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Rocks & Minerals

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Rocks & Minerals - Page Text Content

FC: Plate Tectonics | Kenya McDaniel 7th period

1: rock types | Igneous how it is formed: is formed when, magma or molten rock, cools and harden how it can be transformed: erosion, deposition, and cementation: changing temp. and pressure Examples: Granite, Rhyolite, Obsidian, etc.

2: diorite | pegmatite | obsidian

3: rock types | metamorphic how it is formed: changing temp. and pressure ho it can be transformed: erosion, deposition, and cetmentation; melting and cooling examples: gnesis, slate, hornfeis, marble

4: killas | hornfels

5: rock types | sedimentary | how it is formed: erosion, deposition, cementation how it can be transformed: changing temp. and pressure melting and cooling examples: sandstone, breccia, shale, conglomerate

6: hematite | sandstone

7: Mineral Type | silicate chemical composition and structure of the mineral:\ mineral that contains a combination of silicon and oxygen, and that mat also contain one or more metals major characteristics and special features: isolated tetrahedra, ring silicates, single-chain, double-chain silicate, sheet silicate, framework silicate example: olivines, pyroxens, amphiboles, and biotite

8: olivine | onyx

9: Mineral Type | Non-silicate | chemical composition and structure of the mineral: mineral that does not contain compounds of silicon and oxygen major characteristics and special features: dendrite shape, cubic crystals, octahedral, crystals shape examples: gold, halite, diamond

10: uncut diamond

11: solidification of a melt how does this occur: freezing of a liquid like ice from water how scientists use process to grow synthetic minerals: Synthetic and simulant gemstone producers use many different production methods, but they can be grouped into one of three types of processes: melt growth, solution growth, or extremely high-temperature, high-pressure growth. examples: diamond, emerald, garnet, ruby

12: Synthetic Ruby | images & captions | Synthetic Emerald | synthetic granite

13: precipitation from solution how this occurs: Precipitation from a solution occurs when the chemicals that will form a mineral are in solution (of water, usually). When the water begins to evaporate the concentration of the chemicals increases, until there isn't enough water to hold them all in solution. At that point the chemicals bond to one another in a regular manner, and mineral crystals are formed how scientists use process to grow synthetic minerals: When growing silicon crystals, sophisticated machinery is used to measure the exact temperature and pressure of melted polysilicon, which is contained in heavy metal cylinders designed to be moved and rotated precisely as required to create a flawless crystal growth. examples: sliver nitrate, potassium chloride, sliver cholride

14: Mineral precipitation from solution: Calcite dripstones form from calcite saturated groundwater in cave | Mineral precipitation from solution: Malachite (a copper carbonate) precipitated in open spaces of a copper deposit. Each band marks a growth episode | IMAGES & CAPTIONS

15: SOLIDSTATE DIFUSSION HOW THIS OCCURS: movement of atoms through a solid to rearrange them into a new mineral HOW SCIENTISTS USE PROCESS TO GROW SYNTHETIC MINERALS: Solid state chemistry is especially concerned with synthesis of novel material, as well as the science of identification and chemical composition erxamples: pyroxene, graphite, quartz crystal

16: SOLIDSTATE DIFUSSION | solid-state physics

17: The End...

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  • By: Kenya M.
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  • Title: Rocks & Minerals
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