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The Darker Part of America's History

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S: The Darker Part of America's History

FC: The Darker Part of America's History By Spencer Marshall History Friday, March 10

1: Causes of the War

2: The Civil War was the self-fueled battle between America's northern and southern states. Some historians argue that the Civil War was not about slavery- it was about the economic and social differences between the North and the South. The North was industrial. There was a large working class and many different cultures living in densely populated areas. Most people enjoyed the rights of citizenship. The South was agricultural, where privileged whites ruled over a large, black, enslaved population. Although the north was not made of slave states, people still felt that blacks were inferior and incompetent. Alexander Stephens, the Vice President of the Confederate States of America, said the reason for the Confederacy was to make a new government. The old America "rested upon the assumption of the equality of the races... Our new government is founded upon exactly the opposite ideas: its foundations are laid, its cornerstone rests, upon the great truth that the negro is not equal to the white man; that slavery is his natural condition."

3: The Missouri Compromise in 1819 banned slavery in states above the 36'30' N latitude in order to even out the votes in the Senate. After Maine joined the Union in 1820 Missouri was admitted as a slave holding state. This appeased both sides of the slavery issue. Compromise of 1850- California became a state and was slave free, but there needed to be another slave state to even the vote in the Senate. Henry Clay tried to fix this by creating a law that forced the return of escaped slaves. Clay also proposed that the new territories would have no limits on slavery. The slave trade was banned from Washington D.C. Congress passed five acts like these, which together are known as the Compromise of 1850. The Fugitive Slave Act was so passed in 1850 as an attempt to satisfy the anger of many slaveholders. It forced any person who came in contact with a runaway slave to return them to their master. This enraged the people of the North because this made slavery worse. Kansas-Nebraska Act- 1854-Illinois Senator Stephen A. Douglas proposed to take the region west of Missouri and Iowa and split it into two states. He thought that since they were set in the area designated by the Missouri Compromise they would be free. However, slaveholders from Missouri entered Kansas and turned it into a pro-slavery state. This was met with violence in Kansas as well as Congress.

4: Battle Strategies

5: Many generals in the Civil War went to West Point Military Academy and served together in the Mexican War and other posts. Both sides had different views on how to win the war. The presidents also played a part in the War. Jefferson Davis attended West Point and was criticized as being too involved in Southern military affairs, while Abraham Lincoln knew little about military leadership. Lincoln struggled with incompetent leaders like McClellan and Burnside. The strategies of the North were based the tactics from the Mexican War. Winfield Scott, a Mexican War veteran and hero, proposed the Anaconda Plan. This consisted of cutting off rail lines, surrounding cities, and blockading ports, in order to squeeze the Confederacy to death. Another key mission was the capital of the South, Richmond. The South was hoping for support from Britain and France, two countries which bought southern cotton. The general strategy was to be on the defensive. This changed when Lee decided to attack Gettysburg during a strategic gap in the Federal defenses. Lee tended to take risks by splitting up his troops in many of the battles. Likewise, the South had planned to attack Washington, D.C.

7: Major Players

8: Abraham Lincoln was President of the Union and opposed to slavery. He wanted to limit slavery's expansion westward. He vowed to preserve the Union, even if it meant war. His election caused seven slave states to secede and form the Confederate States of America. Lincoln declared war on the CSA after the attack on Fort Sumter in April, 1861 and called for volunteers to help the Union and put down the rebellion. Then four more states left and joined the CSA. On September 22, 1862, Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation which freed Confederate slaves and encouraged black males to fight on the Union side. Only five days after the war ended, Lincoln was assassinated on April 14, 1865, by John Wilkes Booth. | Abraham Lincoln (1802-1865) 16th U.S President (1861-1865)

9: Jefferson Davis was born and raised in Kentucky and became a politician in Mississippi. He was Secretary of War under Franklin Peirce. He left the U. S Senate when Mississippi seceded in 1861. He was elected President of the CSA in 1861. Davis could not build a strong government because so many people believed in states rights to the extreme. However he was able to raise armies and put one of the strongest military leaders in charge of his army- Robert E. Lee. After the war, he was captured and imprisoned for two years, and then was released. He attempted to become a businessman and failed. He died in 1889. | Jefferson Davis (1808-1889) President, Confederate States of America (1861-1865)

