S: Reconstruction Plan for Shnekaenutez
FC: Reconstruction Proposal for Shnekaenutez | President Todd Margaret | Vice President Nathan Sims | Secretary of State Shwayne Johnson
1: The great country of Shnekanutez has experienced a bloody civil war over the debate of slavery. After years of war the North has prevailed over the slave-holding South, and now they must rebuild, or reconstruct, the war devastated country. Today two bold adventurers will present their plan to rebuild the Union using the American period of reconstruction as the basis for their research.
2: The 10% Plan This was President Abraham Lincolns plan to reconcile the North, and the South. First Lincoln gave amnesty, which is a pardon for their crimes, to all southerners who would accept the Unions proclamations regarding slavery. After 10% of the people who had voted in the presidential election of 1860 had taken that oath, that state would then be allowed to form a new state government. Radical Reconstruction This was a plan spearheaded by Thaddeus Stevens, and by Charles Sumner. They did not want a reconciliation, they wanted to drastically change the the southern way of life. They had three goals. The first was to prevent confederate leaders from regaining power. The second was to make the Republican party the dominant political party in the South. The third was to guarantee voting rights to the newly freed blacks. Because the former slaves were considered people now the south would gain seats in congress, having blacks vote would mean that more republicans would get elected.
3: Presidential Reconstruction This plan was presented by President Andrew Johnson. The plan, like Lincolns, included amnesty, but did not give the pardon to former Confederate officers and the wealthy planters. | That was because he felt that they started the war. He then issued a proclamation that made the south have a constitutional convention to revoke the secession and ratify the 13th amendment. They also rejected all war debts. | Military Reconstruction Act This was supported by the Republicans and it wiped out Johnson's reconstruction plan. It divided the south into five military districts. This also required each confederate state had to draft a new constitution acceptable to congress. They had to give all men the right to vote, and ratify the 14th amendment before the state could be allowed to vote for congress. By 1868 six states were admitted to the union.
4: We believe that the best plan for our land is a mixture of Military and Radical reconstruction. This is because we fell that having a military power in a land just leaving war will make sure that the disputed lands are kept calm and under control. Radical reconstruction would help to bring about quick change and would give blacks more rights quicker. We believe that the 10% plan only needed to have a very small minority for people to get back their government. Presidential Reconstruction and the 10% was to lenient. | Black Codes These codes severely limited black rights in the south and varied from state to state. | They kept blacks in a condition similar to slavery. They forced blacks to sign labor contracts, become apprentices where they could be beaten, and set work hours and force them to be licensed for work that was not farming.
5: Ku Klux Klan This was a group of southern Democrats who were determined to drive out Republicans, Union troops, and carpetbaggers from the south. The KKK broke up Republican meetings and destroyed black communities, churches, homes, and schools to stop them from voting. These people were driven by hate and killed many. They drove away Freedmen's Bureau officials and wanted to regain control of the south. | The Colfax Massacre On April 13, 1873, the White League, which was a paramilitary group bent on keeping white rule in Louisiana similar to the KKK, fought with the Louisiana militia which was almost all-black. The group was fighting to take over Louisiana court house during a governor election. Only three whites were killed where as one hundred blacks were killed. Many of the blacks were murdered in a merciless manor after the Louisiana militia was forced to surrender. This act of violence showed President Ulysses S. Grant how hard it would be to give the rights and safeties to the blacks that were promised.
6: In our land we will have complete military control to prevent any rebellion, outbreaks, and massacres. In America the KKK caused horrible chaos and the southern states allowed this. Everyone will be under federal rule unlike the KKK because of America's Ku Klux Klan Act which made it states responsibility. We will prevent any corrupted governments and powers and not let anything like the Colfax Massacre occur. That was cold blooded murder and our military will take care of events like that. The black codes are also another bad thing for reconstruction in American history. We will not let others to be forced into contracts and work and keep people down. No discriminative laws will be passed to hurt lives or allow others to control people. | Carpetbaggers These were northerners who moved south to help in reconstruction. Some got elected into office, some were teachers, and some wished to better their lives by moving south. They were often hated and Democratic hate groups like the KKK tried to scare them away and even kill them. Scalawags These were southerners who helped Republicans with reconstruction. This was a diverse group of former whigs, small farmers and business men.
7: In Shnekaenutez we will allow others to advance and help with reconstruction and better themselves like the "carpetbaggers and scalawags" attempted to do in American reconstruction. We will not let groups scare them away and make them seem bad like in America. No groups like the KKK will exist to threaten these peoples lives. | 13th Amendment This banned slavery in the US and the south had to accept it to rejoin the Union. | 14th Amendment This was passed because Republicans thought the Civil Rights Act would get overturned. This granted citizenship to all people born or naturalized in the US, and that no state could deprive people of life, liberty, or property without due process. It also said no state could deny equal protection under the law.
