FC: The Subarctic Natives | By: Perry Osler, Josh Horowitz and Benji Maged
1: Table of Contents | Pg.1 Table Of Contents Pg.2,3 Geographical Location and Main Tribes in Area Pg.4 Shelter Pg.5 Clothing Pg.6,7 Food sources and dishes Pg.8,9,10,11 Beliefs of Origin / Legends Pg.12,13 Beliefs and coming of age ceremonies Pg.14 Social Structure Pg.15 Transportation Pg.16 Art Pg.17 Tools Pg.18 Weapons Pg.19 Today's Natives Pg.20 Bibliography
2: Geographical Location And Main Tribes In Area The geographical location of the Subarctic Natives is a vast area from Labrador to the Bering Sea. The Sub-Arctic Natives are in the northward extension of the Plains, Cordillera, Alaska Plateau and Alaska Natives. The main portion of the tribe’s land is in the Canadian Shield. There is a 30 - 40C temperature range. The average temperature in January is -10C, and in July the average temperature is + 15C. There are 100 – 140 days with an average of over 5C. Yearly there is an average of 1 600 hours of sunshine. There is an average of 5 days of thunder storms yearly, and the annual snowfall is 100 – 200 centimetres of snow. The vegetation regions are the Boreal Forest and Barren Grounds. The main tribes in the area are the Taiga Plains, Boreal Plains, Taiga Cordillera, Boreal Cordillera, Prairie, Hudson, Alaska Plateau, and Alaska Natives. The Sub-Arctic Natives have a large amount of land which everyone loves.
3: The area of the Subarctic natives (Area in dark blue)
4: SHELTER The natives lived in different kinds of shelter. All of these different shelters used by the Subarctic Natives were very interesting. One example of a shelter would be the igloo. To make an igloo you needed hard snow. In current houses you walk through a door to get in your house but with the igloo you crawl through a tunnel. The Subarctic Natives would take a knife and cut the snow. Then they would put the snow on the igloo. They would usually make it so it would be able to be taken down. The reason the Natives would take it down is because they needed better fishing, so they would have to move. Another type of shelter was called a conical lodge. The conical lodge had poles sticking out of the ground and was put together in a cone. It was just like a tepee. The cover was on the outside, it was made out of caribou hide, birch bark, and spruce. At night, a fire was put in the room because it was cold. The Subarctic Natives would put the fire in the middle of the room so that the smoke could escape through the hole in the roof. | The Subarctic Natives lived in igloos and a conical lodges.
5: CLOTHING The Subarctic Natives had many types of clothing to keep them warm during the hot and cold seasons. They had long cloth to protect themselves from bugs. The bugs were black flies and mosquitos in spring. The Subarctic Natives wore layers depending how hot or cold it was. They wore one layer if it was a warm month and they had two layers in a cold month. It was made out of animals such as caribou, moose, beaver, marmot, squirrel, or hare hide. The Subarctic Natives also wore fur parkas. They wore kamiks and mukluks which were sealskin boots. They mostly had light clothing but they sometimes wore heavy clothing when it was cold outside. They even had winter sleeping robes because it was really cold outside. They had an extra layer made out of rabbit skin. This is what the Subarctic people used clothing for. | The shoes that the Subarctic Natives used | The coat the Subarctic Natives had
6: SUBARCTIC FOOD The Subarctic Natives ate a lot of different types of food. One of the main foods for the Subarctic Natives was fish. It was very hard for the Subarctic Natives to find fish because they could only fish in the summer. They got their food for the winter in the summer because it was very cold outside in the winter and harder to find food. They ate the fat, the bones, and the blood of the fish since they rarely had it they made the most of it. The Subarctic Natives ate Arctic char. They ate fish raw, frozen, dried, and cooked. But of course, the Subarctic Natives did not only eat fish they ate many other things too. They also ate a lot of nutrients and vitamins. They had vegetables only in the summer because the soil froze in the winter. Lastly, they ate seaweed, nuts, berries and bannock, a type of bread. As you can see, the Subarctic Natives ate a lot of different types of food. Food Dishes The Natives had very delicious food dishes. The Natives also had a very healthy diet made up of meat, fat, berries, nuts and bread. One of their food dishes is Pemmican, a dish made from dried meat, animal fat, berries and nuts. The mixture was then mashed together then dried or stored in containers. The Natives took it on long journies because pemmican didn’t spoil. Animal meat was prepared in many different ways. It could be salted, dried and smoked (I told you everyone likes deli meat). Meals often included Bannock (a type of bread). Bannock was made with flour, salt, baking powder and water. It was usually served with honey or jam.
