S: Reform Movements
BC: Atima Huria 1st Period AP US History Mr. Bryant
FC: M R O E V F E O M R E M N T | By: Atima Huria | The reform era was crucial because it helped to form America today. Overall, it was a huge effort to improve society and shape modern ideas. Without many of the movements during this time, we could still be stuck with slavery or women still wouldn't be allowed to go to college. Basically, the reform era provided a push into modern civilization.
1: Table Of Contents Women's Rights - Page 2 and 3 Abolitionists - Page 4 and 5 Temperance Movement - 6 and 7 Education Reform - 8 and 9
2: The women's rights movement successfully opened up some higher education schools to women, such as the Oberlin College, which was also open to African Americans. | Because of the industrial revolution, many young girls started getting jobs in factories. | WOMEN'S RIGHTS
3: Women's Rights During the early 19th century, the only job for women was to be a homemaker. A women's place was seen as a mother and housekeeper, raising children and watching over the house. Most young girls weren't even allowed to go to intermediate school. However, there were many women who oppose this and advocated women's rights. - Elizabeth Cady Stanton - rewrote the Declaration of Independence stating that all men AND women were created equal at the Seneca Falls Convention - Elizabeth Blackwell - 1st woman doctor - Amelia Bloomer - designed non restrictive and healthy clothes for women, wrote a magazine about women's health - Lucretia Mott - friend of Elizabeth Stanton that helped at the Convention - Seneca Falls Convention - where the Declaration of Sentiments was written stating women's rights and the infractions that man had made upon then - Susan B. Anthony - advocated women's rights and fought for women's suffrage - Emma Willard and Prudence Crandall - both opened an all girls seminary - Mary Lyon - founded the Mount Holyoke College for women
4: Although many people were all for the emancipation of slavery, they still did not regard African Americans as their equals. | Other reform movements linked to abolitionism, such as the women's movement, further divided abolitionist leaders. | ABOLITIONISTS
5: Abolitionist Movement The abolitionist movement was an effort to emancipate the moral wrong that was slavery. It was a hot issue in government as well as a point of argument between the North and South. Many religions and people from the North openly started opposing slavery and taking actions against it. - William Lloyd Garrison - radical white abolitionist, wrote the newspaper: The Liberator which called for immediate emancipation - David Walker - a freed black who developed the idea that slaves had to fight for their own freedom - Frederick Douglass - a slave that taught other slaves how to read and write, claimed that knowledge was the key to freedom. Eventually escaped and became a well known abolitionist. Published The North Star newspaper. - Nat Turner - violent abolitionist who led a revolt against white slave owners - Gag Rule - allowed the House of Representatives to discuss slavery on the floor which limited the power of abolitionists - Sojourner Truth an outspoken woman abolitionist who did a man's work - Grimke Sisters - two slave sisters who petitioned and raised money for the end of slavery. -
7: Temperance Movement The temperance movement was a social movement against the use of alcoholic. This was another moral issue. Women were upset because their men wasted away their money in bars or taverns and had none for the family when they came home. Certain protest groups during this time regarded liquor has a vile drink which must be abolished or controlled. - Mary Vaughn - sparked an entire movement to get rid of "evil" alcohol - Neal Dow - tried to regulate the sale of alcohol, especially on Sundays - Lyman Beecher - a Connecticut minister who lectured his fellow citizens against alcohol - American Temperance Society - an organization formed for the renewal of religious and moral interests Failures of the Temperance Movement 1. Destroyed the businesses which produced alcohol, such as the back country Pennsylvania farmers who produced whiskey 2. Since it was mostly women who were against the liquor, the temperance movement was not on a big scale since women were struggling for their own rights. -
9: Education Reform In the early 1800's, most schools were private. The education reform called for the development of public schools as well as higher education colleges and universities. Much debate went on over women's education as well. - Horace Man - called for tax supported schools and mandatory school attendance - McGruff Reader - taught little children how to read, as well as morals and other lessons - Emma Willard and Prudence Crandell - opened all girls seminaries - Mary Lyon - opened the Mount Holyoke College for girls Successes of the Education Reform Movement 1. Opened more schools and opportunities for women 2. Made it so that everyone, not just catholics or the wealthy, had access to proper education.