FC: POLLUTION By: Ronen Cohen
1: TABLE OF CONTENTS | WHAT IS POLLUTION? ---------- 2 LAND POLLUTION ------------- 4 AIR POLLUTION ------------- 7 WATER POLLUTION ------------- 9 NOISE POLLUTION ------------- 11 LIGHT POLLUTION ------------- 13 GLOSSARY ------------------- 15
2: WHAT IS POLLUTION? | Pollution is when something is added to the Environment that is harmful or poisonous to people, animals and other living things. Smoke in the air from factories is a type of pollution as it is bad for your lungs when you breathe it in. Sewage in drinking water is another type of pollution as it can make you unwell if you drink it (because it contains germs and viruses). People living next to a building site where there is too much noise can become sick as they cannot sleep or relax. This is an example of noise pollution.
3: Our environment can be polluted in many different ways. This eBook introduces you to these types of pollution: * Land pollution * Air pollution * Water pollution * Noise pollution * Light pollution
4: LAND POLLUTION | Land pollution is the deterioration (destruction) of the Earth’s land surfaces, as a result of human activities and their misuse of land resources. Land pollution occurs when waste is not disposed off properly, or can take place when humans throw chemicals into the soil (such as when they use pesticides, insecticides and fertilizers during agricultural practices).
5: Since the Industrial Revolution, natural habitats have been destroyed, and environments have been polluted, causing diseases in both humans and many other species of animals. Human actions have also caused many large areas of land to lose or reduce their capacity to support life forms and ecosystems. This is known as land degradation. | Causes of Land Pollution * Irresponsible human actions (deforestation, overuse of pesticides and chemical fertilizers, desertification, mining, inefficient and / or inadequate waste treatment, landfill, litter, etc.) * Misuse of Land (deforestation, desertification and land conversion). * Soil Pollution * Land Conversion
6: Aside from a smelly and unsightly environment, land pollution also effects our lives in the following ways: Climate- loss of forests, decreasing amounts of rain, less vegetation, acid rains, greenhouse effect, global warming. Extinction of Species- One of the major causes of concern is the extinction of species. Species are pushed towards endangerment and extinction. Biomagnification- Biomagnification is the process in which non-biodegradable substances (such as plastics or metals) go on accumulating in the food-chain (in one or more species). The most common example is of methylmercury in fish and mercury in eagles. It puts all the species above and below it at risk, and ultimately affects the food pyramid. Biodiversity- Species extinction and biomagnificationis going to overthrow the balance of nature very significantly. The main reason for this is disturbance created in the food chain. For example, biomagnification of mercury in eagles can result in extinction in the near future. However, we know eagles prey on snakes. Less (or no) eagles will then result in more snakes!
7: AIR POLLUTION | Air is the ocean we breathe. Air supplies us with oxygen which is essential for our bodies to live. Air is 99.9% nitrogen, oxygen, water vapor and inert gases. Human activities can release substances into the air, some of which can cause problems for humans, plants, and animals. Air pollution occurs when gases, dust particles, fumes (smoke or odors) are introduced into the atmosphere in a way that makes it harmful to humans, animals and plant. This is because the air becomes dirty (contaminated or unclean).
8: The Earth is surrounded by a blanket of air (made up of various gases) called the atmosphere. The atmosphere helps protect the Earth and allow life to exist. Without it, we would be burned by the intense heat of the sun during the day or frozen by the very low temperatures at night. According to the US Environmental Protection Agency, there are six common air pollutants: Particulate Pollution; Ground Level Ozone; Carbon Monoxide; Sulfur Oxides; Nitrogen Oxides; and, Lead. | Air pollution, both indoors and outdoors, poses health risks, contributing to asthma, emphysema, heart disease, and other potentially lethal conditions. Managing air pollution causes, and defending successful safeguards like the Clean Air Act, is critical to the human, economic, and environmental health of our communities.
9: WATER POLLUTION | Water pollution is the presence of harmful material in water, such as Sewage, dissolved metals, waste from farms and factories, petroleum spilled from shipwrecked oil tanker, and more. The three main substances that pollute water are Nitrate from fertilizer, sewage and detergent. The main sources of water pollution are from sewage, farms and factories.
