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Reconstruction Mixbook

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S: Nick's Proposal for Terpakistan

FC: Nick and Khamera's Proposal for Terpakistan

1: For this proposal, we the people of the great and awesome nation of Arbatopia (True Story) used example from the great nation, the United States of America, to help the nation of Terpakistan in their time of depression and need. | Introduction

2: 10% Plan The 10% PLan was a proposal that was made by Abraham Lincoln in 1863. This plan stated that Southern civilians were pardoned for any crimes against the Union who were willing to take an oath to the Union and who were willing to accept the Union's Proclamation of slavery. When 10% percent of the each states voters took the oath of loyalty, Abraham Lincoln was then able to reform the government. | Radical Reconstruction The Radical Reconstruction was an period of time that the Radical Republicans became popular. These Republicans had three main goals, not allowing Confederate power to re-enter the government, they wanted the federal government to assist the African-Americans by giving them the right to vote and, they wanted more Republic power in the government. Ultimately, they wanted to African-American to become a part of the House of Representatives and also giving them the right to vote in the South. | Nicholas Arbasak | Thaddeus Steven was the leader of the Radical Republicans

3: Presidential Reconstruction This piece of Reconstruction began with President Andrew Johnson's Plan. His plan stated that all Southern civilians that took an oath of loyalty to the Union was pardoned from their previous crimes except Southern civilians who had property that was worth more than $20,000 because Johnson that these people, the planter elites, we're the cause of the war. He also passed an act that was to reform North Carolina's government. He wanted to reform this states government do that state could be a model for the other former Confederate states. | We believe that both the 10% Plan and the Radical Reconstruction were beneficial to the restructure of the United States at this time. The 10% Plan pardoned all Southern civilians on their crimes towards the Union, which helped ease the tension between the North and the South. The Radical Republicans tried to help The African- American fit in to the society as a freed people. The Presidential Reconstruction did not help because it did not pardoned the richer part of the South, which would cause even more tension. | Nicholas Arbasak

4: Black Codes Black codes were a set of rules from Southern legislatures, regarding African-American power that was in the South. Each state had their own individual codes, but they were all focused own the same thing, that Africans- Americans were in a state of servitude that was called apprenticeship, which is similar to slavery. They were beaten and whipped as punishment. Each African- American was assigned specific non-agricultural jobs between a certain amount of hours during the day. | We believe that the Black Codes will have a negative affect on your country because if you want to free the slaves, the black codes are a horrible way to do that. | These Codes basically enslaved the African- American without formally enslaving them. | Nicholas Arbasak

5: Carpetbaggers and Scalawags Carpetbaggers refer to the Northern civilian that moved to the Southern states during the Reconstruction. They were named Carpetbaggers by the SOuthern civilians because when the Northerners came to the South, they brought bags made out of Carpet material.Instead of welcoming the Carpetbaggers, the SOutherners hated them because they believed they were invading their land. In reality, the Carpetbaggers were coming for multiple reasons, like escaping the North or helping the South recover from the Civil War. | Scalawags refers to the white southerners who supported the republicans and who supported the reconstruction. The term is Scottish for weak, worthless animal. Some is former Whigs who joined the Democratic Party. Many were small farmers who hated large plantation owners and wish for them not to regain power. | I believe that the Carpetbaggers and the Scalawags caused tension on both ends. The Carpetbaggers and the Scalawags caused disruption in the South. Without this tension, things may have gone more smoothly. | Nicholas Arbasak

6: 13th Amendment The 13th Amendment was passed on January 31, 1865. This amendment was passed to abolish slavery and any indentured servitude in the United States unless punishment is involved. This act was then abolished in December of the same year. | 14th Amendment This amendment was passed by the Republican Party in response to the Civil Rights Act of 1866. The Civil Rights Act stated that all peoples citizenship in the United States that were born inland and were not Native Americans. The 14th amendment stated that every person born or naturalized in the United States and also said that no state could deprive any person of life, or property “without due process of law” and declared that no state could deny any persons “equal protection of the laws”. | Nicholas Arbasak

7: 15th Amendment The 15th Amendment was an amendment that was passed by the republicans in 1870. This amendment declared that the right to vote “will not be denied account race, color, or previous condition of servitude”. This dramatically changed Southern politics in more ways than one, by changing the population of voters for the better, and also angering the Southern settlers and made them start to fight against the government policies. | We believe that these Amendments were very useful in the perspective of the the freed African- Americans. this did cause unbalanced tension, but it does start to fulfill the idea of a free country. | Nicholas Arbasak

