S: Renaissance Art
BC: The End | Works Cited | Art and the Bible. N.p., n.d. Web. 19 June 2011.
FC: By Lisa Ma Block A | Renaissance Art
1: Table Of Contents | Pages : Title 1 : Table of Contents 2 : Renaissance Background 3 : Renaissance Architecture 4 - 5 : Jan van Eyck and Adoration of the Lamb 6 - 7 : Masaccio and The Tribute Money 8 - 9 : Giovanni Bellinni and Agony in the Garden 10 - 11 : Botticelli and Birth of Venus 12 - 13 : Hieronymus Bosch and The Garden of Earthly Delights 14 - 15 : Leonardo da Vinci and Mona Lisa 16 - 17 : Albrecht Dürer and The Knight, The Death, The Devil 18 - 19 : Michaelango and the ceiling of Sistine Chapel 20 - 21 : Raphael and School of Athens 22 - 23 : Titian and Bacchus and Ariadne
2: The Italian Renaissance started because it was needed. The Black Plague has recently ended, and it did not affect the cities of Italy as it did the rest of Europe. The Renaissance was essential to break through the common art. It went from most paintings and sculptures only about religion, from works of art including learning, realism, and other things. Painting progressed the most, for it went from Gothic style to more realistic and three dimensional. Famous people who do some form of art intensely competed against each other and were influenced too. Apprentices of art were also able to travel to view work of current or past artisans, and so this made the development of art proceed faster. As said, religion was the most favorite thing to portray during the Gothic Art Period, but artists started to paint with more intimacy and using multiple techniques to show feelings. Stories started to be shown rather than told. New techniques developed during this time period were one point perspective, vanishing point, showing depth, atmospheric perspective and more. Closer and closer the High Renaissance arrived, which is when art became classical and monumental. Famous paintings in this time had idealism and grandness. Many artists became interested in showing the instant of the situation with more revealing emotion, rather than only illustrating the scene. The Italian Renaissance influenced the development of Europe greatly, and it changed art.
3: Renaissance Architecture usually has many features. There will be a symmetrical base plan, and many decorations that make the building look impressive. Pillars, domes, arches, windows, and art are many ways to make people go into awe when they see the beautiful well done building. Even today, architecture from the Renaissance is used similarly now. Basilica di Sant’Andrea in Mantua, Italy is an example of Renaissance architecture, for its entrance is made of many arches and inside, there is a round barred shaped dome covered in frescoes. Santa Maria del Fiore has a dome too, but it’s done is in an octagonal shape, and there is also statures within the cathedral. Brunelleschi, the man who designed the dome, was able to make it without a supporting framework, and in the end, the dome has a spiral profile also. Both these churches have domes, but one has an arch entrance while the other has an unusual dome shape. | Basilica di Sant'Andrea | Santa Maria del Fiore
4: Adoration of the Lamb is the center panel of the altar piece in St. Bavo’s Cathedral. It is the most famous work of art by the Van Eyck brothers, for the older brother, Hubert, died before he could complete the painting. Jan Van Eyck continued after, and no one knows who painted what parts of the painting. Also, this altar piece is one of the first to be painted in Europe, because before, the altar pieces were wood carvings. There are many symbolic objects in this painting. One of them is the lamb which symbolizes Jesus sacrificing his life, and its blood bleeds into a chalice which symbolizes the drinking of win at church services. Gathered around are angels, martyrs, prophets, virgins and more that are worshiping the lamb. The fountain is the symbol of eternal life, and the bright sun looking thing above the lamb is a pigeon that represents the Holy Spirit, and it is shining light on all those who are surrounding the lamb. | asdf | Adoration of the Lamb
5: Living in Philip’s court, admiration quickly grew, and Jan van Eyck worked for many wealthy Italian residents in Netherlands which grew to his fame in Italy. Jan van Eyck was especially an expert of oil painting, and was credited with the invention of oil painting because of his skill. This fact was not true though. | Jan Van Eyck was born around 1390 in a village near Maastricht, Netherlands. His career began when he was employed as a painter by a bishop, and a few years later, he became a court artist to Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy. | In 1432, Jan Van Eyck moved to Bruges and died there in 1441. | Jan Van Eyck
6: Anyway, in 1422, Masaccio was admitted into the Florence painters’ guild. He is most famous for his paintings that used perspective that created an illusion of it being three dimensional. The sad thing is that most of his work was destroyed by being painted over. At the age of 27, Masaccio died in poverty in Rome. | Masaccio was born in 1401 in Castel San Giovanni di Valdarno in Italy. His real name was not Masaccio though; it was Tommaso di ser Giovanni di Simone Guidi Cassai. Masaccio means “big Tommaso”, and Masolino means “small Tommaso”, who may have been Masaccio’s teacher, but he definitely is someone who Masaccio worked with. | Masaccio
7: The Tribute Money has three scenes in one picture. The storyline goes somewhat like this: Jesus and his disciples have to pay tax, and the man who is wearing an reddish-orange outfit that shows his legs is the tax collector. Jesus points towards Peter to fish. This is the scene in the middle, and in the background on the left side, there is Peter fishing with his robe on the ground lying next to him. He catches a fish which has money inside its mouth. Then on the right side of the painting, Peter is handing money over to the tax collector. | The Tribute Money
8: After, Giovanni Bellini painted mostly religious pieces, and he became a famous Venetian painter at his time. Because of this, he became in charge of the paintings in the Doges Palace. Sadly though, his artistic decorations at the palace were lost in a fire in 1577. Overall though, Bellini influenced the style of painting in Venice forever, for he used techniques with new colors. | Giovanni Bellini | Giovanni Bellini was born around 1430, and his family was basically all painters. In the beginning, he was influenced by the work of his brother in law, Andrea Mantagna, but later he developed a style of his own with a poetic atmosphere.