10: Pollution causes harm to living things in water and can also harm people's health, and can cause problems such as cancer. | The Great Pacific Garbage Patch Due to ocean currents and a lot of accumulated trash, a large garbage patch has been created in the North Pacific Ocean. Some estimates are that the size of the garbage patch could be more than twice the size of the United States! The map below shows the ocean currents which collect the ocean debris.
11: Noise pollution is displeasing or excessive noise that may disrupt the activity or balance of human or animal life. The source of most outdoor noise worldwide is mainly caused by Machines, Transport, Motor vehicle, Aircraft, and trains. Indoor noise is caused by machines, building activities, music performances, and in some workplaces. There is no great difference whether Noise-induced hearing loss is brought about by outside (i.e. trains) or inside (i.e. music) noise. | NOISE POLLUTION
12: High noise levels can contribute to cardiovascular effects in humans, a rise in blood pressure, and an increase in stress and vasoconstriction, and an increased incidence of coronary artery disease. | In animals, noise can increase the risk of death by altering predator or prey detection and avoidance, interfere with reproduction and navigation, and contribute to permanent hearing loss. | Did you know? The word Noise is comes the Latin word 'Nausea', which means disgust or discomfort!
13: LIGHT POLLUTION | Light pollution is defined as any negative effect of artificial light, including light that creates sky glow, glare, light trespass, light clutter, bad visibility at night and energy waste.
14: The effects of light pollution: * Confusion to our bodies' natural rhythm * Waste of energy * Animal habits
15: Carbon monoxide (CO)- A colorless, odorless gas emitted from combustion processes. Nationally and, particularly in urban areas, the majority of CO emissions to ambient air come from mobile sources. CO can cause harmful health effects by reducing oxygen delivery to the body's organs (like the heart and brain) and tissues. At extremely high levels, CO can cause death. Desertification- When humans develop and convert a piece of fertile land into desert-land or dryland. Land once converted to desert-land can never be reclaimed by any amount of corrective measures. Glare- Too much brightness. Industrial Revolution- The rapid development of industry in Britain in the late 18th and 19th centuries, brought about by the introduction of machinery. Land Conversion- The process whereby a piece of land is converted from its original form to a form used for either agriculture or infrastructure (roads, houses, etc.). Lead- A metal found naturally in the environment as well as in manufactured products. The major sources of lead emissions have historically been from fuels in on-road motor vehicles (such as cars and trucks) and industrial sources. Today, the highest levels of lead in air are usually found near lead smelters. The major sources of lead emissions to the air today are ore and metals processing and piston-engine aircraft operating on leaded aviation gasoline. Light clutter- Bright and confusing groupings of lights. Light trespass- Light falling where it’s not needed or wanted. | GLOSSARY
16: Nitrogen dioxide (NO2)- One of a group of highly reactive gasses known as "oxides of nitrogen," or "nitrogen oxides (NOx)." NO2 forms quickly from emissions from cars, trucks and buses, power plants, and off-road equipment. In addition to contributing to the formation of ground-level ozone and fine particle pollution, NO2 is linked with a number of adverse effects on the respiratory system. Ozone- Ground level or "bad" ozone is not emitted directly into the air, but is created by chemical reactions between oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and volatile organic compounds (VOC) in the presence of sunlight. Particulate matter- Also known as “particle pollution”, is a complex mixture of extremely small particles and liquid droplets. Particle pollution is made up of a number of components, including acids (such as nitrates and sulfates), organic chemicals, metals, and soil or dust particles. Sky glow- The brightening of the night sky over cities. Soil Pollution- When the top-most 'soil' layer of land is destroyed or polluted. Sulfur dioxide (SO2)- One of a group of highly reactive gasses known as “oxides of sulfur.” The largest sources of SO2 emissions are from fossil fuel combustion at power plants (73%) and other industrial facilities (20%). Smaller sources of SO2emissions include industrial processes such as extracting metal from ore, and the burning of high sulfur containing fuels by locomotives, large ships, and non-road equipment. SO2 is linked with a number of adverse effects on the respiratory system. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA or sometimes USEPA)- An agency of the United States federal government which was created for the purpose of protecting human health and the environment by writing and enforcing regulations based on laws passed by Congress