BC: THANK YOU
FC: PLateau Natives | By: Dainel, Jessica, Shirelle, and Noah
1: Table of Contents 1- 2 Geographical Location 3 MaIn Tribes in the area 4 Social Structure 5 Ways of Communication 6-7 Beliefs of Origins 8-9 Shelter 10-11 Method of Transportation 12-13 Arrival of the Europeans 14 Food Sources 15 Food Dishes 16 Clothing 17 Weapons 18 Beliefs 19 Tools 20- 21 Special Events 22 Roles of men 23-24 Important Roles of the Community 25 Art 26 Famous People 27 Today's Natives 28 Bibliography
3: GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION The Plateau Natives had a large land with many resources and lots of animals. These Natives lived in the high plateaus of British Columbia and the grasslands of the Subarctic forest. The Plateaus were defined “Columbian Plateau” In 1932 Diamond Jennes called it “The Cordillera” extending to the Tahltan territory. Their land was approximately 1450 km north to south and 250-300 km east to west. Some of the animals they had on their lands were white tailed deer, caribous, black bears, grizzly bears, elks and mountain sheep. Some of the smaller animals were coyotes, fox, lynxes, wolves, racoons, porcupines, martens, weasels, beavers, marmots and hares. Rivers were usually rapid. They usually held pacific salmon and other fish mainstay of substance. They had pelagic and estuarial fish for example, herring, sardines, swordfish and salmon. Some examples of ground fish were cod, haddock, pollock, flounder and sole. They had a wide range of weather. Winter usually went to about -20 degrees Celsius. Summer temperatures went to approximately 15-20 degrees Celsius. It averaged about 20 degrees. Average rainfall was 0-600 mm of rain. The Plateau sometimes got less than 100 cm of snow all the way up to 400 cm of snow. Thunderstorms usually lasted 5-20 days. In 253 days they had about 1600-2000 hours of sunshine
4: Geographical Location Continuation Some of the main plants the Plateau had access to were subaplain, montane, alpine sedges, grasslands and shrubs. These trees grew if it was above 5 degrees Celsius for over 260 days. In their lands they had dairy, cattle and miscellaneous specialties. Plus, they grew fruits and vegetables. In conclusion, the Plateau Natives had great land for eating and trading. | Plateau land | Plateau location
5: Main Tribes in the Area The Plateau Natives had many tribes split up on their land. One was Carrier. The name came from that usually widows would carry the ashes of the husbands for a year. Chilcotin is another tribe. This tribe is also known as Tsilhqot’in. These names mean “people of the Chilcotin river.” They also had a tribe named Shuswap aka Secwepemc. Their language is now extinct. Lillooet is named after a wild onion. They are also known as Stl’atl’imx. One tribe was named Thompson. They are named after a river they have on their land. They are also named Nlaka’pamux. There are two other Plateau tribes, Okanagon and Nicola, who do not have second names. Last but not least, Kutenai also called Ktunaxa. | Tribes of the Plateau Natives
6: Social Structure The Plateau people had a well developed government. The government was run by 3 or 4 elderly men. The group was headed by one very respected man or chief. One person would have to inherit the role of the chief. No one in this group had to enforce any laws. The chief of the group would tell his members what to do. Each man of the group respected one another. Some areas had elderly men who gave advice to people. Some groups did their own thing. Sometimes they would move around through the year. One person would be picked to be the chief, they would decide by different roles like hunting and warfare. The group was usually democratic. | Two leaders of the Plateau Natives
7: Ways of Communication | The Plateau Natives of Canada had three main groups of languages which they spoke. They lived in a region that included British Columbia and Alberta. The Plateau Indians were divided into 3 main groups. Those groups were then divided into another eight groups. The 3 main groups were the Athapascan, Interior Salish and Ktunaxa. The languages they spoke were based on these 3 main groups of Platueau Natives The Athapascan languages were spoken in the subarctic language groups. There were 3 Athapascan languages, one of which is extinct today. The 2nd group of languages were the Salishian languages. There were 4 different languages under this group. Finally, the Ktunaxa language was a language not related to any other languages spoken in British Columbia. The Ktunaxa or Kootenay spoke this language. Mostly the people of each group spoke only the language from their group and region. There were some people that knew and could speak most of the languages. These people were diplomats, traders and interpreters. These languages were how the Plateau Natives communicated. There were also other ways that they communicated though. Many of the Plateau Natives spoke by using sign language. I find this interesting, because they used sign language even though they were not deaf. Another big part of their communication was that they used songs to communicate. Songs were very important to them and that is how they communicated in their religion. They also used their songs to call for magical powers. I find the communication of the Plateau people very interesting. They had 7 different languages under the 3 main groups of Plateau Natives and they used sign language and songs as a big part of their communication. This seems like a lot of different ways to communicate for Plateau Indians.