10: Lee was an officer in the Army serving in Texas when the South seceded from the Union. He did not necessarily want to fight for slavery. However, he felt loyalty towards his home state, Virginia, and so he sided with the Confederacy. Lee stopped the Northern advance towards Richmond in the Seven Days battle, won the battle of Second Manassas, and saw victory at Fredericksburg and Chancellorsville. Following its defeat at Gettysburg in July 1863, Lee's army was put on the defensive until the surrender at Appomattox Courthouse on April 9, 1865. After the war, he became President at Washington and Lee University. His conduct was honored by many ex soldiers after the war. He died October 12, 1870. | Robert E. Lee (1807-1870) Commander, Army of Northern Virginia

11: Grant was a West Point graduate who was appointed to head of volunteers at the beginning of the war. He soon went up the ranks to General-in-Chief of the Union Army. He was in charge of the Vicksburg Campaign which split the Confederacy in half. Later, Grant and Robert E. Lee negotiated a surrender that would prevent treason trials. After the war, he was elected President of the United States (1869-1877), wrote a memoir and then died from throat cancer in 1885. | Ulysses S. Grant (1822-1885) General-in-Chief of the Union Army

12: Stonewall Jackson was considered one of the greatest commanders of the Civil War. Jackson was Lee’s right-hand man. A graduate from West Point who had served in the Mexican War, he was a teacher at the Virginia Military Institute when the war broke out. He earned his nickname at the battle of First Manassas when he was said to have stood like a stone wall. He led the famous Shenandoah Valley campaign in May and June of 1862 and was put in charge of half of Lee’s Army of Northern Virginia. He fought at Antietam, Second Bull Run, and Fredericksburg. After the Battle of Chancellorsville, he was accidentally shot by one of his own troops. His arm was amputated, but he developed pneumonia and died eight days later on May 10, 1863. | Thomas J. ‘Stonewall’ Jackson (1824-1863) General in the Confederate Army

13: Sherman was a West Point graduate who became Superintendent of Louisiana Military Academy, which he left when Louisiana seceded in 1861. He led units at First Bull Run, Shiloh, Vicksburg, and Chattanooga. In 1864, Sherman advanced towards Georgia in his famous March to the Sea. In his push towards the south, he led 60,000 Union troops, whom he instructed to burn any possible source of help for the Confederacy, including livestock and crops. He forced the surrender of the last large Confederate groups. After the war, he became commander-in-chief of the Army from 1869-1883. He retired from the Army in 1884, and died in 1891. | William T. Sherman (1820-1891) Commander of the Union Army in the West

14: Frederick Douglass was born a slave, but he was taught to read and write. He escaped from Maryland and went to Massachusetts, where he became a public speaker and writer. He was a strong abolitionist and defender of women’s rights, as well as an advisor of Abraham Lincoln. He requested equal pay and promotions for black soldiers in the Union. After the war, he continued to support civil rights, as well as supporting Ulysses S. Grant in his presidential campaign. He died in 1895. | Frederick Douglass (1818-1895) Orator, abolitionist, and anti-slavery lecturer.

15: Events

16: As the first major battle of the war, the Union believed a Confederate defeat would end the war immediately. The Union wanted to drive the Confederates away from D.C. Then, they would make a push towards Richmond to try and take control of the city. The Union believed that a small group would be an easy target, but more Confederate support arrived with General Stonewall Jackson. The Rebels were able to get enough reinforcements to overpower the Federals. The Union was turned back to D.C by Confederate forces that flanked and overwhelmed the Federals. The Union escaped with 2,900 killed, wounded, or captured and Confederate losses were 2,000 soldiers who were killed, wounded, or captured. | First Battle of Bull Run (Manassas) July 18-21, 1861 Manassas, Virginia

18: The Battle of Shiloh in Tennessee occurred in April of 1862. Confederate Generals Johnston and Beauregard had pulled back into Tennessee, Alabama, and northern Mississippi after losses of major Confederate forts. The Union’s plan was to join forces and cut off the Memphis and Charleston railroads, which were key supply routes for the South. General Grant and his men were taken by surprise when the Confederate General Johnston’s troops launched a sneak attack. Grant’s men at first were disorganized, but soon fell back to an area nicknamed “The Hornet’s Nest” which was on the high ground. After the initial shock of the attack, the Union was able to win the second day of battle due to excellent positioning and fortified positions on the ridge. 23,746 men were killed, wounded, or missing at the end of the battle. Both sides came to realize how truly terrible this war was going to be. | Battle of Shiloh April 6-7, 1862 Corinth, Tennessee

