FC: The Indigenous Peoples of South America
1: Table of Contents | The Awa People of Brazil 2-5 The Quechua People of Peru 6-14 Culture 6-9 Colonialism and Economic Need 10-11 Government and Issues 12-13 NGO's 14
2: The Awa tribe is one of only two nomadic hunter-gatherer tribes remaining in Brazil. Today about 355 Awa live in four communities and still completely rely on the forest.
3: Some Awa people are uncontacted with sociaty. Awa groups range from tiny family groups who are on the run, living in the remaining parts of the rainforest, to approximately 60 individuals living in the Araribóia reserve which is heavily invaded by illegal loggers. | Satellite pictures show that more then 30% of the rainforest inhabited by the Awá has been destroyed.
4: Many nomadic Awá people died as they came in to contact with society mainly from common diseases to which they had no resistance.
6: The Quechua of Peru | The Quechua people are thought to be the largest indigenous group with a population of approximately 7.5 million. They have migrated south along the Andes mountains, as well as east into the rain forest of the Amazon Basin in Peru. | In the regions of west South America more then 8.5 million people speak Quechua making it the most widely spoken, surviving indigenous language in America. | Culture...
7: The peoples are known for their social system which is based on reciprocity, meaning if you help your neighbor with his crops he will return the favor. | The Quechua traditionally believe in animism and paganism. However, after the Spanish invaded the people incorporated the Roman Catholic religion into their lifestyle.
8: The Quechua peoples are typically known for wearing bright colours such as yellow, blue, blood red, etc. | The coca leaves play a essential role in culture. The peoples believe they may predict the future after they have consumed them, connecting them to the spiritual world. The leaf is also used as medicine. The coca leaf cures dizziness, headaches, throat infections, stomach ailments, altitude sickness and rheumatism.
9: Family is crucial in the Quechua culture. Men and women are not considered "responsible adults" until they are wed. Once married the couple will stay at the husband's parents house
10: The Affect of Colonialism and Economic Need | Today many of the Quechua lead isolated lives as marginal farmers in the high Andes. Although some have been assimilated as laborers in highland towns. | The Quechua are among the first known to have been conquered by the Inca. However, their culture wasn’t altered until the spanish conquistadors arrived in the New World. It is said that the Spanish converted the peoples to the Roman Catholic church, although they still practice animism today.
11: The Spanish taught the peoples how to use oxen, plows and many other kinds of crops. | Due to lack of professional medical care the mortality rate for children is shockingly high. Pneumonia, dysentery and infection are every day occurrences amongst the Quechua people. | Due to missionaries children attend school.
12: The Government and Issues Affecting the Quechua People | “The whites” are slowly taking more land away from the peoples forcing them to move into cities. Here, women must sell market produce and men have to work as lowly paid porters and laborers. | In the 1970’s the military government issued new legislation protecting the lands of the indigenous communities. However, this was aimed towards the Quechua living in the Amazon leaving those dwelling in the highlands to sink further into poverty.
13: Often when it comes to mining the people are exploited. They will go through the hard labor in return for coca leaves. | The Quechua living in the rain forest are heavily affected by the pollution left behind from oil companies.
14: NGOs Supporting the People | The AVE (Audio-Visual Education) is actively working towards the abolition of child labour. They are also promoting children's rights to access primary education, health services, food and nutritional sources. | Aynisuyu work to improve living conditions within the indigenous farming families. They want to strengthen health, civic participation, human rights and food security.