7: This is a picture of fish.The Subarctic Natives ate a lot of fish.
8: Beliefs of Origin/Legends People before creation were wild and didn’t know how to do anything. The creator didn’t like how they lived, so he thought he would make a new world. He picked up four buffalo chips and put 3 chips under 3 sticks, supporting the chief pipe and saved one for himself. After the creator sang three times, shouted three times, and kicked the earth. The earth cracked and water came out of the cracks. It rained heavily for many days and nights, until water covered the earth. Because of the buffalo chips, the creator and his pipe drifted for days. All the animals and birds drowned except for Crow. Crow cried, “My father, I’m tired. I want to rest.” He said that phrase three times until the creator let the crow rest on the pipe with him. The creator cried that he didn’t want to be in the same position forever. He unwrapped the chief pipe because that was where the animals were. He took the animals with a long breath out of the pipe to dive for mud. First he selected a large loon which was not alive, but the creator sang to it until it was alive again. After the large loon was alive, the creator commanded it to go in the water to get some mud. Halfway down the large loon lost his breath and came up for air. The poor loon was almost dead when he came up for air. After that attempt with the large loon, the creator selected a small loon. The same thing happened to the small loon as the large loon.
9: The small loon wasn’t alive but the creator sang to it and commanded it to dive for mud. Small loon was almost at the bottom but had to come up for air and was almost dead when he came up. So the creator selected the turtle. He wasn’t alive but after the creator sang to him he became alive. When the turtle dove for mud, he got mud all over his feet and sides. Sadly, the mud was washed away before he could come up. The creator asked, “Did you reach the mud?” The turtle replied, “I had some along my sides but it got washed away before I came up.” The creator wanted the turtle to come to him to see if he could find any mud. The creator was so happy when he found some mud along the sides of the turtle. The creator sang three times, shouted three times and sprinkled the mud in the water little by little. Then there was a strip of land enough for him and the crow. Then he took two feathers from the pipe. He sang three times, and shouted “You hou hou,” three times. The creator closed his eyes and said, “Let there be land as far as my eyes can see.” Lo and behold, when he opened his eyes there was land as far as his eyes can see. When the creator was thirsty he cried, and that made a spring. Soon water ran from the stream. That is how he made all the streams in the world. After the creator made the streams, he molded some earth into the shapes of men and women. He molded until he had many men and women, he also molded earth into different kinds of animals. He gave names to every species of animals and names to every person.
10: He sang three times, shouted three times and kicked the earth. Many living creatures stood before him, and the creator told everybody that he called the world Turtle because Turtle helped the world create it. Then he made bows and arrows and taught the men how to use it. He said to the people that if they weren't good there would be no more water and fire destroying the earth. Long before the flood, the world was burned. Now this is the third life. The creator showed everyone the rainbow and told them that the rainbow is a sign that the earth will not be covered in water again. He told people to go off in pairs to find homes for themselves. That is why humans are scattered all over the world.
11: The world after the creator created it. | The crow is one important animal in the beliefs of origin of the Subarctic Natives.
12: Beliefs and Coming of Age Ceremonies The Subarctic Natives have very interesting beliefs and coming of age ceremonies in their culture. Spirits The Subarctic Natives believed that all things had spirits. They even believed that the earth had spirits. Anything with spirits must be respected. The children learned to understand and respect relationships to animals and other people in their band by going on a vision quest. Vision Quest Children went on the vision quest before they hit puberty. In preparation for the vision quest, they were told stories of the time when giant animals hunted humans. After the time when giant animals hunted humans, animals gave their lives so humans could live. The hero in the stories taught people how to track, capture animals and how to use them for food and clothes. A boy or girl went on the vision quest in the forest, alone. They stayed in the forest until they met a friend or protector in the form of an animal. When the child returned to camp, it meant that the child brought back the power of the animal they found and the wisdom of the hero in the stories. With the power of the animal and the knowledge of the hero, a new generation of men became able in their dreams, to get in touch with the animal that they would hunt. The Subarctic Natives' beliefs and coming of age ceremonies will not be forgotten.
13: This is a picture of the earth to represent the belief that every living thing has a spirit
14: Social Structure The Subarctic Natives had a very cooperative government. The communities were governed by the principles of cooperation, in which everyone decides, not one person. Even though the Natives used the principles of cooperation, elders were still looked up to. The community made the little decisions, like what to learn, answer religious questions etc. The elders made the bigger decisions like when to hunt, when to go to war, when to fish and when to harvest etc. The community ensured that their concerns and traditions were addressed through their own territory’s government. Whenever there were any debates about decisions, the community would always look up to the elders. At least they got along better than the different parties in Canada. | The Subarctic Natives had a very cooperative government.