20: Battle of Antietam September 17, 1862 Hagerstown, Maryland | The Union wanted to take the town of Sharpsburg which was under Confederate control. The Union decided to attack Sharpsburg and force the Rebels over the Potomac River. The Rebels were forced onto a hill with Antietam Creek on one side and the Potomac on the other. The hill gave them a great advantage- it was elevated and very steep. General Ambrose Burnside decided to try and cross Antietam Creek. The currents were strong, however, and knee-deep mud slowed down the Union. Two miles downstream was another suitable crossing spot. By the time the Union got there, the Confederates had pulled out. Union casualties were 2,108 killed, 9,549 wounded, and 753 captured or missing compared to the Confederacy’s 1,512 killed, 7,816 wounded and 1,844 missing.

22: Abraham Lincoln had been considering freeing slaves for some time, but as the war continued, he felt he needed a decisive victory. The Union victory at Antietam only a few weeks earlier gave him the opportunity he had waited for. Effective on January 1, 1863, Lincoln declared that “all persons held as slaves within said designated States and parts of States are, and henceforward shall be, free”, and that their freedom would be protected by the government. This Proclamation did not free all slaves. It applied only to slaves held in Confederate states. He also told these slaves that they would be admitted to the U.S armed services. This introduced more volunteers to the Union cause, while also made the Southern soldiers more determined to fight. This was official word from the government that blacks would be considered citizens and be allowed to enjoy the same rights as whites. | Emancipation Proclamation September 22, 1862

24: Battle of Fredericksburg November 17- December 15 (fighting took place December 13- 15), 1862 Fredericksburg, Virginia | Maj. Gen. Ambrose Burnside was the newly-appointed commander of the Army of the Potomac when he marched 114,000 Union troops South towards Richmond. Waiting on the south shore of the Rappahannock River near Fredericksburg was Gen. Robert E. Lee and 72,500 Confederate soldiers. Burnside knew he had to cross the river and ordered pontoons. But a shipping delay extended the Union’s stay and gave the Confederates a heads up. When the Union army finally made its advance, they came under heavy fire from Confederate sharpshooters waiting in the hills above the river. The Union sustained heavy casualties in bloody house-to-house fighting as they attempted to scale up to the Confederate positions. General Lee, watching the battle from his position at Marye’s Heights famously said, “It is well that war is so terrible. We should grow too fond of it.”

26: After the defeat at Fredericksburg, Lincoln put Joseph Hooker in charge of the Army of the Potomac. Instead of confronting Lee at Fredericksburg as Burnside had, he decided to split up his army. Leaving half his troops at Fredericksburg, the other half went over the Rapidan and Rappahannock Rivers and tried to converge on Fredericksburg from the other side. Expecting Lee to retreat because of sheer numbers, Hooker rested at Chancellorsville. Word of Hooker’s position reached Lee. He decided to attack the Federals at Chancellorsville, leaving part of his army to guard Fredericksburg. Hooker setup a defensive line because he did not expect Lee to meet him. Lee then split his forces further. Jackson took the bulk of the army and attacked the Federals' unprotected right flank. After Jackson was shot he was replaced by J.E.B Stuart. Stuart advanced on the Federals and caused them to retreat. As they continued to press on the Federals, word was received that the Federals at Fredericksburg had broken through. Lee attacked these Union soldiers at Salem Church and went back to Chancellorsville, only to discover that the Union forces had retreated. | Battle of Chancellorsville May 1-3, 1863 Chancellorsville, Virginia

28: Battle of Gettysburg July 1-3, 1863 Gettysburg, Pennsylvania | After victory at Chancellorsville, Lee was given approval to push north into Union territory. At the same time, Union General Hooker was moving north. Finally the Rebels moved into Pennsylvania. Hooker was then replaced by General Meade. On July 1, the South began to push towards Gettysburg. On July 2, Lee split up his troops to attack the Union, who was prepared for this. By the end of that day, both sides lost 9,000 casualties, but the Confederates did not take Little Round Top, a hill that could provide them with artillery cover. The next day, Lee split up his troops again and decided not to retreat. The result of this was Pickett’s Charge, which was totally destroyed. The South was forced out of the Union states and the beginning of the end of the war began. The Federals suffered 23,000 casualties and the Confederates suffered 20,000-28,000 losses.