8: Freedmen's Bureau The Freedmen are referring to the freed African- American's who followed Sherman and his men during Sherman's March to the Sea. To help the African- Americans, Sherman cleared out all plantations between Charleston and Jacksonville and reserved them for the freed African- Americans. He ended up settling around 40,000 African-Americans. Congress then passed the Bureau, which was a task force that worked to feed, cloth, educate and give the freed African- Americans jobs to become stabilize the race. The bureau was funded by Northerners, although their was contradiction's about giving the African-Americans "forty acres and a mule" and giving land to the African- Americans. These accusations were eventually rejected by Congress. | The Freedmen Bureau was a success's for this time period. they assisted the freed African- Americans and helped them become regular people instead of recently released slaves. | Nicholas Arbasak

9: Sharecropping vs Tenant Farming Tenant Farmers were people who paid rent for the land that they work on. They had to return to the plantation's that were owned by the white plantation owners. They had to make deals and wages to get by. Sharecroppers were people who paid with the crops they harvest, instead of paying with money, to pay for rent as well as tools, and animals they needed to work with. SInce plantation owners could not always give the African- American the supplies they needed, there were merchants that sold supplies, but they required a interest rate, sometimes up to 40%. Sometimes the African-AMericans were unable to leave because they couldn't pay off there debts, but at the same time couldn't work because they get supplies to work. | Sharecropping and Tenant Farmers were a great idea without looking at the details. this actually put more people in tight spots and actual debt then helped them make a living. This is why this idea must be discarded. If you go with this idea, sooner or later\, more people with be backed up against a wall then you'll would actually be helping. | Nicholas Arbasak

10: The Port Royal Experiment The Port Royal Experiment was the reaction to Sherman's General Field Order #15, which was the act of reserving the Sea Islands and 30 miles inland to give each freed African- American family "40 acres and a mule". | Sherman's General Field Order 15 On January 12, 1865, General William Sherman issued the special order 15, which stated that Sea Islands and 30 miles inland would set aside for freed African- Americans. These people were given 40 acres and a war mule for working on the land. However, in the summer of the same year, President Johnson ordered the land to be returned to ex-Confederates. | We believe that this idea of separating races is very appropriate for this very delicate time. After the war there was probably most tension between | races than before the war, separating them for a few might have saved a lot of lives. now this project would probably have the most effect if it has a time limit because to much time spent apart might cause trouble when the two races meet again. | Nicholas Arbasak

11: The Military Reconstruction Act This act was passed in March of 1867, by the Congressional Republicans. This act divided all former Confederate states, except Tennessee, into five military districts. Each district was led by a Union officer. They did this so the former Confederate states were forced to re design there Constitution. Congress wanted these states to have voting right for all adult male, regardless of race. They had to to redesign there Constitution to be welcomed back into the Union. By the end of 1868, six states, including North Carolina, South Carolina, Florida, Alabama, Louisiana, and Arkansas, were re-entered into the Union. | We believe that this Act needs to be discarded because dividing the ex- Confederate states into 5 military district just to make sure that the Southern states agreed | that the voting rights should be for everyone would cause more hatred towards the freed African- Americans. | Nicholas Arbasak

12: Impeachment of Andrew Jackson Andrew Jackson was impeached for firing his Secretary of War Edwin M. Stanton, without the consent of the Senate, which went against the Tenure of Office Act. The Tenure of Office required the Senate to approve the removal of any government official. Johnson also removed four Southern Commanders who supported the Republican. The House charged him for undermining the reconstruction process. The Senate voted to impeach Johnson and put him on trial. Johnson was not found guilty in the trial so he was able to remain in office, but his impeachment took away almost all of the power he had, so he decided not to run for a second term. | Although the impeachment of a president, or any type of leader is never a good thing, we believe that Terpakistan should follow the example of the impeachment of Johnson. It is important to get rid of leaders that blatantly disobey the law. If a government allowed this the president/leader would gain too much power. In order for a nation to be successful, the government must keep the powers of their leader in check. | Khamera Manders