9: Agony in the Garden was painted with Giovanni Bellini was still influenced by Mantegna who also made a painting on the same subject before. Mantegna though portrayed Jesus emotions by having a harsh landscape, while Giovanni Bellini painted a dawn break that offers salvation. Peter, John, and James are the three men sleeping, while Jesus is praying to his father because he sensed foreboding. Before he left to pray though, Jesus asked his followers to stay awake, but they slept, leaving him to feel very lonely. All the while, Roman soldiers are approaching to apprehend Jesus. | Agony In The Garden
10: Botticelli | Botticelli’s real name is Alessandro di Mariano Filipepi, and he was born in Florence in 1445. His nickname came from his brother who called him il botticello which means “small barrel”. | Botticelli lived in Florence, Italy, practically all his life, except for one little bit when he went to Rome to paint for the Sistine Chapel. After being taught by Fr Filippo Lippi, Botticelli officially starts his career. He intensely admires the Florentine rulers, and especially the de facto ruler, Lorenzo De’ Medici. Botticelli made his classical and religious works during this time period. But after Lorenzo’s death, Botticelli stops making his usual type of paintings. He starts to make them more pathos, melancholy and sacred. In 1510, Botticelli dies in Florence.
11: Birth of Venus | The Birth of Venus is one of Botticelli’s most famous works represents a mythological topic rather than a Christian legend. As can be seen in the painting, Venus has emerged from the water on a shell which landed on the beach because of the flying wind gods help. Already there is a nymph ready to welcome here with a cloak. There are imperfect parts of Venus’s body that people do not notice such as the weird length of her neck or how her left arm looks a little bit unnatural, but all of these Botticelli did with purpose. He did in order for Venus to have a graceful figure, and it adds to the thought that a delicate being was sent to us by the Heavens.
12: When Hieronymus became an adult, he took up the job as a church cleric also, and married a girl from a prosperous family. They had no children, but it seemed like Hieronymus lived a comfortable life. | Hieronymus Bosch is most known for his unique style of using symbols that nobody knows for sure that they represent. Many scholars have interpreted the paintings yet all their conclusions disagree with other ones. Even now, nobody has fully interpreted any of Hieronymus Bosch’s paintings. | Hieronymus Bosch | Most of his works though are not signed, and none are dated. In 1516, Hieronymus Bosch died in his hometown. | Jeroen Anthoniszoon van Aken is Hieronymus Bosch’s real name, and he was born in Holland in 1450. His non-real name came from his family liking Saint Hieronymus, and then he used his town’s name Bosch to differentiate himself from his family. His father and grandfather were all painters, so it is assumed that Hieronymus learned his technique from them. His hometown was a small one, and so it seemed unusual that a famed artist lived and worked there.
13: The altarpiece describes the world and how it descends into becoming hell like. On the left panel, it shows how the world starts off from Adam and Eve. Then the central panel describes the world doing sinful yet pleasurable things. Lastly, on the right panel, Hell is revealed. On the Hell side, there are musical instruments that are being represented as torture instruments instead. Basically though, The Garden of Earthly Delights takes these two outer panels and combines them into one picture. | The Garden of Earthly Delights | The Garden of Earthly Delights is one of Hieronymus Bosch’s most famous paintings. The whole altarpiece is named after the central picture where there is a beautiful garden with fruiting plants. It is said that this painting was probably made for a noble family for their secret enjoyment, but no one knows for sure
14: Leonardo da Vinci surprisingly enough was an illegitimate son for a peasant girl and a lawyer. He was born on April 15, 1452 in Vinci Italy. His father took care of him while his mother married someone else. Both of them separated from each other, but still had kids with other people, so in the end, Leonardo da Vinci had 17 half sisters and brothers. Since Leonardo da Vinci grew up with his father, he was able to read scholarly books and paint. When Leonardo da Vinci was 15, his father sent him to Andrea del Verrochio. Eventually, Leonardo da Vinci’s talent was so great, that his teacher decided to never paint again. During his 17 years in Milan Serving the Duke of Milan in 1482, that was the time period where Leonardo da Vinci had his most prosperous work. He made paintings, sculpture, weapons, buildings, machinery. Etc. Also, he started to study the human body by cutting up corpses. Later, the Pope forbade him to continue dissecting bodies, which slowed down his exploring of the human anatomy. Leonardo da Vinci died on May 2nd, 1519 and supposedly King Francis was at his side when he died. | Leonardo Da Vinci
15: Mona Lisa | Mona Lisa is a portrait of Lisa Gherardini, who was the wife of a cloth merchant called Francesco Giocondo, which explains the alternate name of La Gioconda. It was painted in Florence between 1503 and 1506, and there exists a certain mystery about the Mona Lisa. No one knows how long Leonardo da Vinci kept it, and how it became in the Royal French collection. The woman in the painting is wearing plain clothing, nothing to show that she is rich, and the dark veil worn around her hair is considered a mark of purity. | The smile itself is the most famous part of it, for it is wondered, why is she smiling? Is there a secret behind this too? Indeed, the Mona Lisa is a mystery.
