S: SSDS Fourth Grade Guide to Colonial America
FC: Solomon Schechter Day School Fourth Grade Guide to Colonial America
1: Contents Milliner by Ruth Wheelwrights by Leo Blacksmith by Matt Entertainment by Eitan Blacksmith by Zachary Finance by Ben Farmers by Coby Games by Nicole Medicine by Jonah Education of Girls by June In the Kitchen by Jillian
3: The Milliner by Ruth The milliner was a person, usually a woman, who made and sold clothes in colonial days. They also sold fabric, thread, trim as well as hats, purses, children's clothes and toys, cosmetics, jewelry, books and dishes. One important point is that a woman could own the milliner business and not be married. That was unusual in that time. Don't think that they just made a dress because there were lots of things that went under the clothing. They had lots of layers including a shift, stays which like its name, made the garments stay in place. Stockings were held up with ribbons and petticoats and hoops which were worn under the skirts. The clothes were made of cotton, linen or silk.
4: Wheelwrights by Leo Do you want to learn about the people that made wheels in Colonial times? They were called wheelwrights. They made wheels for wagons, carriages, carts, wheel barrows and lots more. They made wheels out of wood and metal. They were very important in Colonial times. There were lots of steps that the wheelwrights had to go through to make the wheels. First, wheelwrights made a hub, which is the piece in the middle that holds the wheel spokes in place. The hubs wood was seasoned for several years because it needs to be very strong. Next he would of put a hollow, metal tube into a box in the middle of the hub. The box holds a rod called an axle, which connects a pair of wheels so they would roll together. The next step was to make a dozen wood spokes.
5: After that he would cut square holes called mortise holes for the spokes to go into and cut tenors, a square onto the ends of the spokes so he could put the spokes on to the hub. He would make sure each tenon fits each spoke in their mortis holes using a sledge hammer. When all the spokes were in place, he hammered all of them tightly into the hub. Once the spokes were attached to the hub, he made the wheel rims. The wheel rim was made of six to eight curved pieces of wood called fellas. The next step is that the wheelwright cuts two mortise holes into the fellas on the end of the spokes and have them fit tightly into the mortises on the fellows. Continued on the next page
6: Once the fellows and spokes war tight, the wheel gets its tires. The tire is a strip of iron that goes around the rim to tighten and protect it from wear. The blacksmith makes the tires and usually puts them on the wheels. The tire is heated to make it stretch and then it was slipped over the rim and doused in water to cook it and make it shrink. As it shrank, it squeezed the fellows tightly together to make the wheel stronger. This process took a long time.
7: Do you know how different colonial wheels are to modern day wheels? There are lots of differences but the main things they do have in common. Like the shape, the idea of a tire, the uses, and a few more! Here are some was that they are different- One way is that modern wheels are metal and old wheels were wood. Another is that modern tires are rubber and the old ones were iron. Still another difference is that there are spokes on old wheels and none on the modern tires. Last but definitely not least, that the old wheels and tires were handmade and modern tires are machine made. There are more differences but these are the basic ones. I hope you enjoyed learning about wheelwrights.
8: Colonial Blacksmith by Matt So you want to be a blacksmith? Are you sure? Being a blacksmith is hard work, you need to work the bellows, keep water near and make iron items. If you are still up for it read on. You're probably wondering, “What are the bellows?” Well the bellows are a big leather bag with a chain on the end at the top of the chimney. When you pull on the chain, it would blow a gust of wind on the fire making it bigger. You will also be using an anvil. The anvil is a block of steel you use to hammer hot iron on. So you've come this far so I will tell you the kinds of things you would make. You will be making things like guns, knives, horseshoes, pots, pans, nails, padlocks, tools and more. Still up for it??
10: Colonial Entertainment by Eitan You want to know about colonial entertainment? There were many types of games and entertainment. Archery was old but it was a way to getting food for the colonists. Horseback racing was good entertainment for the colonists because they would bet on with horse would win. Colonists also played rouders which is a game similar to soccer.
11: One of the most popular sports was fishing because it provided food for the colonists. Children played hopscotch and leapfrog. Adults played quoits, a game like horseshoes today. Not everyone enjoyed these games. High church priests thought that playing games is a privilege and that you should work for god more than play games. No games were allowed on Sunday; it was considered holy and was reserved for going to church. Other games that they played to pass the time came from Europe and were cruel. Some colonists liked cock fighting where two roosters fought till one died. One more cruel game involved a rooster getting pulled on in a tug of war! Colonists also played games in taverns such as dowels, skittles and darts.
12: Colonial Blacksmiths by Zach There were many types of blacksmiths in colonial days. There were gunsmiths, filesmiths, and locksmiths. Gunsmiths made guns, the filesmiths made files and the locksmiths made locks and keys. They also made plows, hoes, rakes, pots, pans and sickles. The blacksmith shop was called a smithy and they were usually at the corner of two main roads. The forge was the most important part of the smithy. The blacksmith had to know the size and temperature of the fire and what colors made the iron more malleable. Dull red made smooth iron, white hot was the most flexible. When they wanted to make the fire hotter, they added more coals and blew air on it with a bellows, and when they wanted to cool it down, they flicked water on it with a washer which is a bundle of twigs. At night they had to keep their fire going so they covered it in ashes and in the morning poked it and blew on it until it caught on.