8: 15th Amendment This said that the right to vote shall not be denied on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude. | Sherman's General Field Order No. 15 Sherman’s General Field Order Number 15- This order was issued on January 15th, 1865. It was meant to settle the thousands of black refugees that had followed Sherman on his march. He confiscated approximately 400,000 acres of land stretching from Charleston, South Carolina to the St. Johns River in Florida. He gave every newly freed family a forty-acre segment. Sherman’s order was overturned by President Andrew Johnson when he came into office. | All three of these amendments are something that we should pass. All of them were beneficial to the united States, and helped to make blacks equal politically by ensuring them the right to vote, and made sure they could not be denied protection under the law.
9: The Freedmen's Bureau Many newly freed blacks, called freedmen, were living on their former masters plantations like refugees. To help with this crisis Congress set up an organization called the Freedmen's Bureau. Its goal was to feed an cloth former slaves in the South using military surpluses.In 1865, they issued over 30,000 rations per day. This helped to prevent widespread starvation in the South. The Bureau also helped former slaves find work by negotiating contracts for them on plantations.The contracts set hours and wages.They also set up special courts to deal with worker/employer issues.Many Northerns wanted to confiscate Southern land, but congress never went that far. One of the Bureau's biggest accomplishments was education.It set up schools, paid teachers and helped establish colleges to train black teachers.
10: The Port Royal Experiment This was a program where former slaves lived and worked on the land abandoned by white plantation owners. They were aided by several northern charities to make this place a success. It was what Reconstruction could have been; it showed how blacks could work land and live independently of white control. They assigned themselves daily task for growing cotton, and spent their free time tending their own crops. Many of the black farmers sold their crops. By selling crops they were able to obtain money to buy land, and founded the town of Mitchelville on Hilton Head Island, in South Carolina. In 1865 Johnson returned the land to white owners. | Tenant Farming versus Sharecropping Tenant Farming versus Sharecropping- Tenant Farmers were farmers who rented the land that they farmed from plantation owners. Share croppers paid their rent in a portion of the crop that they grew, they also had to pay for the supplies needed to farm with. These farmers would also have to pay for things that they needed like clothes. The people in charge would have them pay incredible interest, and basically took advantage of these farmers. We should allow tenant farming, but only at fare rates that are set by the Freedmen’s Bureau. Sharecropping will not be allowed because it did not allow for former slaves to better themselves, and kept them in an almost perpetual debt.
11: Impeachment of Andrew Johnson In 1867 Congress passed the Tenure of Office act, which would require the president to ask permission from congress if he wanted to remove a congressionally appointed official. This was an attempt to limit the president’s executive power. | Radical Republicans did that to preserve Secretary of War Edwin Stanton’s job. He was one of the men who served under Lincoln and was critical to Reconstruction. Johnson ignored this law and fired Stanton. Republicans in the House impeached him by a vote of 126–47. After a tense trial, the Senate voted to acquit the president by a margin of only one vote. | We see most of these as positive aspects of reconstruction. The Port royal experiment is something that we should aim for. We would allow our Freedmens Bureau to settle ex-slaves onto land abandoned by plantation owners. They will be allowed to work it and live off of it. unlike Johnson, this land will not be returned, instead they will pay rent, like a tenant farmer, but they will have a flat rate negotiated by the Bureau.Eventually they will be allowed to buy the land they work. No sharecropping will be allowed because we feel that, like in the US, it will put our Freedmen into debt, and wont allow them to progress.
12: Ulysses S. Grant When Johnson left office in 1868 Republican and General Ulysses S. Grant was elected to the presidency. Grant was very inexperienced as a politician, and this ultimately led to the end of Radical Reconstruction. Grant filled most of his cabinet positions with corrupt men who also had no experience, and were often no more than spoils-seekers. Because of this Grant’s Administration was filled with scandal. In 1869, reporters uncovered a scheme by millionaires Jim Fisk and Jay Gould to corner the gold market by artificially inflating gold prices. Schuyler Colfax, who was Grants V.P., was forced to resign for his complicity in the Credit Mobilier scandal in 1872, where congressmen received bribes during the building of the first transcontinental railroad. Grant lost even more credibility during his second term, when his personal secretary helped embezzle millions of dollars from the U.S. Treasury as a member of the Whisky Ring. | Panic of 1873 Along with Grant’s political scandals, Grants administration was plagued by other economic problems in Grant’s second term. After a bad railroad investment the turmoil started when a powerful
13: banking firm (Jay Cooke and Company) to declare bankruptcy. This created a fear known as the Panic of 1873 where many smaller banks and businesses closed, the stock market plummeted, and many Americans were thrown out of work. This hurt the republicans politically; they lost the house to democrats. | Hiram Revels Revels was born free and became a minister in an African Methodist Church and after a long career | in the church and schools he reluctantly jumped into politics. He became the first African American US Senator in 1870. He was well liked and eventually became president of Alcorn University as well. | We think that Impeaching Johnson was a good move because he was violating the constitution. We agree with the Office of Tenure Act because we don't want a president with ultimate power. We will make sure that the successor to President Margaret is more capable than Grant was. We do not want to see Radical Reconstruction end, or our party lose power because the executive
14: Branch is corrupt and filled with scandal. We will make sure that the cabinet will not be so corrupt and will not allow these financial schemes to happen. Hiram Revels is someone that we want more of. He was born into a life of slavery but because of the laws passed during Reconstruction, was able to become a political leader in a country that once saw him as non-human. We want to have former-slaves have more political power so that the Republican party can stay in power in the south and maintain Reconstruction policies. | Charles Sumner Sumner was Senator of Massachusetts who was one of the leaders of the Radical Republicans, who did not want to reconcile with the south. He was against Johnson’s very lenient reconstruction plan and wanted the south to suffer more. He also wanted more rights for the enslaved people who became free. Sumner helped with the Civil Rights Act of 1875.
