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Structure and Movement: Prostheses

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Structure and Movement: Prostheses - Page Text Content

FC: Uses of Prostheses Across Time Mrs. Whitley's 7th Grade

1: Mrs. Whitley's 7th grades students researched the use of prostheses in different time periods of history. The following pages show what they found.

2: Japan formally gives up on the deck of the U.S. battle ship Missouri, ending world war 2. National Yang - Ming University of Taiwan in 1945-1999 has only 41 cases in history of prostheses. Prostheses refers with bones, skin, and muscles. The skeletal system is actually bones. Bones make up the body's size and shape.Bones supply support for the body and protect soft tissues. Bone is what makes every inch of our body such as fingers, arms, legs, nose, toes, even your skull. Muscle contracts and relaxes. Muscles contract so you can move parts of your body. With out muscle you wouldn't be able to walk, talk, sit,or stand. Muscle like bones play a big part in how your body can survive. Muscles allow your body to function in its every day life from getting out of bed in the morning to eating dinner that night with out muscles we would be dead considering than your heart is a muscle it's self. Skin is the outer layer of the body. Skin keeps muscles, bones, nerves, joints, ligaments any part of the body you can think of inside. Along with keeping things in it keeps things out such as harmful pesticides. Skin I guess you can say serves as a protective layer to the body.

4: THE DARK AGES-476 TO 1000 By:Valerie Ewing and Alexis Holland The dark ages saw little advancement in prosthetics other than the hand hook and the peg leg. Most prosthetics of the time were made to hide deformities or injuries sustained in battle. A example is a knight will be fitted with a prostheses that was design to hold a shield or for a leg to appear in the stirrups, with little attention to functionality. Outside of battle an only the wealthy were lucky enough to afford or be fitted to have the peg leg or hand hook for daily function. It was common for tradesmen, including armorers, to design and create artificial limbs. People of all trades often contributed to making the devices; watchmakers were particularly instrumental in adding intricate internal functions with springs and gears. The first of its kind the iron artificial leg was made by a brilliant man named Ambrose Pare he was the first known to employ an articulated knee joint.

6: Prostheses in Ancient Rome Prostheses are commonly used to replaced parts of the body that are formed due to congenital defect. Archaeologist's found evidence of prostheses in Ancient Rome that were made to replace missing lower limbs.These devices date back to 300 B.C and were made from wooden core coated with hammered metal plates.The replacement limb was the strapped with leather to the remaining stump and used to replicate normal ambulation. These devises were formed by blacksmiths, metal workers, and armor makers because they were skilled in the blending of wood, metal, and leather. The limbs found in Ancient Rome lacked the sophistication of joints found in those developed by the Egyptians.

10: PROSTHETICS!!!!!! BY: KAYLA CARTER and JENNIFER STEWART Over the last few decades scientist have been able to improve prosthetic devices. Prostheses are the design of prosthetic devices. In 1946 a major advancement was made in the attachment of lower limbs. Since there were low amounts of amputees during World War 1 there was not any significant development until World War 2. In response to the pilot of World War 2, amputees, The National Academy of Science established the Artificial Limb Program. An aluminum prosthetics's was invented by: Marcel and Charles Desoutter. Better and lighter like aluminum and plastic were joined to the mechanical ones prostheses became more comfortable and easier to use. Prostheses can be designed as life like as possible. Advances biomechanical understanding the development of new materials such as plastic and the use of computer aided design and manufacturing have all contributed to the creation of many new prosthetics. .

12: Within the next five years, advanced prosthetics may achieve what was thought to be impossible :A fully dexterous limb system available to consumers. A fully dexterous limb is a system that can work from end to end. They can flex their fake fingers or toes. They have made a springy ankle nicknamed Sparky. Theres a guy named Oscar Pistorous . He had a prosthetic legs and feet and wanted to be in the Olympics, but was disqualified because he was to fast.

14: The Egyptians were one of the first people to use prosthetics's.Volunteers who are missing their big toe are testing to see how effective the false toe is.A fake Egyptian toe was found in a tomb near the city of basin in 2000.The fake toe dates back up to 664 b.c.if the fake toe helps walking or balance then the history of prosthetics will be pushed back 600 years.

20: Wartime always pushes surgery beyond its limits, and it is not surprising that most of the advances in prosthetics have taken place during wars. The American Civil War (1861–65) was especially gruesome when it came to maiming healthy young men, and over 30,000 amputations were performed on the Union side alone. A manufacturer in New York priced its wooden socket limbs anywhere from $75 to $150. Most of these prostheses differed little from those of a century before, and it was not until the two twentieth-century world wars that any real progress was made in the design and manufacture of artificial limbs. During and after World War II (1939–45), newer and lighter materials like plastics and aluminum were joined to newly update mechanical joints, and for the first time, prostheses became more comfortable and easier to use. With postwar research supported by the U.S. Veteran's Administration, mechanical arms were developed whose hook end could open or close with a shrug of the shoulder. Advances were also made in above-knee and below-knee devices for amputees. Following the Vietnam War during the 1960s and 1970s, a new wave of needy amputees spurred further refinements in prosthetics, and by then electronic control was being introduced. Prosthetics legs and stuff have a long history .there are a lot of different devices to replace a missing arm and leg missing limbs may be a birth defect or accident. The oldest prostheses was discovered in a tomb in Capua Italy it was made of copper and wood.