8: Beliefs of Origins There are two main beliefs of origins of the Plateau people. The first set of beliefs are legends from the Plateau people. Stories have been passed down from generation to generation. Animals play a big role of this belief system. The Plateau people believed that animals were very much like humans. Also, they believed that animals could talk. The coyote played a big role. One time there was a huge monster named Iltswewitsix. He was eating everything on the planet, and then the coyote came and jumped in his mouth and cut him into pieces. That is how the Plateau people got their tribes. The second set of beliefs of origins are scientific. There have been conflicted opinions regarding where the Plateau came from. The Plateau people came across the Bering Strait from Siberia to Alaska. This is called Bernigia. Some people say they may have journeyed across the sea of North America. This is called the Atlantic Crossing Theory. Overall, the Plateau people believed strongly in what they had, although there are still other scientific theories about where they came from.
10: Shelter The Plateau Natives lived in three main shelters, a hut, a pit house or a tepee. Each house had just enough space for a family. The tepee was the most popular shelter in the Plateau tribe. They were built with long wooden poles tied together at the top. It was then covered all around by buffalo hides. It was built very precisely in order for the inside to keep dry and extra warm for hard winter. Although it was the most popular shelter it was also the smallest shelter. The second shelter was a pit house. Pit houses were the warmest inside therefore they were the best shelter in the winter. It was also the strongest shelter. To build them, holes were dug into the ground, then 4 wooden poles are dug into the ground and they are then covered by dirt and branches. It had a “corn shaped” roof made of twigs and mud. The home was very tall so every time someone wanted to enter or exit it they needed to use a ladder. The last Plateau shelter are huts. Huts were the best family home, since it was the biggest. It had a wood base, and then it was covered by bark and grass. It was built round shaped, with a very strong roof made out of wood.
11: As you can see, all of the Plateau shelters were not very big but it was enough for shelter and they did not mind. Even though the shelters were not big, they were all very secure, able to protect the people inside, and that is the most important part. I would much rather live in a house like I do because there is much more room than the Plateau Natives had. | Huts | Tepees | Pit Houses
12: Methods of Transportation The Plateau Natives had three main transportation methods, canoes, horses and snow shoes. The first way of transportation was canoes; it was also the most useful and the most common. The canoes gave the Plateau people permission to access all natural water ways and turbulent rivers. With the canoes they were able to get to other islands in order to sell their goods. It was with three different kinds of wood, red cedar cotton wood and pine bark. The lacing was made out of deer, caribou or moose hide. All the canoes were designed to keep water out. The Plateau people called them “ram shaped.” In 1730, horses arrived from the south to the Plateau Natives and they became very popular since they were the fastest transportation source the Plateau people knew. Even though the horses were the fastest, they were also the most expensive. They ranged from one thousand dollars to one thousand seven hundred. The Plateau people made the saddles from wood and raw hide. However, in the winter only snowshoes could get the Plateau Natives around in deep snow, so snowshoes were used more often than horses. Snow shoe were especially useful for hunting since hunting was done in the forest which had very deep snow. They were made of wood, with rope to tie it together. They were very easy to build and very useful too.
13: In conclusion, none of the transportation methods of the Plateau Natives were as expensive as today, but today's sources travel much faster. The Plateau Natives did not pollute the earth with transportation at all but now, all of the transportations we use pollute the environment like cars. Therefore, I think that the Plateau Natives transportation methods were much better than today's. | Plateau Native snow shoes | Plateau Native with horse | Plateau Native building a canoe
14: Arrival Of The Europeans The Europeans were a great part in the development of the Plateau and all of the Natives. The first Europeans on Plateau lands were Alexander Mackenzie, David Thompson and Simon Fraser. Diseases such as smallpox came with the Europeans. A major disruption happened in the 1850’s when thousands of non-natives sought gold when swarmed into region. Fur-trade companies opening the19th century. Salish acquired European good by trading. In 1864, a band of Chilcotin tribe attacked a camp of labourers building a wagon for their territory. They killed 14 men. Days later they jumped on a pack train and killed several more people. This uprising stopped when the government sent soldiers and they convicted 5 Chilcotin leaders. They hung these 5 men. The arrival of the Europeans caused large-scale movements of people. The Nicola tribe became extinct. The Thompson and Okanagon tribes moved to their former territory. The Chilcotin tribe moved east. Bands of the Carrier tribe went south. Finally, the Shuswap tribe abandoned much of their land. All in all the Europeans didn't help the natives that much.
