S: By Gabriella Frangipani and Ibn Craddock
FC: The Growth of a Nation | Slavery in america
1: Early years of slavery | Life was hard for slave families during this time. Many men and women were not allowed to get married. The ones whose slave owners allowed them to be wed usually did not stay with their husband/wife/children too long. People were bought and sold every day and families were torn apart. This was devastating and hit the West African very hard due to their large extended families being taken from them. | Daily Life and Working Conditions Enslaved Africans during the early years of slavery wore the cheapest clothes and were fed the simple foods, such as rise and beans. They spent most of their time on plantations, working long and hard hours. Rain or shine, enslaved Africans were in the fields for their masters. They often rebelled against the horrible working conditions and broke their tools or even in rare cases, set fire to the nearest farm building.
4: Culture/Songs | Work Songs
5: A huge form of rebellion was the preservation of the African culture. This took the burden of slavery of the enslaved people and brought them together. Skilled craftsworkers constructed banjos and from there, music would be played, lyrics written, and dances created. | These dances consisted of hand clapping, singing and moving around in rhythms. Not only did enslaved people engage in song and dance, they made their traditional foods and told folklore.
6: Family Life | Family was a big part of enslaved people's lives. Some considered each other married even if the white people didn't know. People called each other "uncle," "brother," etc.
7: Some slaves were forced to attend mass. The Africans mixed their knew knowledge of Christianity with their beliefs. Many believed that they would return to African once they died. Many slave owners attempted to use the bible as a weapon to convince Africans that it was God's will for them to be enslaved. | Religion
8: The World of Cotton | And the horrors of plantations
9: Eli Whitney invented the cotton gin, which sped up production of cotton | The world of cotton production was a long, hard, scary one. Enslaved people started working as soon as the morning light shown. This intense labor continued until night, and sometimes even through the night. On larger plantations, an enslaved African American would watch over the people and whip whoever was not doing their job. At the end of the day, people would lug home large bags of cotton and then continued to do their planters chores.
10: Due to the large amounts of cotton needed, by 1860 more than 75% of enslaved Africans worked in the fields. Some more skilled workers worked in the planters homes and developed friendships with them. This did not change their freedom date and they were usually freed when they were too old to work. Some even worked city jobs, which were preferred over field work due to the larger freedom which made it easier to escape.
11: The Cotton Kingdom brought many changes to Africans. They still attended mass and worshiped Invisible Churches, and hid from savage dogs that were sent to find them. They built hush harbors to protect them, which were forts built of tree branches. They also sang spirituals which went from plantation to plantation.
12: Freedom's Journal
13: David Walker was born a free man and learned to write in a black Christian church. | He soon began to write articles for the first African American newspaper, Freedom's Journal. He also wrote a booklet called Walker's Appeal, in Four Articles. | This appeal told African Americans to rebel against slavery and to kill their owners before they were killed. He also wrote another appeal called Walker's Appeal, which was one of the most important of all time. It put fear into the white colonists and slave holders and they ordered him to be captured. | In 1830, David Walker had died. Many people believe that he was murdered.
14: In 1712, a group of Africans went to a slave owner's home in New York and set it on fire. When the white colonists attempted to put out the fire, the Africans rebelled against them and killed 9 and injured 6. This incident put fear into the white people. | Early Slave Rebellions and Unrest in the 1600s and 1700s.
15: This was not the first slave rebellion. There was one in 1658 that involved African Americans and Native Americans and there was one in 1708 that involved enslaved Africans Americans killing white families. But a more famous one was the rebellion in 1741, that was called the "Great Negro Plot." This plot caused the death of 34 white new yorkers. The result of this was tighter rules and bans on Africans. Many slave owners believed that slaves that caused a lot of trouble should be branded on the forehead.
16: The Stono Uprising Africans fled to Spanish Florida with the Native Americans. The Spanish King gave fugitives freedom to get back at the British, in 1733. After this, a fort in St. Augustine, Florida was built to protect African families from their former owners. The Spanish also gave weapons to the enslaved and this struck fear into the white southerners.
17: The | Stono | Uprising | | In 1739, a group of 20 enslaved African Americans met along the Stono River and headed to St. Augustine. On their way, they burned plantations and killed many white people. Their rebellion was not as successful as they thought it would be. A militia eventually caught up to them and killed most of them. This just made the government pass tighter laws on African Americans and even made it a requirement for white men to carry guns for open fire whenever it was needed.
18: Gabriel Prosser | Gabriel Prosser was a 24 year old enslaved African American who was a skilled craftsworker. He was often hired out to plantations and towns. | In the summer of 1800, this enslaved man began working on a plan of revolt.
19: Gabriel believed that the bible could be used as a weapon. He dreamed of leading his people out of slavery into a new state for African Americans. He took inspiration from a man named Toussaint L'Ouverture. | He began spreading the word of his rebellion.
