S: Stellar Astronomy - Monique O'Ryan
BC: Made by Madam Monique O'Ryan For use on Hogwarts Online
FC: Stellar Astronomy A course taught by Monique O'Ryan
1: Index Course Syllabus - pages 1 - 6 Lesson 1 - pages 7 - 8 Lesson 2 - pages 9 - 10 Lesson 3 - pages 11 - 13 Forward Welcome to the official textbook for the class ASTR401: Stellar Astronomy on Hogwarts Online, as taught by Madam Monique O'Ryan. Contained within is all the information that you, the student, need to pass this course. Contact Madam Monique O'Ryan if you have any questions which are not covered here. Have a good term!
2: Course Outline: Title and Number: ASTR401: Stellar Astronomy Course Aim: By the end of this course, students should be able to answer all questions that they may encounter in the OWL and NEWT testing. The main focus of the course is stellar objects, that is, object which are found in the sky. This excludes planets and mythological constellations, as these are covered in other courses within the department. Course Pre-prerequisites: It is assumed that a student taking (or thinking of taking) this class has passed Introduction to Astronomy and/or is a 3rd year or higher. Quill value: Only one quill can be awarded for this course Lesson Plan This class will consist of four lessons, of two weeks each, maybe longer. Homework is given each lesson, to be completed before the final exam, which will be open book.
3: Lesson 1: What is a Supernova? After basic introductions, the class will jump right in to the well known stellar object of supernovae. The class will watch a video of the creation of one, following the death of a star and asked to give their view on it. The types of supernova will be discussed, as well as how they are named. Lesson 2: Black Holes Another well known stellar object. Students will be asked what they already know about black holes. We will discuss why they are so named and what they do. Lesson 3: Stellar Objects This lesson looks at asteroids, comets and stars. We will discuss what each of these things are, what they look like. Students will be asked to give their views on each of the objects and the myths and stories surrounding them. Lesson 4: A field trip, which is being arranged by Madame Monique O'Ryan. The homework for this class will be obtaining a signed permission slip from the students parent/guardian. Activity on the trip to be determined.
4: Grading Each lesson, each student will be awarded a mark depending on participation (posting). For a post to count, it must be at least 5 sentences long. Posting 3 times awards a student an A, 5 times an E, 6+ an O. Homework will be marked by points, an attempt guarantees an A, higher marks for better results. The final will be based purely on points, following the OWL and NEWT scale below. The quill awarded will be determined by combining these three elements thusly: Participation: 20% Homework: 20% Final: 60%
5: Scale: O - Outstanding (90-100%) E - Exceed Expectations (80-89%) A - Acceptable (70-79%) P - Poor (60-69%) D - Dreadful (50-59%) T - Troll (0-49%) Extra Credit Students who feel they are falling behind or are absent for real life reasons (sickness for example) will be given extra credit opportunities. This will most likely involve role play situations, where the student needs to perform a task that may/may not be related to the class. This also applies to students who know they will be absent in advance. Students are advised to contact Madame Monique Lewis to organize extra credit in this situation.
6: Quill/Grade Reassessment Policy: If a student feels they deserved a higher grade than that given, they are entitled to request reassessment. The Department Chair for this course is Prof. Stella Giordano. Plagiarism: Plagiarism is unacceptable in this class. Students are to credit any resources, and may be given a failing grade for a task if it could be plagiarized. Any issues with homework etc. are to be PM'd to Madame Monique O'Ryan. Student Responsibilities: It is up to the individual student to complete tasks given in the class by their due date or inform the Professor of their inability. If a students is absent, it falls to them to inform the Professor directly (by PM) of their absence from the class, or risk being dropped. In exchange, the Professor is responsible for ensuring that students who do the work pass the class and are awarded the appropriate quill.
7: Lesson 1 Supernovae are stellar explosions that are more energetic than a nova, the explosion which occurs at the death of a star. The earliest recorded supernova was in 185, which was observed by the Chinese. Since then, many more have been seen and studied by Astronomers. | The Crab Nebula
8: In our galaxy supernovae are rare, at the rate of two per century, but they are more common in the rest of the universe. There are two types, Type I and Type II which are split into Types Ia, Ib, Ic, IIL and IIP. Supernova discoveries are reported to the International Astronomical Union's Central Bureau for Astronomical Telegrams, which sends out a circular with the name it assigns to it. The name is the year of discovery, immediately followed by a one or two-letter designation. The first 26 supernovae of the year are designated with a capital letter from A to Z. Afterward pairs of lower-case letters are used: aa, ab, and so on.
9: Lesson 2 A black hole is a region of space resulting from the collapse of a star. It has an extremely high gravitational field. | Around a black hole there is a mathematically defined surface called an event horizon that marks the point of no return. It is called "black" because it absorbs all the light that hits the horizon, reflecting nothing. In 1974, however, Stephen Hawking discovered that Black Holes were not entirely black, but emit small amounts of thermal radiation.
10: Despite its invisible interior, the presence of a black hole can be inferred through its interaction with other matter. The opposite of a black hole, that is a hypothetical region cannot be entered from the outside, but from which matter and light may escape is called a white hole.
11: Asteroid - Any of numerous small celestial bodies that revolve around the sun, with orbits lying chiefly between Mars and Jupiter and characteristic diameters between a few and several hundred kilometres. Also called minor planet, planetoid. | Comets - A celestial body, observed only in that part of its orbit that is relatively close to the sun, having a head consisting of a solid nucleus surrounded by a nebulous coma up to 2.4 million kilometres (1.5 million miles) in diameter and an elongated curved vapour tail arising from the coma when sufficiently close to the sun. Comets are thought to consist chiefly of ammonia, methane, carbon dioxide, and water. | Lesson 3
12: Stars - any of a vast number of celestial objects that are visible in the clear night sky as points of light. There are 8 types of stars. A group of stars in a particular area are called constellations, and make up images when joined. Galaxy - a system of planets, stars and other stellar objects that are bound together by gravitational forces. The galaxy we are in is the Milky Way. They are categorised according to their shape into elliptical or spiral galaxies. Galaxies are known to collide as they move around the universe. | Milky Way Galaxy (on the left) and our Sun (to the right)
13: Planet - a celestial body orbiting a star or stellar remnant that is massive enough to be rounded by its own gravity, is not massive enough to cause thermonuclear fusion, and has cleared its neighbouring region of solid objects. Pluto was declassified as a planet in 2006, due to it's inability to clear it's neighbouring region. | Our Planet Earth