15: In the 1850’s, thousands of non-Natives sought gold. | In 1864, a band of Chilcotin tribe attacked a camp of labourers, building a wagon for their territory.
16: Food sources The Plateau Natives had three main food sources to get their food, the forest, the fields and the lake. They relied on these places for their food. In the forest the Plateau Natives hunted animals for meat. They hunted dears, caribou, bears, goats, coyotes, or foxes. After they killed the animals they gave thanks to its spirits for giving up its life. The sea was the most popular source. Plateau Natives would use dip nets to catch fish, salmon was the most common fish to be caught. After they caught the fish, they would grill it in a fire and eat it for supper. Fields were the easiest and fastest food source. The Plateau Natives picked wild berries from the fields or they would use crutch sticks to dig up camas bulbs and camas plants. Then they used a stone pestle and wooden mortar to grind the roots. After everything was done, they made mush cakes. Overall, I think that the Plateau Natives were very intelligent since they were able to survive on only natural resources, unlike we do today. I think that if we lived the way that the Plateau Natives did, we would all be healthier. | Plateau Natives hunting | Plateau Natives fishing | Plateau Natives picking berries
17: Food dishes The Plateau Natives ate many different food dishes. Salmon was the main food that they ate. For the Plateaus to make their fish, they speared and hooked it. They ate their salmon dry or ate it fresh .They also ate something called lily bulbs. Another important food they ate was Kouse or biscuit root. Biscuit root was mashed and boiled and later it turned into bricks. To catch salmon they used a net. I think that they spent a lot of time to make their food and they had good ways to make them. | Plateau Natives' food dishes | Plateau food dishes
18: Clothes All of the Plateau Native clothes were hand made. Some clothes were made out of bark and parts of plants. They used tanned, antelope and elk or instead they used deer. Men wore leggings, shirt robes and other clothes. For celebrations, women wore long dresses and under their dresses they wore leggings. On their collars they had art designs. Their collars were around their necks. Most of their dresses came down to their ankles. They folded the top of their shirt to make a collar. For decoration on their tops, they had beads, fringes, and porcupine quills. Each tribe had its own style. I think that they put a lot of effort to make their clothes and they were creative.
19: Weapons The Plateau Natives had many different types of weapons. They had double-curved or flat type bow and arrow. They wore this while hunting. They also used spears, harpoons, clubs/bolts and slings. The bow and arrow was the primary weapon for war until the Europeans introduced guns. To trap animals, they used nets, deadfalls, snares, lassos, pits and game corals. They sometimes would force the animal over a cliff, burned them or speared them from the water. Arrowheads, knives and scrapers were made from obsidian plus bones and antlers. Men would make bows from yew, ash or willow. The most valued bows were made from a sheep’s long curved horn. In conclusion, the Plateau Natives had enough weapons to live without the Europeans' guns. | European gun | Spear | Bow and arrow
20: Beliefs The Plateau Natives had vivid beliefs and believed in many things that helped them lead their lives. First, the Plateau Natives believed in 1 man to cure all sickness, the man was called the Medicine Man. Whenever someone was ill, they went to the Medicine Man and he would bless them. Then, they believed they were cured. The Medicine Man was highly respected, and he got the honor of hosting every ceremony. The Plateau Natives also believed that all first born children had special powers to cure performances. But if they went through special training once they were older, they would keep their powers and become highly respected like the Medicine Man. If they went through special training they would get a title, “Shaman”. Animals, especially birds were thought to have special powers to guide humans through their lives. The animals were called spirits. The spirits were said to aid and help humans through ruff times. Boys, at age of 13 were expected to go seek their spirit helpers, in order to help them throughout their lives. Everyone wanted to find spirit helpers but only a few did, it was very difficult. One can see that the Plateau Natives had very different beliefs than we have today. I feel that everyone has a right to their own beliefs; no one can say what is right or wrong. | Medicine Man
21: Tools The Plateau Natives used many different types of tools. The Plateaus used bow and arrows until they got guns .They had a flat type of bow and arrows. To make their tools they used bones, wood and stones. When they decorated their tools they used beads feathers and much more. All of the tools they used were hand made. They hunted for things like wood to make their tools. They used the big tools for heavy things. There was a tool they used called bone point and it was mostly used for hunting. Pebble was another tool they used and there were ten different kinds. I think the Plateau Natives were very resourceful when it came to tools. | Tools
22: Special Events The Plateau tribes were very spiritual; they had two main celebrations and a coming of age ceremony for the girl. The Sundance was the event in the summer where everyone gathered together and sacrificed animals. Traditional drums, dances and sacred pipes were performed. They danced to traditional songs that have been paced down through many generations. It lasted 4 days long. At the start of winter the Plateau Natives organized a Winter Dance. The whole event was hosted by the medicine man. During the ceremony, the people communicated with spirit powers. 7 dances were performed which lasted 7 nights. At the end of the event the host would give everyone a gift for thanking them for attending his party. Lastly, there was a coming of age ceremony for the girl, when a girl reached puberty everyone would gather together to bless and pray for them. Dances and songs were performed and the girls preformed a traditional dance. Everyone around them prayed that the young girls would have an amazing life as a woman. Overall the Plateau Natives were very creative in their events. I would enjoy attending a winter or Sundance myself.