15: TRANSPORTATION The Subarctic Natives had two ways of transportation. The Subarctic Natives traveled long distances. They used sleds and komatiks that were pulled from place to place by dogs. The sleds and komatiks were used to carry things and people from place to place .The Subarctic Natives traveled really long distances. The Subarctic Natives had another way of traveling. They traveled by umiaks. Umiaks were just like kayaks just bigger and had more room which made them more useful. The Subarctic Natives also used umiaks to trade resources with other tribes and the Europeans. As you can see, transportation was very useful and helpful to get to places for the Subarctic Natives. | This is a picture of an Umiak.
16: ART The Subarctic people had many ways of art. The woman wove baskets, stitched embroidery and applied porcupine quills. Porcupine quill work was ancient art. The materials available for it were glass and beads. Porcupine quills had to be pounded before they were made. They coloured it with natural dyes from plants and flowers. The women added texture, colour, and interest to groups. The basket art they had was centuries old. The Subarctic women made the baskets with what they could get. Only a little amount of tools were required. You can see by what I just told you, that the Subarctic Natives were very creative. | This is one of the more creative drawings of the Subarctic Natives
17: TOOLS Tools were used in different ways by the Subarctic Natives. Some of the tools they used were made of bones, wood, stones. The Europeans used hatchets, files and knives. They used chisels to cut ice. The Subarctic Natives used caribou hide to make snow shoes, fishing nets, bags. Women used spoons and ladles. They were made from wood or horns. They used bark from the birch tree to make their bowls. Tools were also used to make art. Some of the tools were called a dip to catch fish, gill nets, hook and line. Men made snowshoes, toboggans, canoes, sleds. The Subarctic Natives had a tool called the tumpline to help them carry heavy loads. There are many ways the tools are used by the Subarctic Natives. | This picture shows some of the tools they used to hunt and build.
18: WEAPONS The Subarctic Natives used weapons to hunt for food and to defend themselves. The Subarctic Natives had many different weapons. One of the Subarctic Natives main weapons was the harpoon. A harpoon was a wooden shaft made to hunt. The Subarctic Natives hunted seals with harpoons. The Subarctic Native children started using harpoons at the age of 8.The Subarctic Natives also had fights by hand. Subarctic Natives had tomahawks that they threw at enemies to kill them. The Subarctic Natives hunted humpback whales from 30 foot long range. The Subarctic Natives hunted monkeys and birds with blowguns. | This is a picture of a harpoon that the Subarctic Natives used to hunt animals.
19: TODAYS NATIVES Today’s Natives live quite differently from how they used to. Today’s Natives live in villages. The Natives have 300 to 1500 people living in one village. Today they can communicate and keep in touch by the internet. Back then they didn’t have internet to communicate. Now they use motorboats while in the water instead of kayaks. Today’s Natives use snowmobiles in the winter instead of dogsleds. Natives never used to go to school. These days all Native children go to school. Natives used to make their own clothes. Now Natives buy clothes at the store. The Natives used to eat only the food they had around them like fish. Now they can have different types of food from around the world like Chinese food and sushi. As you can see, the Subarctic Natives changed from then to now. | This is a picture of today’s Native with president Barack Obama.
20: Bibliography Banting, Erinn. Canadian Aboriginal Art and Culture Inuit. Calgary: Weigl, 2008 Howse,Jennifer Canadian Abriginal Art And Cultre Calgary Alberta:Weigl Educational Publishers limited ©2008 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Pied_crow.jpg http://firstpeoplesofcanada.com/fp_groups/fp_inuit4.html firstpeoplesofcanada.com/fp_subarctics.html http://.garyrvarner.webs.com/nativeamericanmythology.htm http://visibleearth.nasa.gov/view.php?id=57723 http://www.bushcraftuk.com/forum/showthread.php?t=27053 http://www.shutterstock.com/pic-71409910/stock-photo-canada-circa-stamp-printed-by-canada-shows-subarctic-indians-circa.html Ridington, Robin. People of The Trail. Vancouver: Canadian Catalouging, 1986 Stanford, Quinton. Canadian Oxford School Atlas. Ontario: Oxford University Press, 2004 Unknown. Origin Theories: Aboriginal Peoples’ Creation. Toronto: YRDSB document, unknown Unknown Source
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