22: Artificial eye An ocular prosthesis or artificial eye replaces an absent natural eye following an evisceration, or orbital exoneration. The prosthetic fits over an orbital implant and under the eyelids. Typically known as a glass eye, the ocular prosthesis roughly takes the shape of a convex shell and is made of medical grade plastic acrylic. A few ocular prosthetics today are made of cryolite glass. A variant of the ocular prosthesis is a very thin hard shell known as a sclera shell which can be worn over a damaged eye. Makers of ocular prosthetics are known as ocularists. An ocular prosthetic does not provide vision; this would be a visual prosthetic. Someone with an ocular prosthetic is totally blind on the affected side and has monocular (one sided) vision which affects depth perception. Tyler and Derrick

24: Prosthetic Fingers (: A prosthetic finger is something that restores function back to that finger. It’s close to 10,000 dollars per finger to get a prosthetic finger. Prosthetic finger us controlled independently, giving you a grip that is strong enough to do most everyday tasks including supporting the weight of a full coffee cup or type on the keyboard of the computer. A prosthetic finger can replace a real finger without any kind of electronics. About one in one hundred and fifty people have lost a finger or hand to war because of misadventure or misfortune. Sometimes you will hear that a prosthetic finger and an x-finger are the same thing but there is a big difference between them. The prosthetic finger is a hard feeling slip that goes over the nub and it looks like a real finger but it is a fake finger, and the x-finger is a robot type thing that gets hooked to a muscle and an nerve and when you try to move your fingers they will move your fingers and they will move. And there are some facts about the present time of the Prosthetic Finger (: There are NO MUCLES in the finger themselves. Muscles in the forearm are connected to the finger bones by smooth, flexible strings called tendons. The muscles pull on the tendons, which then bend the finger joints. The tendons that bend the fingers run through a tunnel or sheath trigger finger is caused by a thickening on the tending catching as it runs in and out of the sheath. BY: Bailey Morris and Josie Hooper’s science project on The Prosthetic Fingers (:

26: Prosthetic Feet In our project we are doing prosthetic feet of the future and here are some ideas that we thought of. First of all on the prosthetic feet today they are almost like wooden and we were thinking of making it rubber to make it feel like it’s real. We could take a piece of bone from the leg and drill it into the ankle and hook magnets to it, so they could take the foot off when ever they wanted to or felt like they needed to. There is really no single foot in an amputee. Your doctor or prosthetist doctor can choose the foot because it depends on the amputation level, like how high the amputation is up your leg. There are 2 kinds of prosthetic feet, and we want to make the third kind. Like we said above that we want to make the whole foot feel and look like a real foot that hasn’t been amputated. It can actually have toes that look like real toes and have toe nails on it. We have come up with more than one type of foot. Like the Elastic Keel Foot. This foot is very flexible. The foot would be able to be used like the regular foot is. These feet will look, bend, flex and work like real foot. The other kind of foot is the SACH foot. It is the simpler one of the two feet. This foot is rigid and don’t move like the other foot, and like a regular foot. This foot has a rubber heel, and it only allows a little bit of ankle movement. With our foot that we are inventing you can be active with it, and do all the same sports like running, walking, cheering, playing basketball, baseball, football, doing gymnastics and whatever else sport you want to do. By ; Lacey Tucker and Keely Moore

32: Back in the 1900’s during World War 1, prosthetic arms and legs weren’t invented, so if a soldier was shot, instead of going to the hospital and getting bandaged and helped, they had to go to a one-room building where someone had to patch them up. If it was a serious wound, where the soldier had been shot, they couldn’t get the bullet out back then so suppose a soldier got shot in the leg, they had to saw off his leg and he had to just deal with it, but if it was just a small cut that soldier was simply bandaged up with gauze and was laid down to rest awhile to give the bruise time to heal.

34: Pirate Hooks The hook was originated by peter pan most pirates lost their hand in a battle. They would use stuff around the ship there materials were hooks and some leather or a wooden bowl placed over a stump with a hook and metal put together by a black smith. By: Marcus Thompson, Dylan Cheek

38: Rajah and Kendal An artificial big toe found on the foot of an Egyptian mummy could prove to be the world's earliest functioning prosthetic body part, it was announced today. Volunteers who have lost their right big toe are now being recruited to see how effective replicas of the prosthesis are.

40: Prosthetic Arms Prostheses arms are different today from the old ones. The older kinds are wooden. The ones today are metal and you can do a lot more with the ones we have today. Scientists are trying to make it work better. So that you can pick things up that is five pounds. Scientist want to make it looks like your skin color. They want the arm to bend like normal. By: jasmine and Sydney

42: Face prosthetics Chrissy Steltz had an accidental gunshot wound to the face, when she was 16.She had no face for over ten years. It Included her eyes, cheeks, nose, and upper jaw. She won’t yet have a nose but she has a rectangular opening for the nose so she could breathe. The person who shot her was only five feet away from her. They have to give her a new face. She had a two month old son she had to take care of. I wonder how she did!!!!!!!

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