S: pLAINS NATIVES
BC: THE END!
FC: The Plains Natives | BY: Daniel. G Marci. J Cayley. N Effie. M 6A1
1: MADE IN TORONTO, CANADA ASSOCIATED HEBREW SCHOOLS Of TORONTO ROOM 6A1 MS.WAJCHENDLER ROOM 115 2012
2: Table Of Contents Geographical Location... 3-4 Arrival of the Europeans... 5 Ways of Communication... 6-7 Shelter. 8-9 Weapons. 10-11 Clothing. 12-13 Social Structure... 14-15 Recreation and Games... 16-17 Beliefs and Legends... 18-21 Special Events... 34-35
3: Today's Natives... 36-37 Special Dances... 22-23 Roles of Women... 24-25 Roles of Men... 26-27 Methods of Transportation... 28-29 Clothing... 30-31 Food Sources... 32-33
5: Geographical location The Plains Natives were nomadic and lived in many different locations and many different environments. They lived in different locations because the water in their area was dug very deep into the ground which made it harder to find. They lived in almost all the provinces, but some places they lived in for a very short period of time. Some of the places they lived in were British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba, Ontario, Quebec, Newfoundland and Labrador. The area they lived in and traveled around was made up of grasslands, valleys, streams, and hills. They were very few trees in their area and in the east they had high grass and the Prairies. In the west, they had short grass, sage and cacti in the Plains. When they saw trees, they would always dig in the ground because they knew water was there. Within their area, they had good food sources and had all the vitamins and nutrition they needed. The summers there were very hot and dry while the winters were long and cold. In all, the Plains Natives lived well. | This is where the Plains lived.
6: This is a map of the location where the Plains Natives lived. | This is the land of the Plains Natives.
7: During the 15th century, there was a great influx of Europeans coming from everywhere into Canada. At first they were nice and friendly to the Plains. They showed them new things like guns, knives and kettles, but after they started to earn the trust of the Plains Natives, they started to take advantage of them. They introduced them to new things like alcohol and traded the alcohol for much better things. After a while, they started to take their land and their things. Suddenly, the Natives started to realize that they did not have much land or riches anymore. The Europeans now had the power and there was nothing they could do about it. As you can see, the Europeans did not treat the Plains people very well. | Arrival of the Europeans | This is the Europeans and Plains trading.
8: Ways of Communication | The Plains people had many different ways to communicate with each other. They had many different symbols and drawing to tell stories, show their feelings or even just have a normal conversation. One of the ways they would get each others attention was using signals. One of their signals was the smoke signal. They would use this signal to get the attention of others far away. To show different kinds of situations, they would use buffalo hide to make the fire puff, each puff would say something different. For example, one puff meant attention or and two puffs would mean that all is well. They used fire signals at night because the smoke signals could not be seen in the dark. The puffs of the fire signal were the same as the smoke signals. For emergencies they used blanket signals to warn them. hey waved a colorful blanket up to show the attackers were coming soon and gave them time to get ready for the attack.The Plains Natives also used pictures to write down stories, record historical events that happened within their families or write down the dreams they had had that night. They used buffalo robes, the walls of a tipi , the walls of caves, and even rocks. They had over 3000 different symbols to choose from to tell the story as best as they could. As you can see, the Plains Natives had many different ways of communicating with each other besides speaking; maybe we should try to use their way of communicating one day.
9: These are the symbols that the Plains Natives used to communicate with each other. | This is when the Plains Natives used smoke signals to communicate with each other.
10: Shelter | The Plains Natives lived in tipis. Tipis were made from lodge pole pine poles. three or four poles were put against each other at the top, and fifteen or twenty poles were put around the first group to complete the tipi. They covered the frame with buffalo hide. It took fourteen hides to cover the frame from the ground up to the level just below the point where the poles crossed. Wooden pegs or stones held the covering in place. The inside curtain directed cold drafts upwards and helped to keep the dampness out. Two flaps of hide and one on each side of the opening. Each flap attached to a long pole. When a fire was lit in the tipi someone positioned the flaps to catch wind. This is all you need to know about tipis.
11: This is a tipi. | This is what the Plains Natives used as shelter.