30: The Army of the Potomac was camping near Chancellorsville, Virginia and waiting for a supply train when they got word of enemy movement near what is now Orange County. These were Rebel soldiers led by J.E.B Stuart and James Longstreet. They had been told to attack the Union while they were in the wooded and difficult terrain of the Wilderness. Robert E. Lee split up his troops and had them go around and attack the Union from all sides. Heavy skirmishing raged on for hours. The next day, fighting continued but was stopped because of wildfires. The Union lost 17,666 out of 101,895 soldiers and the Confederacy lost 7,750 out of 61,025 soldiers. | Battle of the Wilderness May 5-7, 1864 Spotsylvania/Orange Counties, Virginia

32: Siege of Petersburg June 6, 1864- March 25, 1865 Petersburg, Virginia | The Siege of Petersburg was a series of battles that were marked by intense, 10 month-long trench warfare surrounding Petersburg and approaching the eastern side of Richmond. Petersburg was vital to the Confederacy. Located 23 miles south of Richmond, Petersburg had four railroad tracks going through it as well as one beside the city. All of these were supply tracks to Richmond, the Capital of the Confederacy. Both sides knew that if the Union took Petersburg, they could cut the supply lines and force the evacuation of Richmond. Fighting lasted 292 days. Finally, Grant’s forces wore down Lee’s defenses, seizing the supply lines and forcing the Confederates to evacuate Richmond. Surrender would occur only a few days later.

34: Sherman’s March to the Sea was one of the most destructive attacks on the Confederacy during the Civil War. In the early winter of 1864, William Tecumseh Sherman, a Union general, marched from Atlanta through South Carolina and Georgia, cutting a path of destruction. Sherman’s goal was to bring down the Confederate morale and exhaust the supplies that could in any way help the southern cause. Food and cotton crops were ruined, cattle were slaughtered, and some towns were burned. What was not destroyed was used to fuel the army. Not only did he damage the Confederate Army’s resources, but he also left the local inhabitants with nothing. There was little to no Confederate opposition and resistance was destroyed or scattered. Sherman marched to Savannah on December 10 and presented it as a Christmas gift to President Lincoln. | Sherman’s March to the Sea November 15, 1864- December 21, 1864 Atlanta to Savannah, Georgia

36: Surrender at Appomattox Courthouse April 9, 1865 Appomattox Courthouse, Virginia | Following defeat at Petersburg and the fall of Richmond, Lee retreated south to try and intercept supplies for his worn army. However, they were routed by Union forces. Grant, feeling that the end of the war was coming, sent a letter to Lee, requesting the surrender of the Army of Northern Virginia. After an exchange of respectful messages discussing the terms, Lee agreed to these. Grant ensured that no disgrace would be done to the soldiers; they would not be tried for treason, and they could keep their sidearms (swords, muskets, pistols, etc.), their horses, and other personal equipment. This made their defeat less bitter.

38: The assassination of President Abraham Lincoln only five days after the end of the Civil War, was a pivotal moment in American History. President Lincoln and his wife were attending a popular play with another couple when John Wilkes Booth, a young actor and Confederate sympathizer, entered Lincoln’s box and shot the unsuspecting president in the back of the head. After struggling with Maj. Henry Rathbone, who was attending the play with the Lincolns, Booth jumped from the box onto the stage twelve feet below, breaking his foot. In front of the astonished audience, he cried “sic semper tyrannis”, the state motto of Virginia, and fled on horseback. Lincoln died the next morning. Lincoln’s death quickly elevated him from a not-so-popular president to a martyr in the eyes of many Americans. Booth’s co-conspirators were rounded up and several were hanged. Booth himself was hunted down during an elaborate escape attempt. Federal troops set fire to a tobacco barn and shot Booth. He died near Port Royal, Virginia. Abraham Lincoln became an immortal figure in America’s History. | Lincoln’s Assassination April 15, 1865 Ford’s Theatre, Washington, D.C