16: Dürer | Albrecht Durer, born in 1471 in Nuremberg, spent most of his life in his hometown. He became a famed German engraver and painter whose influence reached beyond borders. He wanted to be free though of the chains of traditional methods, and wanted to express more creativity and emotion in his works. Albrecht Durer was also one of the first artists to draw himself, and left many works behind when he died in 1528 in his hometown. | Albrecht
17: The Knight, The Death, The Devil | Death is in two forms here. It is the skull at the horse’s hooves in the left, bottom corner, and it is also the dead corpse holding a hourglass to the knight to show him that his time is running out. The devil is behind the horse, suggesting something mischievous with his grin, but he is ignored, for the knight continues to ride on facing forward. | Meisterstiche, or master prints. There are three in all, and all of them have a similar size, format, and tone. | The Knight, the Death, the Devil is a first part of Dürer's
18: Michaelango | Michelangelo Buonarroti was born in 1475 and has created many works of art that represent the Renaissance. He was many things at once, a sculptor, architect, poet, and a fresco painter. Michelangelo Buonarroti started his career in Florence, then moved to Rome and was under many great popes such as: Julius II, Leon X, Medici, and Florentine. | There was a problem though, Michelangelo Buonarroti often lost his temper and would rather work along than with assistants. Because of this, he abandoned many commissions, | but then Julius II was strong himself and forced Michelangelo Buonarroti to paint the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel, which turned out to be his greatest glory.
19: Ceiling of the Sistine Chapel | Painting the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel took Michelangelo four years to complete, and it includes over 300 figures! Michelangelo is credited for painting almost everything, except for his assistants helping very slightly, such as mixing the paint, or only painting a small figure. He constantly fired and hired assistants, so in the end, only Michelangelo himself could be credited with the work. The plan for the ceiling was for Michelangelo to paint twelve pictures of the apostles, but he considered this project to be poor. So the pope gave permission to let the artist control the whole painting. Michelangelo instead used the central area to paint the history of the Old Testament of the Bible.
20: School of Athens | School of Athens by Raphael is a painting with the most famous philosophers of ancient time in a Renaissance building. Plato is in the center with a reddish outfit on pointing upwards, while Aristotle is next to him wearing blue. Pythagoras is here too on the bottom left corner, the man who is drawing on a board, while Heracletiusis, a pessimistic philosopher, is learning against the block of marble while writing on paper. Over on the bottom right, Euclid is teaching geometry, and Zoroaster, holding the heavenly sphere, is looking over Euclid’s soldier. Ptolemy is holding the earthly sphere, but he is talking to another group of people where Raphael is. Raphael drew himself and he is the man with a beret. By painting the School of Athens, Raphael demonstrated the classical influence on Renaissance art.
21: Raphael | Raphael, born in 1483, became a famous Italian painter and architect. His real name was Raffaello di Giovanni Santi, and when he was 11 years old, he was apprenticed to Perugino. Under Perugino, Raphael’s talent quickly came at, and he could imitate his teacher easily. For four years, Raphael worked in Florence, but he mainly worked in Rome, all the way to his death. There was where he developed his own style, and he used geometric shapes in his works too. Raphael was credited with revolutionizing portrait painting also, and is among the most famous artists of the Renaissance period. | Sadly, Raphael died suddenly before he completed his work, and so his students had to finish it instead. Also, 1520, the year of his death, is the same year in which the High Renaissance ended. Coincidental, isn’t it?
22: Titian | Titian, as many other artists in the Renaissance, was not his real name. Tiziano Vecellio was Titian’s true name. Trained by Giovanni Bellini, Titian became a Venetian painter and a designer of wood carvings too. Titan worked using religion and mythology, and painted many portraits. He became the most famous painter from Venice in the sixteenth century. The most distinguished part of his paintings though was the use of colors and thick, dramatic brush strokes. He lived for 88 years, and died in year 1576 in Italy
23: Bacchus and Ariadne | Bacchus and Ariadne is a love story of Greek mythology. Bacchus is the god of wine, and he was on his chariot driven by cheetahs with his followers behind him. Seeing Ariadne and falling in love with her at first sight, he jumps off towards her. Ariadne, the daughter of King Minos of Crete, has been abandoned by Theseus, whose ship is shown in the far distance to the left of her. She is at first fearful of Bacchus as shown in the painting, but he wins her love by showing her the stars above in the sky.