12: Weapons | There were many weapons that were used by the Plains Natives. The Plains Natives made their own weapons to survive and for games. They made their own weapons from wood and stone that came from trees and caves. They were the ones who made the tomahawk, or today's axe grenade. The tomahawk is an axe which is can be thrown over 100 ft. and measures cm to 110 cm long. It was hard for them to make their own weapons because even if they had the material to make the weapons, they still had a lot to do to make them. The Plains Natives made clubs, wooden swords, wooden knives, axes, and bow and arrows. They usually used knives for the hunt and swords and clubs for battle, but very rarely knives were used in battle. Other times, the Plains Natives used the weapons like the sword and knives and clubs for celebration and games. As you can see, overall the Plains Natives used their weapons for a lot of things like survival , war, celebration and games.
13: These are the weapons that the Plains Natives used. | These were the bow and arrows used to catch their food.
14: Social Structure The Plains Natives had a democracy and a very fair government. Everybody had a say in everything and if there was no agreement then nothing happened. The Sioux Nation is many tribes together and a large part of the Plains Natives. In their government, women had no say. Each tribe had a different council and to each council a chief. The chief would lead the choice of the people and then the elders would decide if the choice was good. The chief's characteristics were generally patience, wise, showed others qualities of leadership or were wealthy. The chief had a choice to serve for life as a chief. The chief was supported as long as he was able to keep everything in order, everybody had food, they were protected by enemies and everything went well. When somebody did something against the law, the form of punishment was shame. There weren't only chiefs, but leaders as well. Leaders were people in charge of groups. A leader usually had a privilege that other people didn't have like keeper of the whip or keeper of the knife. Leaders were often prophets, elders, valiant warriors, wealthy people or important people. Every village had a village council and all the men in the village were in the council. All the men were divided into groups and each set out to do a job. An example of a job might be to organize and run festivals. A new job was assigned by the chief to each group every year so that one group didn't get more powerful than another. Ultimately, I think the Plains Natives had a good government and they were fair.
15: This is a chief of the Plains Natives. | Chiefs had many responsibilities.
16: Clothing Plain Natives had several ways of dressing. Clothing was made out of deer, elk, or antelope hide. They wore moccasins with hard soles to protect their feet from the rough ground. In the cold weather, they wrapped a robe of buffalo hide around their shoulders to keep them warm. Men hunting buffalos or out on a raid in the summer, wore cloth made to cover the loins, leggings that reached the hips, and moccasins. Sometimes the men would add a shirt to the outfit. For ceremonies, shirts were decorated and featherhead dresses were worn. Women wore dresses with leggings and moccasins. Children were usually dressed in the same way as their parents. In the summer children often went naked. This is a summary of how the Plain Natives dressed.
17: This is one of the shirts that the Plains Natives wore. | This is a man and a women dressed as the Natives dressed.
18: Recreation and games These are some of the example of the games and recreation in the time of the Plains Natives. Plains Natives made their own games to entertain themselves. They were the ones who invented lacrosse. They are also known for their dance dresses. They listen to music from other people and dance. Sometimes they gather people. They would sometimes kill for games and eat their kill at the ceremony. They would dance around the fire and sing some songs around the fire. They would sometimes go to war for the fun of it. But they would never want to kill their own people. Overall, the Plains Natives had a lot of recreation and games in their culture.
19: These are two native men at an event.
20: Beliefs and Legends The Plains Natives believed in many different things and had many different legends. They honoured spirits very much and believed that spirits could do and control different things. For example, water spirits controlled plants and animals while the second strongest spirit, Thunderbirds, from the “realm above,” controlled people's health. Two more important spirits are the Waken Tanka and White Buffalo Woman. The Waken Tanka was the most powerful spirit and he watched over all. People who got a sign from him were healers and were called Shamans. The other spirit I mentioned, the White Buffalo Woman, is supposedly the one that gave each tribe a medicine bundle. A medicine bundle is an assortment of items that people then believed had spiritual power. People held ceremonies to light the bundle because the Plains people believed that while looking in the smoke, individuals saw visions. The Plains Natives assumed that dreams and visions were ways to talk to spirits. Ceremonies of all kinds were held during any time that year while the really long ceremonies were held in the warmer months. Generally, ceremonies were honouring one spirit whom they wished to get something from. Altogether the Plains people had many beliefs and honoured and respected spirits very much. The Plains people had as many legends as they did beliefs, which is to say a lot. Here are just a few of the many legends they had: The Mysterious Butte Once a young hunter came to a steep bank. He noticed a small opening in the wall and climbed down to get a better look at it. On either side of the entrance there were small carvings and pictures.
