in the end was a great contributor to the decline of African societies.
20: Families were ripped apart, and the slaves who grew up away from their home never learned to appreciate their culture; but to loathe the skin they were in.
21: For the Europeans, slavery played a significant role in the economy. Plantations, especially, thrived with the support of slave labor, profiting from what the slaves made. As long as a slave was kept alive and in the condition to work, it did not matter how “it” was treated. Slaves who did not do their master's bidding to the master's satisfaction were slaughtered in the most inhumane way possible.
23: When Pizarro took over the Incan empire, the knowledge that most of the captured natives would either be killed or turned into slaves was never a burden in his conscience . While Pizarro never cared much for slaves, Cabeza de Vaca spend many years of his life fighting for the rights of those oppressed by the conquistadors. Cabeza de Vaca befriended the natives, learned their language and customs and strived to understand their culture. When his expedition returned to Spain he vouched for the natives and spoke of the inhumane treatment and abuse they received in the hands of the conquistadors. Cabeza de Vaca was appointed to govern Río de la Plata after a journey in 1541 along the Brasilian coast. In his book, La Relación, Cabeza de Vaca spoke about the unfair treatment to natibes, However, he enraged people of power with his endless vouching for the natives, and was removed of the post and exiled to North Africa.
24: QUIZ | Q1. Why was Cabeza de Vaca named like that? a. Historians find his features uncannily similar to those of a cow b. His ancestors were cattle breeders c. Coincidence; his mother was Maria de Vaca and his father was Jose Alvarez Cabeza d. His ancestor led the Spanish to a strategic position marked by the skull of a cow in a battle, and they won thanks to that e. He chose that name for himself after valiantly saving the "Cabeza de Vaca" vessel that was attacked by Norwegian pirates
25: Q2. What did Pizarro spend most of his youth doing? a. Since his mother died when he was born and his father developed a disease, young Pizarro spent his youth tending to the house and taking care of his ill father b. Tending to pigs c. He studied and decided to seek refuge in his books since his parents weren't around much d. Tending to chickens e. Reading theories about the vast unexplored world beyond. His father encouraged him to reach his full potential, and it was him that inspired Pizarro to explore the world out there f. Planning world domination c
26: Q3. How did Cabeza de Vaca spend his first three years in Florida? a. Exploring and creating a map, it was the first and most detailed map to this day of Florida and Northern Mexico b. Rounding up the natives he had befriended in a conspiracy against a nearby Spanish colony c. Studying the cultures and languages of the natives d. Enslaved by the natives themselves e. Enslaving natives
27: Q4. As Cabeza de Vaca and his men travelled overland, the natives began to idolize him and his companions. What about the travelers did the natives venerate? a. They believed their Christian prayers had powerful healing properties b. They believed Cabeza de Vaca and his companions were gods since they were white and had horses, just like the Aztecs and Cortes c. Their advanced weaponry d. The fact that they could speak the natives' language c
28: Q5. What did Pizarro's parents give him on his thirteenth birthday? a. His father was so sick he couldn't give to or make anything for his son b. A book about the vast unexplored world c. Probably nothing, they didn't care about him d. A wife, Ana Josefa Villanueva. His marriage had been planned since he Pizarro was born. Even though his parents neglected him, their son's union with Ana Josefa would benefit them greatly since the Villanuevas were rich e. The chance to travel on his own to Seville
30: Bibliography Francisco Pizarro Route Map 1 http://bms.westport.k12.ct.us/lmc/expmaps.htm Pizarro seizing Atahualpa http://lastdaysoftheincas.com/wordpress/?attachment_id=229 Pizarro and his followers in Lima on 1535 http://en.wikivisual.com/index.php/Peru Pizarro’s Tomb http://www.pbase.com/howardbanwell/image/57509885 Atahualpa before Pizarro http://history.howstuffworks.com/south-american-history/conquistador-incan-empire2.htm Pizarro’s Head http://www.gutenberg.org/files/22116/22116-h/images/31.jpg Seville http://www.citypictures.net/r-europe-148-spain-228-plaza-de-espana-seville-spain-2860.htm
31: A Cabeza de Vaca Cabeza de Vaca doing a surgery http://calitreview.com/299 Cabeza de Vaca’s Head http://www.ecai.org/na-missions/docs/historicalintroduction.htm Route Map 1 http://www.texasbeyondhistory.net/cabeza-cooking/deepsouth.html Cabeza and his companions suffering of hunger http://www.texasbeyondhistory.net/cabeza-cooking/deepsouth.html Plaque http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:CPonte_Placa_Alvar.JPG Cabeza de Vaca Ship http://e-ducation.net/scientists/verrazano_179w.jpg La relación book http://www.texasbeyondhistory.net/mitchell/images/frontispiece-sm.jpg
32: Bibliography for Pizarro Text 1. The Primary Source Library of Famous Explorers, Lynn Hoogenboom. Francisco Pizarro: A Primary Source Biography. N.p.: PowerKids, 2006. sacklunch.net. Web. 20 Apr. 2010.
33: Bibliography for Cabeza de Vaca Text 1.Harris, Laurie Lanzen. “Alvar Nunez Cabeza de Vaca.” Biography for Beginners: World Explorers. 2003. Print. 2.Wade, Mary Dodson. Cabeza de Vaca, Conquistador Who Cared. Houston: Colophon , 1995. Print. 3.“Cabeza de Vaca, Álvar Núñez.” Yahoo! Kids. Yahoo!, 2010. Web. 27 Apr. 2010.
34: Slavery Stone Slave http://farm4.static.flickr.com/3564/3340210383_a603ee7996.jpg Slave ship http://www.sonofthesouth.net/slavery/slave-ship_Picture1.jpg Slave http://niahd.wm.edu/attachments/23244.jpg Whipped slave http://harryallen.info/wp-content/uploads/2009/04/a_slavery_maryland_0327.jpg Plantation Women http://media.photobucket.com/image/slave%20plantation/maggie6138/maggie2/virginia2.jpg Slave Ship 2 http://crystalcavechronicles.files.wordpress.com/2010/02/african-slave.jpg
35: This book is dedicated to Kiwi, for his incredible contributions to the theory of relativity and his discovery of churros. I am also really thankful to Jacob Posadas and Alexander Trivella for editing the mixbook. Ms. Bartosz, or course, thanks for everything. Alonso, I thank you for playing Pirates of the Caribbean while I worked on this. Very inspirational. I also wanted to thank the fifth doctor for making me crack up so much. Nice eyebrows. Abraham Lincoln, I love you.