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Reformation by Tyler Davie

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BC: Kagan, Donald, Steven E Ozment, Frank M Turner The Western Heritage. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2007. Print. | ''The Reformation in France'' Boise State University. Web 11 Sept. 2011.

FC: The Reformation

1: Their were two ways of looking at the church right before the reformation. *You either felt that the church was on it's way down and ready to fall. *Or you thought that the Church was in good shape and nothing was wrong with it. | Some causes of the Reformation - The invention of the printing press by Gutenberg made it easier to spread ideas to people. -During the Renaissance, there was great amount of questioning regarding the bible. That carreid over into the Reformation. | In Europe, during this time, some places were not in very good economic times. Some people would ''pray'' for it to get better but nothing would happen? If nothing would happen they would question the church, bible, and who is ever in charge. *Prices started to rise on products *Indulgences started to be sold * Martain luther posted his 95 theses * The Reformation couldn't have happened without the Great Schism, Conciliar period and the Renaissance papacy

2: Lutheranism was a religion started by Martin Luther. He broke away from the teachings of the Catholic church and started to protest. Luther was educated in Mansfield, Magdeburg and Eisenach. He recieved his master-of-arts degree and then he started to study law like his parents wished him too. He went to Saint Augustine in Eurfurt which, his parents didn't want him to. In June 1520 Luther was condemned for heresy and Leo gave him Sixy days to react. In April 1521, luther declared that he wouldn't recant because he felt it wouldn't be right. He was placed under imperial ban and that made him an outlaw. His family made him a hideout in Wittenburg and stayed there for about a year translating the bible into German. | Calvinism replaced Lutheranism as the main religion force in Europe. Calvinism was the religious ideology that inspired massive political resistance in France, the Netherlands, and Scotland. Calvinists believed strongly in both divine predestination and individual's responsibility to reoder society according to God.

3: English reformers met in Cambridge in the 1520s to discuss Lutheran writings that were smuggled into England. One of these reformers was William Tyndale who translated the New Testament in English. England had a well-earned reputation for maintaing the rights of the crown against the pope. Statues of Provisors passed in the mid-fouteenth century laid the foundation for curtailing payments and judicial appeals to Rome. Humanism and widespread anticlerical sentiments prepared the way for Protestant ideas which enteered England. | Switzerland was a confederacy of thirteen autonomous states. Some states became Protestant and others remained Catholic. The growth of national sentiment occasioned by popular opposition to foreign mercenary service was a condition that was right before the Swiss reformation. Another precondition was a desire for church reform that had persisted in Switzerland since the council of Constance.

4: France came close to becoming Protestant. It produced one of the major figures of the Reformation. He was John Calvin and in the late 1590s it very nearly had a Protestant King in France. French Protestants were known as Huguenots. At one point the controlled two hundred towns in southern France. The Catholic Church in France came closest to fitting the description of a national church. The Pragmatic Sanction of Bourges in 1438 made king of France the head of the Gallican church. The crown could and did txt the clergy, could try clerics in lay courts and appoint bishops and abbots. Such rights were enjoyed by other monarchs. | The Reformation in Germany started because The German people started to hate the Italians. *Beginning of Nationalism in Germany *Price inflashion *Peasants became depressed and lesser nobility was blammed on the church because they were greedy. * Imperial ditractions with France and Italy *Invention of the Printing press made ideas and information easier to spread

5: The Italian Reformation had many causes * The precociousness of humanism * The rule of foreign powers * The need of a deeper and more personal relation with God | The Inquisistion in Spain held a very powerful position. Charles V negotiated with the Maranos, offering them religious liberty and they would pay them in gold. *Charles V splits his empire between two brothers *Spanish Armada -Attacks English -Spanish fleet defeated by English -Inflation! -Expelled the Jews Taxed The poor, didnt tax church or nobles

6: Anabaptists are Protestants who insisted that only adult baptism conformed to Scripture. At first Anabaptists were drawing many follwers for all social classes. Lutherans and Zwinglians joined the Catholics to persecute them within the cities. In 1529, rebaptism became a capital offense within the Holy Roman Empire. Many people were executed for rebaptising. | Anti-Trinitarians was a final group of persecuted radical Protestants also destined for prominence in the modern world. These were exponents of a commonsense, rational and ethical religion. These thinkers were the strongest opponents of Calvinism, especially its belief in original sin and predestination. | Political *Ended up with Catholic and Protestant Churches *Catholic Church wasn't the greatest power in Europe anymore *Translated Bible into other languages. Religious * Two churches * Christendom was now divided in Europe. | Social * Rising sense of individualism as people tried to make a better life.

7: Catholic Reformation * Pope resisted discussion of reform * Forebid sale of indulgences * Reaffirmed equal authority of Scripture and Church * Fight reformation through education | Religious wars * St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre - Killed thousands of protestants and sparks 15 year civil war in France * Henry IV rises to Power

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