21: He walked in a little and saw some gifts as though for a spirit. He kept on walking until he entered a second room which was pitch black. He got too scared to continue so he went back to his village to tell them what he saw. The chief held a council and decided to send some of his best warriors to check if he was telling the truth. When they arrived, the young hunter refused to go in because the carvings and pictures on the wall were different than before. The warriors arrived in the first room and found all the gifts. One of the warriors said that he should take a gift to give them proof of what the hunter said. The other warriors said that he shouldn't, but didn't force him to listen to them. When they arrived in the second room, they too found it pitch black. Unlike the hunter, they continued by following the walls to reach the third room. Next, they found an entrance so small that they had to crouch as low as they could to get in. Entering the next chamber they smelt a sweet scent and went looking for the source. After a little while of searching, they found a hole in the center of the room that led downwards. They held a small council there to see if they should go down and decided not to go. When they came out, they took a better look at the carvings to make sure they wouldn't forget it. They saw a woman holding a piece of meat and a herd of deer on the wall. When they arrived at the village, they told the village what they saw but not the carvings because they didn't think it was important. Later that week, two things happened, one the warriors were setting up wolf traps. While the one wearing the bracelet was setting up traps, he by mistake set one off and a log fell on his arm with the bracelet. The other thing that happened was that the women were hanging meat to dry when a herd of deer charged through killing many of the women. From then on , the chief sent people to check on the butte every day and to report its carvings.
22: The Race At one time the Cheyenne people believed that buffalo ate human. The other animals disagreed with this opinion and teamed up with the humans to race the buffalo. Whoever won this race would be able to eat the other species. In the end, the birds with the humans won and that is why we eat buffalo. The Coyote The Comanche tribe believes that once a monster stole all of the Plains Natives' buffalo and that they sent many animals to trick the monster into giving it back. After a while, they sent the coyote and the coyote tricked the monster into giving back all the buffalo and that is why we don’t hurt or scare coyotes. All in all, the Plains Natives had many legends and many stories.
23: The other thing After a while they sent the coyote and the coyote tricked the monster into giving back all the buffalo | This is the buffalo that the Plains Natives worshiped. | This is a picture of the Native spirit.
24: Special Dances The Plains Natives had many types of dances. One type of dance was called the Sun Dance. The Sun Dance was a very important ceremony. The ceremonies were held during the warmer months. The ceremonies lasted many days. The Sun Dance was in a camp. The camp was set up in a circle of tipis. Ropes made of hair were tied to the top of the poles. Men tied the ropes to the sticks groups of Lakota people do the Sun dance today to gain energy from the sun. The Sundance was important to the Plains people. | This is a women dancing one of the native dances.
25: This is a group of men doing a native dance.
26: Roles of Women The women of the Plains Natives had many jobs. Firstly, they would bring home food like berries, turnips and other sorts of food and kinds of plants. They would bring them home and cook them for dinner for their families. The Plains lived on farmland so they would grow/plant crops for their bread and other meals They would also plants pumpkins, corn and beans in their fields. Secondly, they would make clothes for their husbands and children. The women would make clothes for all of their different climates such as scarfs or coats if it were cold, or t-shirts if it was hot. This was very important because the family would get ill if they were not covered in the winter or too hot in the summer. This way they were safe and it did not matter what climate it was! Lastly, the women would be very trustworthy to their friends and family. Since there were hardly any doctors, women would help their friends give birth to their children. They would also teach their kids manners and arrange their weddings for them. As seen, the women were very important in the times of the Natives as well as today.
27: This is a native women. | This is women of the Plains Natives working.
28: Roles of men There were a lot of roles that the men had to play during the times of the Plains Natives. They had a lot of roles to play for their tribe. One role of the men in the tribe was to become a warrior. For example, when a boy was born he was named by the elder of the tribe, similar to a baptism. After the boy grews to the age of 5, he had to start training for the future. He would have to train for 12 years without stopping. Day and night, the boy would have to train. Also, during the boy's training he was not allowed to make contact with any girls. Before the training was finished completely, the warrior went on a journey to find his guardian spirits. When he found his spirits, he was able to join the army and become a real warrior. But before that happened, he had to go on a hunt. Another role that the men of their tribe had was to take care of their family. The men had to protect their family from many dangers such as battles and wars in the tribe or other tribes. Also, the man has to feed his family, train his family, and take care of it. Overall the men had a lot of roles to play as a Plains Native.