41: Elements of the Era

42: Ironclad Weaponry

43: The C.S.S Virginia was originally the U.S.S Merrimack. It was seized by the Confederates in 1861 and changed into an ironclad. It travelled about 9 knots (about 10 miles per hour) and was run by boilers. The draft (or depth beneath the water) was 22 feet deep, too far down to be able to sail through shallow water. The ship was burned to the waterline and then had a new deck made. This made it lower on the water. The Virginia was then given an iron shell on its topsides to protect the sailors on the inside. The purpose of this ship was to sink wooden ships by ramming them or shooting them down. The Union’s U.S.S Monitor was a 172 foot long “cheesebox on a raft”. Monitor was the complete opposite of the Virginia - it was slower, it had less guns, and it was not as armored. However, it could fire faster than Virginia could, and the armor caused fire directed at it to ricochet. Its shorter draft allowed it to go up rivers and into shallow water where Virginia could not. The two ships fought at Hampton Roads on March 9, 1862. Virginia sunk two wooden ships, the U.S.S Congress and the U.S.S Cumberland. The Battle of Hampton Roads ended in a draw and damage to either ships was very small. Virginia’s smokestack was shot off. Monitor had been rammed in the hull. For three hours the ships battled. Finally, at midnight, the fighting ceased. Both ships returned back to port.

45: The women of the Civil War served in a large variety of ways. There were women in the South who ran the plantations while their husbands were away, sewed uniforms, and even left their homes, disguised as men, to fight. Many women left their homes to visit and nurse their husbands and brothers. Some even served as spies. One woman had enlisted, fought, been captured, and sent to Andersonville alongside her husband. One woman predicted that less than four hundred women served under fake names and identities in the Union. | The Role of Women

47: Many freedmen and former slaves joined the Federal armed forces, including the Navy. Almost 180,000 black men became Union soldiers, comprising 163 units and 10% of the Union forces. On July 17, 1862, Congress passed two acts that allowed slaves to join the army. Black regiments became legends known for their bravery at battles like Fort Wagner, where the 54th Massachusetts climbed up the fort’s ramparts and were backed off after hand-to-hand combat. Black Union soldiers took part in many battles and suffered heavy losses. These soldiers were subject to discrimination and unequal pay, but played an important role in the Union’s victory. African Americans were also active on the home front. Frederick Douglass wrote articles in newspapers that supported the abolitionist movement and helped recruit black soldiers. Slaves were also active in the south, maintaining plantations while their masters were away and fighting alongside Confederate soldiers. Others left or took over the plantations. But whatever they did or whatever cause they supported, they were an important source of help and assisted both sides in many ways. | The Role of African Americans

49: The war prison at Andersonville, Georgia, was one of the most horrific prison camps used during the Civil War. Measuring about 16 acres, Andersonville was at one point home to more than 33,000 Federal prisoners. Common diseases included dysentery, malaria, and scurvy. The water source was contaminated and stagnant; many prisoners were hospitalized. During the summer of 1864, the average number of deaths per day was 100. The only shelters were small tents that provided little protection from the elements. There was almost no medical treatment within this devastating encampment, which held over the years more than 45,000 Federal troops. More than 30% of these men died. These conditions were so terrible that Henry Wirz, Andersonville’s commandant, was tried and executed for war crimes. Another famous war prison, Elmira prison camp in New York, held 9,600 Confederates in a 40-acre enclosure which had bunkhouses. The death toll was near that of Andersonville’s. Most prison camps only provided ‘twenty-four hour rations’- one meal per day. | War Prisons

50: Spies

51: In a war where the rival capitals were less than one hundred miles apart and newspapers printed movement of armed forces, spies were priceless. Although neither side had any intelligence agency at the start of the war, spies proved to be vital in planning attacks and learning about large numbers of enemy troops on the move. Robert E. Lee had one spy bring back newspapers with military information in them for him to study and compare. This allowed him to shift his forces when McClellan pulled out. Although many men were spies, women proved to be a deadly force. Women were also at less risk: if they were caught, they were more likely to be imprisoned. This was because the people who caught them were men who viewed themselves as “gentlemen” and therefore could not bring themselves to hurt a woman.