13: There were many tools that were used also. The vise was used to hold hot iron. There was a bucket of water for quenching or cooling the iron, and they had an anvil that had a horn, and a hardy and a heel, a chipping block and a pritchet hole. They had many pairs of hot tongs and a bunch of hangers.
14: Colonial Finance by Ben Have you ever seen shells as money? Colonial money was originally shells called wampum and was valued by both the colonists and the Indians. Wampum came from the quahog, a sea creature. By 1661, it had completely lost value and was no longer used. People bartered, using their crafts and good to get things they needed.
15: In the early 1600s, the English did not mint currency but the French minted the “louis d'or” a gold coin, and the petit ecu, a silver coin. The most used coin in the colonies, though, was the Spanish piece of eight”. The English colonies could not mint money, but the colonies assemblies made bills. Some bills would pay the possessor a fraction of a piece of eight, while others were used to pay back soldiers. Bills back then could be exchanged for actual gold, silver or coins. (The coins back then were very valuable not just like quarters). Back then, the bills were paper, like ours, but unlike ours, some people didn't’ value them until the colonies put seals on them. Banks back then were either owned by wealthy tycoons or some mills and millers looked after people's money.
16: The Colonial Farmer by Coby Do you want to know about colonial farmers? They made their own clothes, grew their own food, built their own homes and make a living from the lands. In their houses there would be a lot of food like corn, onions, garlic, peppers, herbs and dried beans that were hanging from the rafters.
18: Colonial Games by Nicole Do you think you could live without any electricity? Well the children that lived in Colonial Days didn't have a choice. They played lots of different games instead. Some you may have heard of but there are some you might not. Pinch, no Smiling was one of the parlor (living room) games that were played when they had guests over. Everyone would sit in a circle; two would go into the middle and pinch each other's noses until one smiled. If you smiled then you were the loser and would have to give up either one of its precious jewels, dolls or small toy. They would have the chance to win it back again in the next round. If you didn't want to give up one of your toys, you had the opportunity to do something to make everyone laugh. There were also other games like Dumb Crambo and corn husking.
19: There were lots of games that we play today like Twenty Questions, but now we have the electronic version. In the Colonial Days, they used their mouths for some of the games like Apple Bobbing. There was also Pick Up Sticks, Duck, Duck, Goose, Tug of War, Football, Baseball, Buzz and Lacrosse.
20: Colonial Medicine by Jonah Do you make your own medicine? Well back in colonial times, they did make their own medicine. They had some books about medicine in their houses so they could make it. They had to make their own medicine since not everyone could afford to have their own doctor. Some people had old doctors where they learned how to make their own medicine. They learned for about six years. Even though there were doctors, most people didn't trust them. Some people bought drugs from merchants. One of the medicines was made of the foxglove plants to help heal scabs.
21: The medicine is much different now because now we have a lot more materials and more high tech equipment. It is also different now because we have chemicals, vitamins and artificial flavoring. Back then they only had plants to use.
22: Education of Girls in Colonial America by June Back in Colonial times, girls were expected to marry and have children. They would be taught the skills to raise children and run the home. They did this by observing and helping mothers. From a young age they learned from and helped their mother. Richer girls learned to watch over and organize servants, host parties and plan meals. Others learned the arts of sewing, budgeting money, making preserves, cooking and working in the garden. Most rich people would hire tutors for their daughters. The tutors would be responsible to teach them etiquette and Bible verses. They had to learn these things by heart since there were not enough books to look at.
23: A few teens learned writing, reading and arithmetic. Most families preferred to teach their girls in entertainment, dance and music. The parents thought this would attract proper spouses for their daughters. A lot of daughters began to sew and knit at the age of 4 or 5. It was illegal for a slave to learn to read or write but some colonists secretly did teach them how to do so. Mothers who were slaves taught their girls to cook, sew and mind how they behaved in front of their masters. Slaves had little time to relax.
24: In the colonial kitchen you would find women, children, slave women and slave children while the men were working. The women and slave women would cook for the white people and the slave women would have to go back to her living area and cook for her family. Children would have to make butter in a butter churn, gather the eggs, and fetch water from the stream and skin potatoes. | In the Colonial Kitchen by Jillian
25: This was one of the tools used in the kitchen. While we would use a peeler today, they had only knives to use to skin the vegetables.
26: Works Cited Behrens, June, and Pauline Brower. Colonial Farm. Chicago: Childrens, 1976. Print. Fisher, Leonard Everett. The Limners: America's Earliest Portrait Painters. New York: Benchmark /Marshall Cavendish, 2000. Print. Kalman, Bobbie, and Antoinette DeBiasi. Colonial Crafts. New York, NY: Crabtree Pub., 1992. Print. Kalman, Bobbie, and Barbara Bedell. The Blacksmith. New York: Crabtree Pub., 2002 Kalman, Bobbie, and Barbara Bedell. Games from Long Ago. New York, NY: Crabtree Pub., 1995. Print Samuel, Charlie. Entertainment in Colonial America. New York: PowerKids, 2003. Print. Samuel, Charlie. Medicine in Colonial America. New York: PowerKids, 2003. Print Samuel, Charlie. Money and Finance in Colonial America. New York: PowerKids, 2003. Print. Walker, Niki, and Barbara Bedell. Colonial Women. New York: Crabtree Pub., 2003. Print.
27: Works Cited Images Colonial Currency: www.shutterstock.com/ Wheelright: www.history.org/ Colonial Blacksmith www.pics4learning.com/