29: This is a man from the Plains Natives.
30: Methods of Transportation Plains Natives had many ways of transportation. The Plains Natives walked from place to place. They invented birch bark canoes. When the snow and ice came, the people traveled on snowshoes, but sometimes used toboggans. They used travois to transport their belongings. A dog would pull a travois with as much as twenty kilograms. When they had horses, larger travois were made. Larger travois were often made with tipi poles for framework. Horses could pull much more than twenty kilograms. Women used a special saddle. The Plain Natives also made boats called Bull Boats. They were shaped like a large round bowl. The Bull Boat was made of buffalo hide, stretched over wood frame. As you can see, their ways of transportation were plentiful.
31: This is the Plains Natives on a hoarse. | This is a canoe that the Plains Natives used for transportation.
32: Clothing Plains Natives had several ways of dressing. Clothing was made out of deer, elk, or antelope hide. They wore moccasins with hard soles to protect their feet from the rough ground. In the cold weather, they wrapped a robe of buffalo hide around their shoulders to keep them warm. Men hunting buffalos or out on a raid in the summer, wore cloth made to cover the loins, leggings that reached the hips, and moccasins. Sometimes the men would add a shirt to the outfit. For ceremonies, shirts were decorated and featherhead dresses were worn. Woman wore dresses with leggings and moccasins. Children were usually dressed in the same way as their parents. In the summer children often went naked. This is a summary of how the Plains Natives dressed.
33: Moccasins were worn to protect feet. | Clothing was made of deer, elk or antelope hide.
34: Food Sources The Plains Natives had many kinds of food sources on and in the land which they were living. The Plains Natives lived in a farmland with water nearby. They grew many different kinds of crops such as pumpkin, beans, corn and wheat. Although the Native people had so many different varieties of food, nobody had everything. This is why the different tribes traded with each other. For some, this was how they got most of their food. For example, one would live in the farmlands without much water while the other lived near the water with hardly any crops. In this case, the two tribes would trade on a regular basis to get what they needed to survive. The men of the tribe would hunt for the meat they ate. They would hunt buffalo antelope, bison, mule and deer. They would find small plants to cook with as well. They went fishing for their fish. They had many fish in the lakes there, but it was a little harder to fish in the winter when the lake froze up. This was why in the spring, summer and fall the Plains Natives would fish many fish and try to preserve them for the winter. To preserve their fish, they would use salt. The salt helped the fish stay fresh throughout the season so they would not get sick from the bad fish. They used salt to preserve other things as well, and it was very helpful in the winter. Although it was hard to get all the food that they needed to survive, the Plains Natives figured out a way to get it, or even to hold on to it for a little bit longer.
35: Buffalo was a main source of food for the Plains Natives. | The Plains ate fish.
36: Special Events The Plains Natives have events all year around; they celebrate with their friends and families. One of the events that they celebrated is called the Pow Wow. The Pow Wow was one of the many events celebrated by the Native people in honour of many things such as the Great Spirit, the born and the dead. During this celebration they do many things. A few of these things are the beating of the drum to symbolize the beating of the heart or even a special dance called the Wacipi dance. This was a unique dance that tells the story of their lives. Finally, they go to feasts. They have huge platters of food such as buffalo and antelope. Most of the people there get drunk on wine and listen to the music playing. Later in the evening stories are told; some are fiction, some not and some about their history. Natives have special ways of celebrating their events. Each event has dancing, singing and various foods, but each is unique in its own way. Perhaps one day we could join them in their experiences.
37: These are the natives at a special event.
38: Today's Natives Today the Plains Indians are living very differently from the past. The environment they live in is small and very dirty. When the Europeans came, the Natives' land was taken over, and now some live on reserves. Many of the Plains Natives died years ago when the Europeans arrived because brought diseases with them that the Plains could not cure. Since then, they did not have a lot of help from other people. Problems in the Plains' community include high suicide. Their lives are different. Hopefully they will get better and hopefully we will continue helping.
39: The map of where some of today's Plains Natives live.
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