S: plateau natives
BC: Hi! We are Cedric Attias, Sam Gerlock and Laura Levy. In this project, we learned all about the Plateau Natives. It was a great educational as well as creative project. This project was right up our alley. We hope you enjoy it.
1: TABLE OF CONTENTS | Transportation Geographic Location Legends/Creation Weapons Social Structure Clothing Special Events Food Art Games Tools Shelter Role of Men Today's Natives Arrival of the Europeans Bibliographies
2: Native riding horse | Birch bark canoe
3: Transportation The Natives of the plateau had many forms of transportation due to different terrain. The Natives started off on foot much like other tribes. But a couple of years later they started bringing dogs with them on their travels. The dogs allowed them to travel farther north. The Plateau Natives didn't use canoes much because most of their rivers and lakes were turbulent. But when they did they used Dugout canoes or Covered canoes. The Plateau Natives were one of the last Natives to ride horses. The only source of horses was from the south. But when they got the horses their mobility improved greatly. The first plateau tribe to get horses was the Kootenay tribe which lived the farthest south. The plateau didn't have much snow but when it arrived the Natives were ready. They had snow shoes of different form depending on how deep the snow was. As soon as they stopped traveling on foot, snow shoes weren't used anymore. Do you think its fair they got so many forms of transportation, but they got it last?
4: Map of Plateau
5: Geographic Location The Plateau Natives had a very different type of terrain and resources. First, there is lot of rough terrain like towering mountains,tiny foothills kilometres of plains and deep trenches. Next, the precipitation of the plateau is 300cm and the temperature range is 20-25 degrees Celsius. There is about 40 mm of snow and very rainy in spring. It is dry in the summer, cloudy all year round ,wet in the spring and barely sunny. They have many types of trees such as the trembling aspen, willow, bur oak, alpine and a lot of shrubs. Finally,they had many minerals like gold, silver, copper, asbestos and molybdenum. The plateau was near the water so they really relied on fish such as herring, sardine, swordfish, salmon, cod, haddock, pollock, flounder and sole. So the Natives had many things to experiment ,but how did they get it? I guess you will need to keep reading to find out.
6: Ceremony of Plateau Natives | BEAR
7: Legends/Creation Long ago, a greedy monster ate everything in its path. One day the Coyote decide he needed to stop this madness and destroy the mighty beast. So he hid a sharp bone in his mouth, then he tied one end of a grape vine to his waist and the other end to a big rock. So Coyote was eaten purposely and so was the vine. Inside Coyote stabbed the beasts heart and it died. Everyone and everything inside escaped. The beasts corpse was huge and Coyote didn't know what to do with it. Coyote asked the spirits and they told him to do the following: he cut the beast into pieces and threw them over a mountain. Wherever the pieces landed a plateau, a tribe was created. The only thing left was the blood. Coyote asked the spirits again for help. The spirits made the blood become the Chopunnish and Nimpu tribes meaning the, “Real people”.
8: Bow and arrows | Hunting and battle tools
9: Weapons War wasn't very common in the plateau but when it occurred the Plateau Natives were ready! The Natives had many forms of hunting, but I could only list a few. To trap animals without harming them for sacrifice they used nets that dropped from the trees. For quiet approaches, they used double bow or a curved bow and arrow depending on the size of the animals. For war, they would use bows and arrows from high ground knives, scrappers, clubs and spears. The Plateau Natives received guns around the 1860s. They mainly used the Winchester or Springfield depending on scenario and even woman and children where trained with guns. Do you believe it? Kids can shoot guns? Why can't I?
11: Social Structure The Plateau Natives had a very unique form of government compared to today. They had two main types of leaders of Native government in the plateau. The headman and chief, the headman was the leader of the tribe, while the chief is head of the army. It is possible that one individual can have both honors. Both of the positions were chosen by the elders. The plateau was a very peaceful land and war occurred rarely. The elders chose the leaders according to wealth or special abilities such as speech, hunting and war. The heroes of war had the highest honors. The person with the best speech was used to negotiate trades especially with the coast. So as you can see there is a huge difference between today and back then but if they survived,that is a pretty good form of government.
12: Clothing Plateau Natives didn't go shopping for clothes, they killed animals for the fur to make dresses, skirts, jackets, shirts and sometimes pants. Moccasins were often worn by Plateau Natives. They were often made by deer hide (skin of the deer), but occasionally from salmon skin. Winter clothing consisted of the thick skin of fur bearing animals (animals with fur). Some other groups' clothing were decorated with dentalia shells, ochre paint, porcupine quills and sometimes beads or seeds. Plateau Natives didn't have lots of choices for clothes like we do today.
13: Woman scraping an animal hide to make clothes | Beaded moccasins were the shoes the plateau natives Would wear.
