S: The Reformation by Mikayla Yakoubek
BC: works cited | Ganse, Alexander. "Reformation in Spain." World History At Korean Minjok Leadership Academy. N.p., 15 Nov. 2004. Web. 9 Sept. 2012.
FC: THE REFORMATION
1: The Renaissance revived the study of classical literature and reemphasized the importance of the original source. This study led to new interpretations of the Bible and new religious ideas stemming from those thoughts. Combined with the invention of the printing press, these new ideas could be published and had the ability of spreading rapidly throughout Europe, which they did. This led to several more new ideas about reforming the church. Corruption within the church had been an ongoing problem and people began to speak out about it. Reformation leaders most often criticized the sale of indulgences and the benefice system. Ideas about predestination and justification of faith also rallied up the European people as more and more people challenged the Catholic Church. The papacy was weakened from its move to Avignon, as well as the Great Schism and the idea of conciliarism. On top of this, Germany lacked a central government and consisted of several regions all with different rulers. This set the perfect stage for religious reform in Europe. John Wycliffe and Jan Hus are generally seen as the first Protestants, even if they did not know it. They began the movements of the Lollards and the Hussites, respectively, and pioneered ideas that would be crucial to the Reformation. | Causes of the Protestant reformation
2: lutheranism | Luther taught the principle of “justification by faith”, that salvation did not results from charitable acts and religious ceremonies, but was fully given to any and all who believe in and trust Jesus Christ as their perfect righteousness satisfying to God. This went directly against the church’s teachings and was part of the cause of his excommunication. Many people agreed with Luther’s teachings and those who follow them are called Lutherans. | Martin Luther was a German monk who became a prominent leader credited with starting the Protestant Reformation. He is infamous for his 95 Theses, an attack on the church especially on indulgences.
3: John Calvin was a French protestant theologian and reformer, as well as the namesake and the perfect embodiment of Calvinism. He was a prominent leader in the Protestant Reformation and wrote The Institutes of the Christian Religion in 1536. This work is considered to be the definitive theological statement of the Protestant faith. Calvin is best known for his teachings of predestination, the belief that God has already chosen those who will be saved and that the rest will be sent to hell, and the idea of total depravity, the teaching that every man has been born as a slave of sin and without the grace of God, is it impossible for man to choose to follow God or accept salvation. Calvin lived in Geneva and reformed the church there, making the city a safe haven for other Protestants at the time. | c a l v i n i s m
4: Protestantism spread throughout all of Europe, except for Russia which remained Orthodox. The key factor the rapid spread of ideas in Europe was the invention of the printing press. The printing press allowed for the mass publication of Protestant works, such as novels and pamphlets. A prime example of this is the translation of the bible into English by William Tyndale. The printing press made this copy easily distributed throughout England and enabled any literate person to interpret the scriptures themselves. Without it, the ideas of Protestant reformers would never have been able to be so widely-read across the continent. | How and where protestantism spread
5: england | At the beginning of the Reformation, England was still a Catholic country under King Henry VIII. But when his wife, Catherine of Aragon, failed to produce a male heir, he wished to | divorce her in order to marry Anne Boleyn. The pope refused to fulfill his request and this led to the break of the Church of England from the Roman Catholic Church. The Act of Supremacy made the king the head of the Church of England, which still retained mostly Catholic doctrine. This break allowed Henry to be the authority on whether or not he can annul his marriage, which he did. When one of Henry’s closest advisors, Sir Thomas More, refused to recognize the annulment of Catherine and Henry’s marriage, he was executed. This shocking act showed how serious Henry was about his reign. Henry went through six marriages and which resulted in two daughters he declared illegitimate, Mary and Elizabeth, and a son, Edward VI and all three would reign over England. Edward implemented Protestant ideas which were repealed by Mary, who mended relations with the Pope. Under Elizabeth, the Church of England was established as Protestant and religious toleration was applied.
6: switzerland | Ulrich Zwingli was the leader of the Swiss Reformation. He regards Desiderius Erasmus as the one who put him onto the path of Reformation, not Martin Luther whom he did not agree with on several points. Zwingli wanted religious and social reform while | Luther wanted to keep it strictly in the church. Civil wars erupted in Switzerland as it divided itself up into Catholic and Protestant regions. Zwingli was later killed on the battlefield. When peace came, part of Switzerland became Protestand and the rest stayed Catholic.
7: france | John Calvin, the namesake of Calvinism, was a Frenchman who had one of the largest influences on the shaping of Protestant religion. He was | regarded as a heretic in France but his teachings spread throughout the continent. French Protestants knows as Huguenots were Calvinists. Several efforts were made in an attempt to eradicate the Huguenots from France. The Saint Bartholomew’s Day Massacre resulted in 20,000 Huguenots being killed across France and is blamed on Catherine de Medici. France officially remained a Catholic country, but Huguenots were granted the freedom to practice their religion as an effect of the Edict of Nantes.
8: germany | When Martin Luther attacked the Pope and the Catholic Church through his pamphlets, they spread rapidly throughout Germany. Religious Germans supported him, shocked by the corruption and the abuses of the Church that Luther illustrated. Patriotic Germans also supported him, as they disliked the idea of listening to an Italian pope. Another influential group that supported Luther’s ideas was the nobles and princes, who saw the reformation as a chance to add on to the amount of power and money they already possessed. It seemed as if all of Germany was unified against the Catholic Church until the Peasants’ Revolt which led to civil war. The south remained Catholic | while the north supported Luther and Protestantism. War ended due to the Peace of Augsburg which made Lutheranism legal to practice, and also allowed German princes to choose the religion of his region and his subjects.
