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School Days Yearbook

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BC: Redwood Elementary School 2011-2012

FC: Alphabet book of Black History | 2011-2012

1: A- African American In history African American were view as minorities, but they exactly made a lot of changes.Many people looked that them as a waste of space; only good for slavery. But the true is that some became famous and were concern hero.

2: B- Boycott The boycott was a major event that take place in Montgomery, Alabama, in 1955-56, in reaction to Rosa Parks' arrest for refusing to give her bus seat to a white man.

3: Stephanie Abott | Lindsey Lee | Lance Peets | C- Civil Right Amendments Their was three civil right amendment. 13th which allow slave to be be free. 14th which allow every citizen to have life, liberty, or property. And 15th which allowed citizen to vote.

4: D- Dejure segregation De jure segregation is segregation that is imposed by law. De Facto segregation happens “by fact” rather than by legal requirement. for example Jim Crow laws were De jure segregation, because the laws permitted the segregation

5: E- Exodusters They were the names given to Americans who fled the southern states for Kansas in 1879. Which goes along with the Exodus of 1879 which was the mass movement of African American from states along the Mississippi River to Kansas.

6: F- Freedmen Bureau It was also known as The Bureau Of Refuges, Freedmen and Abandoned lands. It lasted from 1865 to 1875. The positive is that it was educational activities relating to refuges and freedmen, including issuing ration, clothing and medicine .

7: G- Great Depression The Great Depression was an immense tragedy that placed millions of Americans out of work;it was the beginning of government involvement in the economy and in society as a whole. 1929 -early 1940s

8: H- Harlem Renaissance | The Harlem Renaissance gave African American a foundation for their culture. they created their own intellectual style: writings, artist, musicians. it gave them pride in their heritage and the boost they need to be accepted into society.

9: I - Integration integration includes desegregation (the process of ending systematic racial segregation). In addition to desegregation, integration includes goals such as leveling barriers to association, creating equal opportunity regardless of race, and the development of a culture that draws on diverse traditions, rather than merely bringing a racial minority into the majority culture.

10: J- Jim Crow Laws From the 1880s into the 1960s, a majority of American states enforced segregation through "Jim Crow" laws (so called after a black character in minstrel shows)From Delaware to California, and from North Dakota to Texas, many states (and cities, too) could impose legal punishments on people for consorting with members of another race. The most common types of laws forbade intermarriage and ordered business owners and public institutions to keep their black and white clientele separated.

11: K- King(Martin Luther King Jr. | Martin Luther King Jr. Baptist minister and social activist who led the civil rights movement in the United States from the mid-1950s until his death by assassination in 1968.

12: L - Louis Armstrong | Was a trumpeter, band leader, singer, soloist, film star, and comedian. He is considered one of the most influential artists in jazz history.He recorded his first solos as a member of the Oliver band performed in the theatre review Hot Chocolates

13: M- Messanger | The Messager byW.E.B. Du Bois | When: November 1910 | Who: It appeal to African Americans | What: it was about addressing the important issues facing African Americans | Why: to show the danger of race prejudice, particularly as manifested to—day toward colored people | Where: New York

14: N- Niagara Movement | The Niagara Movement was a civil rights organization founded in 1905 by a group led mainly by W. E. B. Du Bois and William Monroe Trotter. The Niagara Movement was a call for opposition to racial segregation and disenfranchisement, as well as policies of | accommodation and conciliation promoted by Black leaders such as Booker T. Washington that were characteristic of the era.

15: O- Opportunity | Why: to give voice to black culture, hitherto neglected by mainstream American publishing | When: 1923 to 1949 | What : it was a Journal Of Negro life | Who: it appeal to African American | Where: New York

16: MS. CRAVEN'S CLASS | P- Port Chicago Mutiny | Port Chicago Mutiny was a major disaster in 1944; that killer about two hundred black soldiers in the explosion. The magazine handled bomb, naval mines, torpedoes, and all type of small arms ammunition that the Navy would used in the Pacific Theater of Operations during the Second World War. The explosion was caused by the mishandling of ammunition. After the explosion, the Navy wisely instituted a number of changes in munitions handling procedures.

17: Q- Quakers | The Quakers were members of a faith called the Society of Friends. Their religious beliefs were very different from the Anglicans, Pilgrims, and Puritans. Their faith was centered on a "God of Love and Light." They believed that each person was capable of being saved by "the inner light." For them, this light was represented in Jesus.

18: R- Reconstruction | Reconstruction was a time after the Civil War when the United States began to rebuild. It's the | time when the United States decide how to readmit Confederates states. this is further trouble because Lincoln and Johnson didn't agree on the methods and it lasted from 1865-1877.

19: S- Sharecropping | Sharecropping was a system in which landowner divided their land and gave each worker a few acres along with seed and tools. The worker paid the owner back at the end of planting years with crops or money earned .

20: T- Thurgood Marshall | an American jurist Before becoming a judge, he was a lawyer | Declared racial segregation in schools unconstitutional with the Supreme Court case Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka. | the first African American to serve on the Supreme Court of the United States | the grandson of a slave

21: U - Underground Railroad | The Underground Railroad was a network of secret routes and safe houses used by 19th-century black slaves in the United States to escape to free states and Canada with the aid of abolitionists and allies who were sympathetic to their cause.

22: I loved the gadget | V- Van Der Zee (JamesVan Der Zee) | an African-American photographer | In 1969, an exhibit called Harlem on My Mind showcased his work | set up a photography studio in Harlem, NY | He was 14; he received his first camera from a magazine promotion

23: W- Walker ( Alice Walker) | First African-American woman to win the Pulitzer Prize for fiction (1983) for her novel The Color Purple. | she challenged educational institutions to create a representative curriculum | J | championing women's issues and women's work | In the 1960s, Walker became involved in the civil rights movement

24: X- XYZ Affair | The XYZ Affair was a diplomatic incident between French and United States diplomats that resulted in a limited, undeclared war known as the Quasi-War. U.S. and French negotiators restored peace with the Convention of 1800, also known as the Treaty of Mortefontaine.

25: Yellow Journalism is a term first coined during the famous newspaper wars between William Randolph Hearst and Joseph Pulitzer II. Pulitzer's paper the New York World and Hearst's New York Journal changed the content of newspapers adding more sensationalized stories and increasing the use of drawings and cartoons. | Y- Yellow Journalism

26: Z- Zora Neale Hurston | was a part of the great black literary movement of the 1920's and 1930's, the Harlem Renaissance | her mentor was Frank Boas | was a ANTHROPOLOGIST, FOLKLORIST & WRITER | was buried in unmarked grave, Alice Walker, an African American novelist, discovered her grave and put a grave marker on the site in 1973

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