15: Civil Rights Act of 1866 This act was passed as an effort to override the black codes and it granted citizenship to all people born in the US except for Native Americans. It allowed blacks to own property, be treated fairly in court, and also gave federal government the power to sue people who went against this. The 14th amendment came as a result of this. | Civil Rights Act of 1875 This act was an effort to put an end and outlaw discrimination in most public places. Everyone would have the same service without racism or judgment. This was put forth in 1870 by Charles Sumner and Benjamin Butler, but was not passed by Congress until March 1, 1875. In 1883 the Supreme Court decided this act was unconstitutional because the government could not regulate how individuals act. | We want to have laws like the Civil Rights Acts. Making sure that former-slaves are now citizens is critical to ensuring that they have equal rights. We do not want people to lose court cases because they cant sue, like Dred Scott. We want to make sure that former-slaves cannot be discriminated against in public places, and that they are treated like the citizens they are.
16: US v. Cruikshank (1876) The ruling in this gave only states and their courts power to prosecute Ku Klux Klan members under the Ku Klux Klan Act of 1871, not the federal government. This allowed the south to let many KKK crimes go. | Slaughterhouse Cases These cases helped to put an end to Radical policies. The Court ruled that the Fourteenth Amendment safeguarded a persons' rights only at a federal level, not at a state level (in rulings ten years later, the court further stipulated that the Fourteenth Amendment prohibited racial discrimination only by the U.S. government, not by individuals).
17: We think that these are failures of Reconstruction. This cant happen. Much of the work that went into making sure that blacks could not be discriminated against unjustly.Also the KKK, which we will not allow to exist, was able to thrive in the south because they we only allowed to be prosecuted by the state. They were able to run the Carpetbaggers and Scalawags out, and intimidate black voters. | “Redemption” During the 1870s the Democrats fought to regain legislative power over the south. They used intimidation, bribery, cheating, and stealing to win elections and by 1876 all southern states were reclaimed by Democratic power except Louisiana, South Carolina, and Florida (these states had their black voters protected by Union troops so Republicans retained power).
18: Compromise of 1877 The election of 1876 was very close. As a result Congress passed the Electoral Count Act in 1877. This created a fifteen-man commission with eight republicans and seven democrats to determine who got the votes from South Carolina, Louisiana, and Florida. Not surprisingly, the lopsided commission determined by an eight-to-seven Republican-Democrat vote that Republican Rutherford B. Hayes had won all three states. This angered the democrats and threatened to divide the country yet again, but both parties were able to avoid division and strike a deal with the Compromise of 1877. Democrats agreed to give the presidency to the Republicans in exchange for the complete withdrawal of federal troops from the South. Hayes became president, withdrew the troops, and ended Reconstruction. | These are two failures of Reconstruction. Redemption should not have happened. Some of the laws that allowed it to happen should not have been passed, and the failures of Grants administrations should not have been allowed to happen, crippling the Republicans as a result. The compromise ended Reconstruction, and it should not have happened. No huge decision, like an election should be determined by by 15 men. The vote should have been redone, or the entire congress should have voted
19: CARTOON | This displays Andrew Johnson's Impeachment. He ignored a law, and trampled the constitution, getting impeached as a result. Here he is trying to play with the constitution, and as a result is squashed ( the squashing is the impeachment.)
20: We believe that American Reconstruction was a failure. One of the goals was to reunite the Union, which did happen. But another was to assimilate a newly freed group of people into the country with equal rights and liberties, and we feel that this did not happen. We can look at Some of the court cases during this time to show this. The Slaughter House cases established that blacks only had 14th amendment rights at a federal level. Then the case, U.S. v. Cruikshank gave only the states
21: the right to prosecute the KKK. That allowed most southern states to be lenient with their pursuit of justice. Further, Black codes were passed. These were laws that severely limited the newly freed persons rights and freedoms. Reconstruction was also a failure because it did not go far enough. The Port Royal experiment is what could have been. It was a community of self-reliant blacks,who tended the land. But Johnson gave the land back to the white plantation owners who abandoned the land during the civil war. Grants field order no. 15 was overturned when Johnson came into office. Then finally, after all of these failures Redemption happened and allowed the Democrats to get back into power. This led to the Compromise of 1877 which allowed Republicans to have the Presidency, but forced all federal troops out of the south, officially ending Reconstruction and letting the democrats have full control.