23: Sundance | Winter Dance
24: Roles of men The men took a big part in the survival of the Plateau Natives. When the boys hit puberty they took the role in hunting and fishing. Men fought in war. They fought mainly against Bannock but sometimes against Blackfeet and Cheyenne. Men were also responsible for building all the houses and weapons. In conclusion, although men didn't have that many roles or jobs they played a big part in the survival. | Men building | Men hunting
25: Important roles of The Community Plateau Indians perform many different roles in their tribe. There were some professional jobs, but not many. Mostly it was the regular men and women that did the things to keep the tribe running. Men and women took on very different roles. Women primarily cooked and prepared food for their family and took care of the home. The women of the Plateau tribe also took care of the children while the men were out of the village. Women also made baskets and clothing, and were responsible for harvesting plants. Finally, the women were in charge of preparing for the winter by storing food, clothing and other important items. The women of the Plateau tribe did not assume professional roles. The men of the Plateau tribe spent most of their time hunting for bison and fishing. Their hunting is what they used for food, for the women to cook. The men were also responsible for manufacturing such things as tools and traps for their hunting. There were only a few professional jobs in the tribe, and those jobs were done by men. A very important professional role in the community was the medicine man. This man was considered to be like a doctor. It was his job to heal the sick people in the tribe. He would use super natural powers to cure illness. He used herbal medicine and performed surgery. The medicine man prepared medicines from trees, roots and leaves. The practice of the medicine man was known as shamanic healing. The Plateau Natives were really run by the men and women taking on their roles and each doing their part. The Plateau Natives did not have very many professional jobs, but the most important one was the medicine man. Overall, the Plateau Natives' roles were all very important in order for everyone to survive.
26: Main Plateau Native chiefs
27: Art The Plateau Natives made their own art. All of their art work was handmade. Once they finished their art work, they would trade it. They would trade their art work depending on what it looked like. They craved their art work to different things like faces. All of the art work depends upon an understanding of the ways of life. A lot of the Plateau Natives were master weavers. They made their own baskets with pictures of animals on it.I think their art work is beautiful and creative. | Plateau art | Plateau art
28: Famous people Each person had something different about them to make them famous. There were many famous people like Sacajawea, Chrisine Quintasket and Dan George. Sacajawea joined the Lewis and Clark expedition. She went to the Rocky Mountains with them and since she spoke English, she helped explorers talk to each other. Chrisine Quintasket was a farm worker. She wrote stories and in the 19oos, she published her novel. Dan George was a chief and a movie actor. He played in a movie called Little Big Man and received a Best Actor Award. I think that all of these famous people came up with great ideas which lead them to be famous. | Chrisine Quintasket | Dan George
29: Today’s Natives The Plateau Natives still follow their traditions today. Some major towns are Lapwai and Kamiah. Many of these people live in typical American lifestyle. Casinos give an economic boost for the tribe. It was very important to the nation. Colville has reservation descendants of Yellow Bull, Yellow Wolf, Chief Joseph and other captured warriors. The Plateau Natives have established 10 000 acres of traditional land to fish, hunt and gather. The Plateau Natives work to keep the nation alive. They teach their culture and language to their young. Their main crop is wheat. Also, they harvest limestone and timber. Warrior memorial Pow Wows are the 3rd week of June for Chief Joseph and other warriors. Still today, they have Pow Wows and dances. The Plateau Natives are still alive today. | Today's Native
31: BIBLIOGRAPHY Canadian Oxford School Atlas. 8th ed. N.p.: Quentin H. Stanford, n.d. Print. Chanley, Birch. "Plateau." ehow., 6 Apr. 2012. Web. 2 Mar. 2012.