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Second Language Aquisition

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FC: Michelle Taylor Working with English Language Learners

1: Table of Contents | 1: Table of Contents 2: Purpose of this book 3: English Language Learners that I serve 4: My Instructional Environment and 5: ACCESS for ELLs scores grid 6: First and Second Language Acquisition Theories 7: Narrative on First and Second Language Acquisition 8: WIDA CAN DO Descriptors: A Cool Tool 9: Student Profile 1 10: Student Profile 2 11: Building Background knowledge for ELLs 12: Supporting Academic Reading for ELLs 13: Academic Reading Strategies 14: Differentiation CAN DO reading domain grid 15: Supporting ELLs within Writing 16: Creating a language learning rich environment 17: Differentiation CAN DO speaking and listening 18: THANK YOU

2: Purpose of this book | This Online Toolbox is for my colleagues at work, staff development days, and others that work or even simple interact with students who are language learners. I hope that this book encourages others to think of further ways to develop their curriculum to reach every student in their classroom. | COLLABORATION IS EVERYTHING

3: In my Early Childhood Special Education classroom in Verona, I have a child who is Filipino. I have one child whose Dad is from Pakistan and his mom is American. Another child's parents are both from Vietnam. I have a boy who was adopted at 8 months from Asia and another boy who is Hispanic and his father is still in Mexico. These are my ELL students that make up my classroom. | My English Language Learners

4: I work at Stoner Prairie which has around 430 students and around 17 different languages spoken. There are three ESL teachers in our school. Stoner Prairie also houses the Verona Area International School that has half day Chinese language immersion and also an international curriculum. Since I already scaffold lessons/activities/projects to each individual child because of their diagnosis of special needs, we do not have any additional language support. Each child does receive one on one speech and language support because of their disability. | I E n N s V t I r R u O c N t M i E o N n T a l

5: The ACCESS test monitors the progress of the ELL's English language proficiency

6: First and Second Language Acquisition Theories | 1. The Acquisition Learning Hypothesis- A balanced hypothesis that explains that people learn and acquire language subconsciously and consciously. In other words, children learn with no attention to form and purposeful attention to “rules” and grammar. 2. The Monitor Hypothesis- This hypothesis occurs when the speaker is not rushed and is focused on “producing correct language.” The learner initiates speaking and then monitors and inspects what they are producing. 3.The Natural Order Hypothesis- This theory states that language is acquired through a predictable order. 4. The Input Hypothesis- This hypothesis states “that acquisition occurs when one is exposed to language that is comprehensible and that contains i + 1.” Simple, the subject matter should be a level above so they can progress and be active learners. 5. The Affective Filter Hypothesis- This theory states that people have a “metaphorical barrier that prevents learners from acquiring language even when appropriate input is available.” Teachers need to be aware that students’ emotional states impact their ability to learn and acquire language. | Second Language Acquisition Theories | 1. Innatist/Nativist- Chomsky states that children are born with “innate principles of language” 2. The Cognitive Approach- Jean Piaget believed that a “child first becomes aware of a concept” and then they are able to use linguistic structures. Vyogtsky believed that if students are involved interactively they are able to achieve a higher level of knowledge. 3. Behaviorist - Skinner stated that students learn language through a process of stimulus and response. “Language acquisition is a process of habit formation.” | First Language Acquisition Theories

7: How Acquisition Theories impacts my teaching of ELLs. | First and Second Language Acquisition impacts my teaching on a daily basis. I strive to make my classroom stimulating for all of my students. I work in "teachable moments" throughout my day as well as attempt to create an environment that motivates my students on each day! | "If the child is not learning the way you are teaching, then you must teach in the way the child learns"

8: WIDA CAN DO Descriptors: A Cool Tool | http://www.wida.us/standards/Can_dos/ | WIDA CAN DO Descriptors support ACCESS testing scores. Please visit the WIDA website for more information. | Benefits of the WIDA CAN DO Descriptors 1) It is helpful for planning future lessons 2) Visual shows a teacher how to meet each students individual needs 3) Can be used for collaboration with other teachers and/or parents 4) Discover how to challenge students but set realistic expectations/demands

9: Profile 1: Student A was born in Madison and is in the Early Childhood: Special Education classroom. His parents and brother were born in the Philippines and they speak Filipino and English. He understands some of both languages but speaks primarily English. He was recently diagnose with Autism and has recently begun to speak. His composite score is a 1. He enjoys participating in group time in any way possible. | TASK 1 Sort apples, leaves, and pumpkins into like piles. Then color the apples green, the leaves red, and the pumpkin orange. Write each word three times: Apples, Leaves, and Pumpkins. TASK 2 Students will learn the letters of their name and will also learn how to form each | TASK 1: A level 1 student at the Entering Level, according to WIDA say that Student A understands “words, phrases, or chunks of language, yes/no questions.” For task 1. Student A can share ideas in a group, the use of pictures and basic vocabulary will help him feel successful in his work. Student A can look at a sample of the words if he has difficulty forming the letters. TASK 2: The student will work with a partner and/or teacher and use an adapted crayon/marker and will trace the letters in their name with hand over hand support. | STUDENT PROFILE and TASK CARDS