52: Bibliography Burlingame, Michael. "Abraham Lincoln- A Life in Brief." Miller Center of Public Affairs. 2011. http://millercenter.org/president/lincoln/essays/biography/1 (accessed Mar 3, 2011). McCurry, Stephanie. "America's Worst Idea." American History, Dec 2010, 29-35 "A Short Biography of Frederick Douglass." FrederickDouglass.org. http://www.frederickdouglass.org/douglass_bio.html (accessed Feb 21, 2011). "Battle of Gettysburg." Civil War Home. 25 Nov 2006. http://www.civilwarhome.com/gettysbu.htm (accessed Mar 4, 2011). Battle Tactics of the Confederacy in the Civil War." Strategy and Tactics In The American Civil War. 26 Mar 2005. http://www.civilwarhome.com/confederatestrategy.htm (accessed Feb 17, 2011). “Cheesebox on a Raft.” Hyper Scale. 22 Oct 2003. http://hsfeatures.com/ussmonitorcl_1.htm (accessed Mar 4, 2011). "Day 3: July 3, 1863 - Pickett's Charge." Military History Online. http://www.militaryhistoryonline.com/gettysburg/getty32.aspx (accessed Feb 21, 2011). "First Manassas." AmericanCivilWar.com. http://americancivilwar.com/statepic/va/va005.html (accessed Feb 21, 2011). "Jefferson Davis." Civil War Home. http://www.civilwarhome.com/jdavisbio.htm (accessed Feb 21, 2011). Kelly, Martin. "Martin's American History Blog." About.com. 2 Jan 2011. http://americanhistory.about.com/b/2011/01/02/top-five-causes-of-the-civil-war-2.htm (accessed Feb 17, 2011). Chaconas, Joan C. and Betty Ownsbey. Murder at Ford's Theatre. Clinton, Maryland: Suratt Society. 2001.

53: “Petersburg: History and Culture.” Nps.gov. 19 Sep 2007. http://www.nps.gov/pete/historyculture/index.htm (accessed Mar 4, 2011). "Robert Edward Lee." Civil War Home. http://www.civilwarhome.com/leebio.htm (accessed Feb 21, 2011). “Speeches and Writings: the Gettysburg Address.” Abraham Lincoln Online. 2010. http://showcase.netins.net/web/creative/gettysb/speeches/gettysburg.htm (accessed Feb 4, 2011). "Spying in the Civil War." Civil War Home. 2 Oct 2007. http://www.civilwarhome.com/spies.htm (accessed Mar 10, 2011). “Statistics Of The C.S.S. Virginia.” Civil War Home. 16 Nov 2004. http://www.civilwarhome.com/virginiastats.htm (accessed Mar 4, 2011). "Stonewall Jackson." AmericanCivilWar.com. http://americancivilwar.com/south/stonewall_jackson.html (accessed Feb 21, 2011). “Statistics Of The C.S.S. Virginia.” Civil War Home. 16 Nov 2004. http://www.civilwarhome.com/virginiastats.htm (accessed Mar 4, 2011). “Statistics Of The U.S.S. Monitor.” Civil War Home. 16 Nov 2004. http://www.civilwarhome.com/monitorstats.htm (accessed Mar 4, 2011). “The American Civil War Overview: THE WESTERN THEATER: SHERMAN’S MARCH TO THE SEA AND CAMPAIGN OF THE CAROLINAS.” Civil War Home. 13 Nov 2001. http://www.civilwarhome.com/ShermansMarch.htm (accessed Mar 4, 2011). "The Battle of 1st Manassas ." Civil War Home. 3 Feb 2002. http://www.civilwarhome.com/1manassas.htm (accessed Mar 4, 2011) "The Battle of Antietam (Sharpsburg)." Civil War Home. http://www.civilwarhome.com/antietam.htm (accessed Feb 21, 2011). "The Battle of Chancellorsville." Civil War Home. http://www.civilwarhome.com/chancell.htm (accessed Feb 21, 2011).