9: i t a l y | The Protestant Reformation was not widely regarded in Italy as it was often quickly expelled by the Church, which was based in Italy. Mentions of Lutheranism were destroyed and the only known case of Italian academic discussion of Luther’s theses was in 1531 at the University of Padua. Italian Lutherans changed their views into the Calvinistic, Anabaptists, and Nontrinitarianistic beliefs. The Protestant Reformation lasted a short 70 years in Italy due to a quick reaction from the Church. The Inquisition began to fight Protestants in Italy more effectively. Italian reformers escaped to other European countries such as Poland and Protestantism essentially ceased to exist in Italy.
10: spain | Catholicism was brutally enforced in Spain. Jews and Muslims were exiled from the peninsula and others were burnt at the stake. Since there were not many scandals within the Spanish Church when Luther published his 95 Theses, it was taken with a grain of salt by the Spanish. On top of this, there was no Spanish translation of the Bible. Combined with the efficiency of the Spanish Inquisition as well as the political structure which did not provide a lot of independence to city councils, the Protestant Reformation did not earn many Spanish followers. A notable exception is Michael Servetus, a Spanish Anti-Trinitarian who was executed as a heretic in Geneva.
11: radical reformation | The slow pace of Lutheran and Zwinglian reformation frustrated those who want a more rapid reform of religion. They felt that previous reform movements weren’t moving fast enough and took matters into their own hands. These radical groups were often persecuted and not supported by the other, more conservative Protestant movements. The two most important radical reform groups were the Anabaptists and the Anti-Trinitarians.
12: enter it. Although other Protestant reformers shared the belief that believers must believe for themselves, they rejected Anabaptist claims. Anabaptists were seen as heretics and were widely persecuted, especially when rebaptism became a capital offense in the Holy Roman Empire. When Anabaptists extremists came into power in Munster, they implemented radical beliefs and this led to Protestant and Catholic armies coming together to crush the radicals. Anabaptists are the ancestors to the Mennonites and the Amish. | ANABAPTISTS | The Anabaptists were a radical Protestant group during the Reformation. They insisted on only adult baptism and rejected infant baptism, claiming only a consenting adult who understood the faith could
13: The Anti-Trinitarians were another group of radical Protestants in this time period. They did not believe in the idea of Trinity, which says that God is three different persons in one being. These views were not shared by Protestants or Catholics. The most prominent Anti-Trinitarians from this time period are Michael Servetus, who was burned at the stake in Geneva, and Lelio and Faustus Sozzini, the founders of Socianism. | ANTI-TRINITARIANS
14: political, social, and religious consequences of the reformation | As a result of the Reformation, European political, social, and religious aspects were changed. The Church’s influence was dramatically reduced and the rulers had more power than ever before. Henry VIII severed all ties to the Roman Catholic Church, taking away any power that the Pope had previously had over England. German princes were also free of the church’s control. The Reformation also caused the creation of another group of Christians. Now, Christianity consisted of Catholic, Protestant, and Orthodox countries. Although they shared some basic aspects, their beliefs were still very
15: different. The Reformation also resulted in religious intolerance that led to several religious wars. Thousands and thousands of people died due to the absence of tolerance of religion. The Thirty Years War and the Anglo-Spanish war are two very prominent examples of what religious intolerance could lead to. Since the medieval church no longer had as much economic power, the Reformation laid the foundation for capitalism in Europe. Money lending, which was previously criticized, became a socially acceptable activity. The Reformation was meant for religious reform but changed all aspects of European life.
16: catholic reformation | While the Protestant Reformation continued in Europe, the Catholic Church attempted to reform itself through the Counter Reformation. It is sometimes considered a response to the Protestant
17: Reformation. The Council of Trent met to reassert church doctrine and carry out useful reforms. A key component of the Counter Reformation was the Society of Jesus whose members were called the Jesuits, who were largely opposed to Protestants. They revived Catholicism in Poland and saved it in several other countries such as Czechoslovakia and Hungary. In an attempt to maintain the Catholic religion in Spain, Austria, Italy, France, and Portugal, the Pope entered several treaties with their rulers, but this only ended up with the Church being subservient to these rulers.
18: religious wars
19: Both the Protestant Reformation and the Catholic Reformation spawned several wars over religion. When the Dutch Calvinists protested against Philip II of Spain, war erupted. The war, known as the Eighty Years’ War or Dutch War of Independence, lasted from 1568 to 1648, when the Netherlands was recognized as an independent state, 50 years after Philip’s death. Philip II also had bad relations with England. Elizabeth was reigning when Philip sent a fleet of Spanish warships, known as the Armada, to England to teach Protestant England a Catholic lesson. A combination of violent storms and Sir Francis Drake’s strategy destroyed the Armada and Spain never fully recovered from the defeat. Arguably the best known religious war, the Thirty Years’ War in the Holy Roman Empire was the last and most destructive of them all. It consisted of four periods: the Bohemian, the Danish, the Swedish, and the Swedish-French. More than a religious war, it affected political and economic aspects internationally. The Treaty of Westphalia in 1648 ended the war, put Calvinists on the same level as Lutherans and Catholics, and gave rulers the right to determine the religious beliefs in their territories.