14: Special Events Plateau Natives had many special events. They had a dance called "The Winter Guardian Spirit Dance," when you would dance and play the Secwepemc drums. The dance was during the winter time. This was the major ceremony for most of the Plateau Peoples. Some Canadians now still participate in the winter guardian spirit dance. Another special event was that some children/young people left the village to go on a vision quest. Winter was mostly the time for games, spiritual things like the Winter Guardian Spirit dance and storytelling. What children would also do is get ochre paint and paint signs and pictures on rocks.
15: Secwepemc winter guardian spirit dance
16: Food Plateau people traded their fish, furs, tools and weapons. They hunted using large traps such as pitfall and deadfall traps. They also used bows and arrows. Their food that they got was shared liberally among all villagers. They would catch fish differently. They didn’t use bows and arrows or traps like the pitfall and deadfall; they fished with a wire and a net. In the summer, they fished for salmon. Plateau Nativs ate many different kinds of berries. The main berries were blackberries and the huckleberry. Fall was the time for berry gatherings.
17: Man fishing | Salmon wire in river | Women drying berries
18: Art Rock paintings of pictographs were very common for Plateau Natives. They were paintings of human, animal forms or spiritual figures. The paint they used was made out of red ochre pigments mixed up it would with animal oil or fish eggs. Plateau Peoples also wove things; it would mostly done by the women. The women were skilled weavers. They wove blankets, baskets, mats and clothing using goat wool. Carvings were stone, bone or antler. They would mostly carved animals. Bears, birds or human figures on Okanagan rocks.
19: Woven basket | Okanagan rock painting
20: Games Plateau Natives mostly played hand games. Two teams would line up on either side of the tent, kneeling, and facing each other. Each member of the team had a token. The objective of the other team was to guess which person first held the token. The guessing team had a captain to do the guessing. Every time the captain got the guess wrong the other team would get a point. Once everybody was eliminated they would start a new game and switch teams.
21: Coin to play games
22: The tools of the Plateau Natives were made from bones, wood and stone. Some tools they used were the ktunaxa dipper witch was used for serving food, the root digging stick and the ktunaxa fish trap-three pronged. They used the tools for hunting, preparing food and fishing. After they discovered guns, the rate of hunting became more efficient. | Tools
23: Native digging tools | Snow bone digging tools
24: Natives have many ways to live but these are just some. In the winter, the Natives lived in pit houses. The walls of the pit houses were made of wood and bark. The roofs were made out of branches, poles and grass. Most pit houses held 5 to 7 families. There was a hole at the top of the house for letting out smoke. In the spring, the Natives would abandon pit house and move into a camp site near hunting and berry patches. In the summer, they abandoned the camp sites and moved into oblong lodges. The oblong lodges were made of bark and mats. | Shelter
25: Oblong lodges
26: The role of men was the most important role of the whole family. The man was the decision maker of the family. Men were responsible for hunting, trapping, fishing, making tools and warfare. The men in the family were expected to hunt deer, but they also hunted a wide variety of animals like ox, bear and occasionally wolf. The man was the leader. | Role of Men
28: Natives have existed for a long time. Even today we have Natives. In the twentieth century, the government tried to assimilate the Natives into Canadian society. The children of the Natives were sent to live in residential schools. Children were adopted, but most were sent to foster homes. Today, the Natives are becoming strong in tribe, peace and fighting to recover their rights. | Today's Natives
29: Today's Natives
30: When the Europeans arrived in the late 1800s they were welcomed with great respect and ceremonies. They were offered food such as salmon, berries and roots. When they met the chief they were offered a harangue. In the evening, they had a ceremony with songs and dance. When the Europeans left they were given presents.The Europeans left thinking the Natives thought of them as some sort of religious significance. | Arrival of the Europeans
31: Europeans arriving on horses
32: SAM'S BIBLIOGROPHY | 2000, by the applied history research, group Canada's first nations: native civilization Canadas first people Firstpeoplesofcanada.com/fp_plateau3 Canada's first peoples-the plateau people First peoples of Canada.com hunttingfirstpeoplesofcanada.com/fp_plateau5: html Canada's first peoples Mounro, rom Copy righted in 2006 by nelson native people plateau
33: CEDRIC'S BIBLIOGRAPHY | Canadian encyclopedia student's edition 1996 by McClelland and Stewart Inc. | Driving hawk sneve, Virginia the nez perce holiday house Inc. New York | The Canadian encyclopedia student edition the Canadian encyclopedia plus copyright (copy right sign) 1996 McClelland and Stewart Inc. | website: http:// www.aaanativearts.com/colville -tribe/plateau-Indian-tools-weapons htm | Canadian oxford school atlas Stanford H. Quentin Oxford university press 1904-2004
34: Laura's Bibliography | Goldi productions 2007http://canadianencyclopedia.com http://firstpeopleofcanada.com http://pio.wsd.edul.SAMMgrant/Nativeam/life.htm
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