10: STUDENT PROFILE and TASK CARDS | Profile 2: Student B just moved to Madison from Senegal, Africa and is in second grade. He understands very basic English and can repeat simple vocabulary. His composite score is a 1. He loves positive feedback but does not like the attention or spotlight on him and becomes very withdrawn in front of a group. | Task 1: Since Student B is still getting used to the classroom and basic English, he would be in a group of one other student, so he is not overwhelmed in a group. I would have his partner practice showing him the picture of an apple and saying the word "apple” several times. They would do the same for leaf and pumpkin. They would sort the pictures together and Student B can trace over the written words to help formulate each letter. Task 2: The student will work with a partner and use playdough to trace/form the letters in their name. They will work together on letter names and sounds.. Then will place playdough on top of a laminated blown up letters of their name. | TASK 1 Sort apples, leaves, and pumpkins into like piles. Then color the apples green, the leaves red, and the pumpkin orange. Write each word three times: Apples, Leaves, and Pumpkins. TASK 2 Students will learn the letters of their name and will also learn how to form each

11: BUILDING BACKGROUNG KNOWLEDGE FOR ELLs | Websites that support building background knowledge http://www.primary-education-oasis.com/building-background-knowledge.html http://www.colorincolorado.org/article/20827/ http://www.reading-strategies-help.com/reading-comprehension-strategies.html http://pd-network.com/lessons/frontloading_for_ell_article.pdf | I learned from this activity, the impact background knowledge has on a lesson. Some kids may understand the concept of snow, for instance, whereas other kids are not able to visualize it because they have never seen it or felt it. I use background knowledge to help kids better understand our lesson and or reading material. We all use background knowledge in our daily lives and daily decision making. I may show objects and explain things before we read a book so that the class has background knowledge (a common understanding) before we read. One article below, mentions how it important to visualize to "activate prior knowledge." I have my students sometimes close there eyes and try to visualize a time or place that I want them to remember. This helps them take time to think back to an occasion or event and remember many details. I love bringing the actually object in to show a child to spark memories but having them close their eyes also brings it to another level.

12: What I learned... I learned that how important picture walks and prediction techniques are to support academic reading, especially with my Early Childhood children. It is important to talk about what the pictures are telling us and what they think might happen in the story. I also use a visual (an actual pumpkin if we are reading a pumpkin book ect). This helps them to apply all of their senses to the object/subject they are going to be reading about. I discovered how important it is to reach each of our children and that may using many different supports during a reading selection. This has already made a strong impact in my classroom, and the children seem to enjoy the many visuals and picture walks we have started. I also learned how important it is, especially as a new teacher to know that ELL students are all different just like our other students. Some may benefit from looking at the pictures and doing a walk through before reading and others may benefit from looking at a word wall for certain words that might be difficult for them or are repeated a lot in the story. Every student can participate in an activity but it will take scaffolding and collaboration with other teachers to develop lessons that reach all of the students needs. | Supporting Academic Reading FOR ELLs

15: Supporting ELLs within Writing | I teach Early Childhood: Special Education and my graphic organizer was for a unit I just finished on Body Parts. This organizer helped my children to visualize how to sort their bodies parts. I put a small clip art next to the word and then they had to find the cut out of a real body part image. For some students (only one or two) I was able to leave the clip art off and they were able to match by hearing and reading the sound and placing the word on the correct space. Because my students are very young, we do not do your "typical writing" but we do use the writing without tears curriculum. I also made a graphic organizer for that to copy big lines, little lines, small curves, big curves. The worksheet I attached has them trace lines and curves and then on the box below write the lines/curves themselves. Those are the basics we teach, as they comprise all letters in the alphabet. | Tips for creating an effective graphic organizer 1) Make sure they are simple and not too overcomplicated 2) Make them visually appealing so that the students want to revisit them and use them. 3) Use a simple structure to allow the students to add a creative touch. 4) Decide what your goal is and what you would like the graphic organizer to look like when completed 5) What do you want it to accomplish? | SUPPORTING ELLs within Writing

16: Creating a Language Learning Rich Environment | Ways to create a language rich environment 1) Have a word wall/ classroom dictionaries for children to refer back to 2) Use Pretend play/ pretend talk for opportunities for new vocab and skills 3) Value the impact of read aloud no matter what age group you work with 4) Shared reading and writing lessons | How to increase the academic language in the classroom... 1) Model language in many settings (hello time, meals, conflicts with friends, math, literacy, writing ect) 2) Concept Maps- use to collect and organize information for a more visual way of learning 3) Picture-sentence matching- one student has the pictures and the other has the sentences and can't see each others. One student describes their picture and the other finds the sentence to match it. 4) Picture-Sequencing- You could use this to help your students with the water cycle, any animal life cycle, historical events and much more.

17: Differentiation CAN DO Descriptors Speaking and Listening

18: Resources | Gibbons, Pauline. English Learners, Academic Literacy, and Thinking: Learning in the Challenge Zone. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann, 2009.

19: THANK YOU for spending time learning about how to work with ELL students. Please contact me with any questions or concerns. Let's move forward together helping our ELL students appropriately.

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