13: Ulysses S. Grant Ulysses S. Grant had very little experience in politics when he was elected as president. He believed the presidents role was to carry out the laws, and that the development of policy was the job of Congress. This left the president weak and ineffective when dealing with other issues. His way of running the country allowed Congress to do almost anything that it wanted to do. During his presidency Congress, kept high tariffs, tightened banking regulations, promised to repay its debts with gold and not with paper money, and increased federal spending on railroads, port facilities, and the national postal system. Congress also kept sin taxes in place, which were taxes on alcohol and tobacco. This angered Democrats and some Republican, which ultimately caused the Republican Party to split. During Grant’s second term many scandals took place. Grant’s secretary of war, William Belknap, was found to have accepted bribes from merchants operating at army post in the West. Also in 1875, the “Whiskey Ring” scandal broke. In this scandal group of government officials and distillers in St. Louis cheated the government out of millions by filing false tax reports. The nation also went through a financial crisis in Grant’s second term. | Ulysses S. Grant is a great example of the type of leader that Terpakistan doesn’t want. Grant was a great war hero, but he had little political background. We believe Terpakistan should only elect a person who is qualified, to lead them. Grant’s ideas were great, but there was little follow through, and the things that were down had negative results on the country. Terpakistan should handle the election of a leader with a lot of care. | Khamera Manders

14: Panic of 1873 The Panic of 1973 took place during Andrew Johnson’s second term. During this time a wave of financial panic and fear spread throughout the country. This panic started because of a series of bad railroad investments in 1873, which caused the powerful banking firm of Jay Cooke and Company to declare bankruptcy. The bankruptcy of this company caused many banks to close and the stock market to plummet, thousands of businesses were shut down and tens of thousands of people were thrown out of work. | We believe Terpakistan should avoid financial crises, like the one in the Panic of 1873 because this would send the country into panic, and the progress of the country would go backwards, and the nation would be bankrupt. | Slaughterhouse Cases In 1869 Louisiana legislature granted only seven people the ability to run slaughterhouses in New Orleans. This made many people angry who practiced in this trade, so they went to the Supreme Court and said this was in violation of the fourteenth amendment. The butchers said that they were deprived of their property, with out due process. The Supreme Court ruled that this did not deprive the butchers of their property with out due process because the purpose of the fourteenth amendment was to safeguard the rights of former slaves, and since the butchers were not black nor former slaves, the amendment ultimately did not apply to them. | The Slaughterhouse Cases are an example of a bad judgment of the Supreme Court. Amendments should apply to everyone, regardless to the reason they were created. We believe the Supreme Court was wrong for saying the Fourteenth Amendment applied only to African Americans. Terpakistan should protect the right of all citizens, regardless of their race. | Khamera Manders

15: Charles Sumner Charles Sumner was a Radical Republican, and Senate of Massachusetts. He believed in greater rights for formally enslaved people, and a stronger punishment for the south. Sumner pushed for the Civil Rights Act of 1875 to be passed to fight the Black Codes, and wanted Congress to take the plantations | Hiram Revels Hiram Revels was the first African American in the United States Senate. Revels was a religious man, and in 1870 he was elected into Senate after winning the respect of many whites and African Americans. Revels was very quiet while in Senate, unlike many other African Americans who were in Congress at the time. Before his retirement Revels was president of the African American college, Alcorn University, in Mississippi. | from Southerners and distribute the land among the freed slaves. Sumner was known for criticizing Ulysses Grant for not doing more for the rights of blacks, and Andrew Johnson for trying to veto the extension of the Freeman's Bureau, the Civil Rights Bill and the Reconstruction Acts. | We believe Terpakistan should allow people, such as Hiram Revels to be in Senate. By allowing people of all races in government, more specifically Senate, it helps get rid of racial tension. By doing this everyone will feel like the have equal opportunities, and there would be less fighting, and racism, which is important for reconstruction to be successful. | Terpakistan needs people like Charles Sumner. It is important to have people to stand up for the rights of African Americans, and freed slaves. People like Sumner will help make sure freed slaves have the same rights of every other citizen in the nation. | Khamera Manders

16: The Ku Klux Klan The Ku Klux Klan was a secret society that was started in 1866 by former Confederate soldiers in Pulaski, Tennessee. Their goal was to drive out Union troops and carpetbaggers and to regain control of the south for the Democratic Party. Klan members would ride in hooded groups at night terrorizing supporters of the Republican Party. The Ku Klux Klan broke up Republican meetings, drove Freedmen’s Bureau officials out of their community, burned down the houses, schools, and church of African Americans. They hoped to keep African Americans and white Republicans from voting. | Organizations such as the Ku Klux Klan should be avoided at all cost. These groups spread hatred, and use violence to back the things that they believe in. These type organizations can cripple your nation, and drive people apart, rather than bringing it together. The Ku Klux Klan supported racism and violence, too qualities that a striving nation should not have. | Khamera Manders