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55: Photo Bibliography Abraham Lincoln, three-quarter length portrait, seated, facing right; hair parted on Lincoln's right side (accessed February 22, 2011). http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.pnp/cph.3a07486. Courtesy of the Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division. Andersonville Prison, Ga., August 17, 1864--Southwest view of stockade showing the dead-line (Accessed March 7, 2011). http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.pnp/cph.3c22695. Courtesy of the Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division. Atlanta, Georgia. Sherman's men destroying railroad (Accessed March 7, 2011). http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.pnp/cwpb.03392. Courtesy of the Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division. Battle-field of Chancellorsville Skulls and bones of unburied soldiers on south side of Plank Road in 1865 (Accessed March 7, 2011). http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.pnp/ppmsca.23671. Courtesy of the Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division. Battlefield of the "Wilderness"--Views in the woods in the Federal lines on north side of Orange Plank Road. (Accessed March 8, 2011) http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.pnp/cph.3g07957. Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division. Battle of Antietam - Taking of the Bridge on Antietam Creek (accessed February 22, 2011). http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.pnp/cph.3b00418. Courtesy of the Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division. Battle of Bull Run-July 21st 1861--Federal (Gen. McDowell)... Confederate (Gen. Beauregard)... (accessed February 22, 2011). http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.pnp/pga.01843. Courtesy of the Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division. Civil War contraband (Accessed March 7, 2011). http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.pnp/ppmsca.11196. Courtesy of the Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division. Confed. Spy (Accessed March 10, 2011). http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.pnp/ppmsca.20022. Courtesy of the Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division.

56: Frederick Douglass, head-and-shoulders portrait, facing right (Accessed March 7, 2011). http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.pnp/cph.3a18122. Courtesy of the Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division. General William T. Sherman, head-and-shoulders portrait, facing left. (Accessed March 7, 2011). http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.pnp/cph.3c12190. Courtesy of the Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division. Jefferson Davis, three-quarter length portrait, facing right. (accessed February 22, 2011). http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.pnp/ppmsca.23852. Courtesy of the Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division. Lincoln's Gettysburg Address, Gettysburg (Accessed March 7, 2011). http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.pnp/cwpb.07639. Courtesy of the Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division. Map of Civil War Battles. (Accessed March 8, 2011). 1 map, col., 25 x 17 cm. Library of Congress Geography and Map Division. http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.gmd/g3881s.cw0509400 Merrimac & Monitor. (Accessed March 7, 2011). http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.pnp/det.4a26391. Courtesy of the Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division. Pontoon bridge across the Rappahannock (Accessed March 7, 2011). http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.pnp/ppmsca.12553. Courtesy of the Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division. Portrait of Gen. Robert E. Lee, officer of the Confederate Army (Accessed March 7, 2011). http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.pnp/cwpb.04402. Courtesy of the Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division. Portrait of Maj. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant, officer of the Federal Army (accessed February 22, 2011). http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.pnp/cwpb.06941. Courtesy of the Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division. Portrait of Stonewall Jackson (accessed February 22, 2011) http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.pnp/cph.3a19843. Courtesy of the Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division.

57: Rosa, Charley, Rebecca. Slave children from New Orleans (Accessed March 7, 2011). http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.pnp/ppmsca.11136. Courtesy of the Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division. Soldier group (Accessed March 7, 2011). http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.pnp/cwpb.02019. Courtesy of the Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division. Surrender of General Lee - at Appomattox, C.H. Va. April 9th 1865 (Accessed March 7, 2011).http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.pnp/cph.3c32504. Courtesy Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division. The assassination of President Lincoln: at Ford's Theatre, Washington, D.C., April 14th, 1865 (Accessed March 7, 2011). http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.pnp/cph.3b49830. Courtesy of the Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division. The Battle of Pittsburg Landing, Shiloh, Tenn., April 1862: ...The left wing, Gen. Hurlbut's Div., Apr. 6th; Charge & repulse of rebels at Peach Orchard (Accessed March 7, 2011). http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.pnp/cph.3b07180. Courtesy of the Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division. Unidentified woman wearing mourning brooch and displaying framed image of unidentified soldier (Accessed March 7, 2011). http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.pnp/ppmsca.27192. Courtesy of the Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division. Union soldiers in trenches before Petersburg (Accessed March 7, 2011). http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.pnp/cph.3h00048. Courtesy of the Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division. Virginia Newspaper vendor and cart in camp (Accessed March 9, 2011). http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.pnp/cwpb.01140. Courtesy of the Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division. Washington, D.C. Crowd in front of Presidential reviewing stand. (Accessed March 8, 2011). http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.pnp/cwpb.02933. Courtesy of the Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division. Wounded soldiers from the battles in the "Wilderness" at Fredericksburg, Va., May 20, 1864 (Accessed March 9, 2011). http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.pnp/cph.3g04582. Courtesy of the Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division.

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Spencer Marshall
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  • Title: The Darker Part of America's History
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