20: It began. | Word got around and people on Gabriel's side began crafting weapons and they began a lightening attack against Richmond. They would kill everyone except friendly whites. Their rebellion failed and he was killed.
21: In 1800, which was the year that Gabriel was killed, another mans name arose. This man was Denmark Vesey who won the lottery and bought his freedom. He hated slavery and vowed to himself that he would start a rebellion. | In 1822, Denmark and one of his recruits devised an elaborate plan of attack. Although he thought he was safe, another African turned in Vesey and 130 people involved were arrested. | Denmark Vesey and 35 other rebels were killed in the end.
22: The Great Nat Turner
23: Nat Turner was a slave man who worked on a plantation in Virginia. He was often called a prophet, because of his strange visions and voices he seen/heard as a child. These strange things continued to happen in his adulthood and he waited most of his life for a message to guide him. This message came to him in 1852. | It convinced him that it was the Lord's wish for him to lead his people out of slavery and to rebel against white plantation owners. He was very swift with his plan, not telling many people and not forming a large, elaborate scheme. At the end of their rebellion, they killed 60 white men and women.
24: Eventually, a militia came to end the rebellion and Nat Turner went into hiding. He hid under fence rails for six weeks before being discovered. Two weeks later, he was caught and hung. He became a symbol in the African American community and people loved him. | Old Nat's War
25: REST IN PEACE: NAT TURNER
26: At this time slavery only existed in the southern states but even Africans Americans in the south experienced discrimination.. | Neither Enslaved Nor Free
27: The nation free population of black people increased in the years after the American revolution. In 1790 free blacks totaled about 59,000. In 1830 the number of free blacks rose to 319,000 by 1860 it the number reached 488,000 which was about 11% of the total African American population in the U.S. The banning of slavery in the north also helped that increase but the number of free blacks in the south grew as well. In 1860 Maryland a slave state had more free blacks then any other state. Half the states blacks were free. | The free African American population
28: Routes To Freedom | In 1860 almost half of all free African Americans lived in the south. Some brought their freedom, some were were freed by the people that owned them, many were descendents of already free blacks and some won their freedom in the colonial period. While most slaves became free from simply running away by way of the underground railroad.
29: Limits on Freedom | Many southern law makers were scared that free blacks would help aid a slave rebellion so they limited the rights of the free blacks. Those laws denied them the right to vote, to have trial by jury, and to testify against whites. Black children couldn’t attend public schools (although in some places their parents were required to pay school taxes) blacks weren’t even allowed to move freely through out the south. They were told they had to carry passes proving their freedom and they were denied the right to enter a state after they left it. In some states blacks couldn’t even gather together, not even in church without the presence of a white person. Free African American in the north suffered discrimination too. African Americans in the north were separate as well although their segregation wasn’t legal they still were
30: Because of the sever limits on free blacks in the south it might seem that earning a living there would have been more difficult but fee African Americans in the south were no worse off than those in the north. In fact in some southern cities they did better financially. Because of constant labor shortages in the south blacks were encouraged to work there more often than not. This gave blacks the opportunity to build businesses as craftworkers. In the north free blacks didn’t do as well although some had jobs as furniture makers, barbers, or tailors or other skilled crafts but many were laborers or servants. This was due to the coupling of discrimination with competition with immigrants who flooded the cities of the north beginning in the 1830s. Many of the immigrants were poor farmers from Ireland. Even though they were less skilled than free blacks they were given the jobs faster because they were white. | Earning a Living
32: A number of free blacks became the managers of restaurants, barbershops, hotels and other businesses and few became entrepreneurs. Many blacks who earned money in business helped finance the abolitions movement that took shape in the 1800s. | Developing Businesses
33: Many free blacks realized how important education was to success they started to pay money out of their own pockets to educate themselves and their children. In spite of the dangers they faced many black and some whites continued to set up schools and blacks continued to attend. Free blacks went on attend colleges and universities and sever black colleges were founded in the north. Of of these schools came doctors, dentists teachers ministers writers and poets. They were in the forefront of the battle to abolish slavery. In the years prior to the Civil War. Free blacks established some 32 newspapers wrote hundreds of pamphlets and books and delivered thousands of speeches and sermons. They became some of the greatest leaders in abolition movement | Getting an Education
34: In the north many free blacks formed more than 45 mutual aid societies to provide help to families in case of sickness or death. They established libraries and reading rooms and offered lectures. Some of these societies later helped runaway enslaved blacks resettle in the north. | Mutual aids
35: As blacks became more vocal in their demands for equality they faced harsh treatment in both north and south they were beaten and harassed. | treats to freedom | Some free blacks supported migration to Canada. But some opposed colonization (a plan to send blacks back to Africa). In 1817 white southerners anxious to remove free Africans formed the the American colonization society to set up a colony in Africa. President James Monroe helped negotiate the establishment of Liberia on Africa's west coast for this purpose. As soon as the colonization society was founded a meeting of some 3000 in Philadelphia denounded these efforts to resettle free African Americans. | Migration and Colonization