17: Civil Rights Act of 1875 Charles Sumner and Benjamin Butler introduced the Civil Rights Act of 1875 to Congress in 1870, but it was not passed until 1875. It stated that any person, regardless of race, color, or previous condition, was entitled to the same treatment in schools, work places, and any facility that was open to the general public. Any person who broke the law would be fined $500 - $1,000 and/or sentenced to 30 days to 1 year in prison. | Civil Rights Act of 1866 The Civil Rights Act of 1866 was passed in March of 1866, in an effort to override the Black Codes. This act granted citizenship to everyone, including African Americans, born in the United States, except Native Americans. The passing of this act allowed African Americans to own their own property, and said that they were to be treated equally in court. It also gave the federal government the ability to sue those who violated this right. In order to protect this act, Congress passed the 14th amendment. | Terpakistan should follow these acts because is safeguards the rights of freed slaves. Now that slavery has ended in the nation of Terpakistan, it is important to make freed slaves citizens. These acts helped establish that African Americans were no longer property, they were people. Also by following these acts, everyone would have rights regardless of their race. | Khamera Manders

18: United States v. Cruikshank In 1873 The White League members attacked a black militia. Some of the League members were indicted and charged under the Enforcement Act of 1870, which said the it was against the law for two or more people to plan to derive anyone of his constitutional rights. The Supreme Court ruled that although the fourteenth amendment forbids a State from taking away any ones right to life, liberty, or property, without due process, it does not say anything about the rights of one citizen over the rights of another. The Court also ruled that the federal government could not prosecute members of white supremacist groups, only the states and their courts could, under the Ku Klux Klan Act of 1871. | The Colfax Massacre On April 13, 1873, a white supremacist group, called the White League, attacked an almost all black militia. Only three White League members, while more than 100 black men were killed. Most of the black men that died were shot dead, after surrendering. | Terpakistan should not allow events like the Colfax Massacre to happen, nor should it make rulings like the Supreme Court did in United States v. Cruikshank. Both of these events failed to protect the rights of African Americans. The White League murdered hundreds of black men, and the Supreme Court did nothing about it. In order for reconstruction to be successful, people should not be able to get away with hate crimes. | Khamera Manders

19: Compromise of 1877 In 1876 the Republicans nominated Rutherford B. Hayes for presidency, and the Democrats nominated Samuel Tilden. On Election Day, Tilden won 184 electoral votes, and Hayes won 165 electoral votes, this left 20 votes to dispute. There was so much election fraud took place it was hard to say who won. In order to rectify this problem Congress appointed a commission of 15 people, which included eight Republicans and seven Democrats to vote on who got the 20 left over votes. The commission ended up voting on their party line, which was 8 votes for Hayes and 7 votes form Tilden. Congress didn’t accept the commission’s decision, so many debates took place, and the Southern Democrats decided to join the Republican and voted to accept the commission’s finding, making Hayes win the election for presidency. Without the support of the Southern Democrats Hayes wouldn’t have won, which made many conclude that a deal was made. There is no proof that the deal actually existed, but it was said to include a promise from the Republicans to pull federal troops out of the South, if Hayes was elected. | We believe Terpakistan should take the Compromise of 1877 in consideration. The concept was a good one because in the end both parties got what they wanted The only downfall about this was that because of this compromise, Republicans gave up defending the rights of backs in the south. | Khamera Manders

20: "Redemption" Throughout the 1870s Southern Democrats tried to regain control of their state and local government from Republican. Southern militia groups intimidated African Americans and white Republican voters. Some Democrats resorted to many different forms of election fraud by stuffing ballot boxes, bribing vote counters, and stealing ballot boxes in Republican precincts. Southern Democrats want all whites to help “redeem” the south from the “Black Republicans”. They gained supporters by making the elections about the battle between African Americans and whites. After the Compromise of 1877, the president removed the federal troops from the South and the remaining Republic Party in the south were driven out, and the Southern Democrats finally had redemption. | This idea of “Redemption” is something that Terpakistan should avoid. “Redemption” was just another way of splitting the country into two. With the Republican having no say in the southern states, it was the same as the Union and the Confederacy in the Civil War. “Redemption” would cause a lot of tension, which is not good for a successful reconstruction. | Khamera Manders

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  • Title: Reconstruction Mixbook
  • Reconstruction Time in America
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  • Published: over 6 years ago