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The Iroquois

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S: The Iroquois Matthew Bongard, Vered Hermant & Rachel Himmel

BC: In this book you will find many different things about the Iroquois tribe. There are many factual details about the Iroquois, so enjoy reading about this amazing tribe.

FC: The Iroquois | By: Matthew Bongard, Vered Hermant & Rachel Himmel

1: The Iroquois | Matthew Bongard Vered Hermant & Rachel Himmel

2: First Published in 2012 All rights reserved the contents in this book can be in no way copied, rewritten or resold without permission, unless used for educational reasons. Patent Pending

3: Table of Contents | Page 4 Introduction to the Iroquois | Page 5 Transportation | Page 6 Clothing | Page 8 Arrival of the Europeans | Page 10 Shelter | Page 12 Tools | Page 14 Today's Natives | Page 16 Food Sources | Page 18 Art | Page 20 Weapons | Page 22 Recreation & Games | Page 26 Social Structure and Government | Page 28 Traditional Dances | Page 31 Food Dishes | Page 36 Origins And Beliefs | Page 40 Geographic Location | Page 42 Special Events | Page 44 Bibliography

4: Introduction to the Iroquois | The Iroquois is a very creative tribe of people. There are many interesting facts about their lifestyle and culture. You can find many things about the Iroquois, many are in this book. The Iroquois are very artsy people, see all of their creativity spread out in this fun but factual book. - Matthew, Rachel & Vered

5: Transportation | The main transportation for the Iroquois was walking on snow shoes and riding on canoes. When there was thick snow, the Iroquois would put on their snow shoes. The snow was about 3 feet (1 meter) long and 16 (40 cm) inches wide. They were made by using a frame of hickory with deerskin webbing. Iroquois thought that they walked faster on snow shoes than on bare feet. Hunters traveled as far as 50 miles a day on snow shoes. Iroquois connected 5 nations of the league. Iroquois wore snow shoes and warriors did the dance to thank the Great Spirit for the first snow. Iroquois also used canoes. White birch bark tree was used to make canoes. Elm and hickory weren't as good as birch bark, but they still made reliable canoes. The size of a canoe ranged about 3.7 meters to 12.2 meters, which could carry about ten men. | This is a picture of snow shoes that were used by the Iroquois. | This is a canoes that was used by the Iroquois.

6: Clothing | Traditional Iroquois clothing is both useful and beautiful. Men usually wore fringed deerskin shirts, and wore weaved sashes (made of plant fibres or deerskin) when it was hot. Men also wore feathered hats with porcupine quills and/or wampum beads. Men wore leggings or breechcloths made from deerskin; they commonly had fringed edges. Women wore deerskin dresses or skirts with leggings. Women also wore belts or sashes around their waists. Women liked to wear beautifully beaded headbands. Both genders wore deerskin moccasins that were cuffed at the ankle. The Iroquois decorated the cuff and the top of the moccasins with porcupine quills and shell beads. The Iroquois was also known for making shoes out of braided cornhusks. They often attached the beaded fabric to the moccasins, and when the moccasin was worn out the beaded fabric was removed and attached onto another new pair.

7: The Iroquois liked to bead designs into their clothing, including: flowers, leaves, clan symbols and strawberries. Strawberries were popular symbols because they symbolized a new beginning, because they were the first fruit to bloom every year. The Iroquois liked to decorate their clothing to be unique and beautiful. | This picture shows the clothing that women used to wear. | This picture is of traditional Iroquois moccasins.

8: The Iroquois were very different then the Huron tribe, but they managed to become so close that they became one tribe called the Iroquois. The Iroquois are the Natives that first came along the St. Lawrence River by Jacques Cartier in 1534. In 1603, Samuel de Champlain returned to claim the region for France. The Huron and the Iroquois were fierce competitors in the fur trades. By the 16th century both tribes established protective confederacies. Iroquois brought together bear, cord, rick and deer alliance numbering 20 000 people. Iroquois arrived from the Huron territory in the region as the Eastern Great Lakes through Appalachian Mountains (now is the State of New York). In the late 16th century, alliance between 5 tribal groups: Mohawk, Onedia, Onondaga, Cayuga and Seneca. Together they became known as the Iroquois. 1648-50 Iroquois killed and captured thousands of Hurons and the survivors were forced west towards Lake Michigan and Lake Superior. The Iroquois and Europeans had a hard time settling into a new place but as you can see they managed. | Arrival of the Europeans

9: This picture shows a route that the Europeans took to get to Canada. | This picture is about the Europeans coming by boat to Canada.

10: Shelter was very important to the Iroquois; they lived in longhouses. They used many different materials to make longhouses, such as: elm bark, tree trunks, and deer tendons. The longhouse could be 30-200 feet long, 15-25 feet wide 10-20 feet high. Their first step was to make a rectangular frame by bending and fitting the wooden poles into the right places. Then they had to cover the whole frame with sections of bark. They had 2 doors on each end of the longhouse. The doors were covered in animal skin during the cold weather. Over each door the Iroquois would place a symbol to show what clan they belonged to. In each longhouse they made smoke holes so the fire could get out of there before it could make any damages. In the rain or snow the Iroquois would cover the hole by taking a flap made of animal skin and putting it on top of the hole. As you can see, the Iroquois used many different materials to create their homes. | Shelter

11: This is a picture of the Iroquois shelter (AKA the longhouse).

12: Tools | The Iroquois needed tools to survive and made them to do many different things. The Iroquois were very creative; they invented certain things for specific uses. When they fished they used special tools. They used specific tools for building longhouses, canoes, for preparing food, and for making clothing. A few known Iroquois tools are axes, adzes, and chisels. Axe heads were made from stone they found on the ground; they were polished on other stones to sharpen them. An axe head fit into a special wooden handle. An adze was a tool they used to cut down trees and to shape wood. Adzes had stone heads and wooden handles. Chisels were either made of stone or antlers. Chisels were used to peel bark off of logs and trees. Women used various tools to grow and prepare food for their families to eat. Iroquois people used pointy digging sticks to plant crops and plants. They ground corn by using mortar and pestle.

13: Mortar was made in the length of a tree trunk that had a shallow dish carved in the top. Pestle was a heavy blunt piece of wood. Women needed to use tools to make clothing. First, they used stone or bone scrapers to remove the flesh from animal hides. Then they used bone tools to punch holes for sewing. And last they used bone needles and sinew to sew through the holes. The Iroquois had many tools and used every single one of them to ease their lives. | This picture is of an axe head. | This is a picture of an adze.

14: Today's Natives | There are still many Natives living on the earth that came from the Iroquois tribe. Thomas Highway came from a reserve in North Manitoba. He now lives in Toronto. His career choice was to become a writer. He won many awards for the plays that he wrote. Rosemarie Kuptana is an Inuit woman from the North. She hosted a radio show in Inuktitut in Inuit language. She was leading part in creation of Nunavut. Rose Toodick Boyko grew up on trap line in B.C. In 1994 she became a judge in Ontario Court of Justice. She was the first aboriginal woman named senior judge in Canada. Douglas Cardinal is an architect of Metis. He is internationally known. He created beautiful building like Canadian Museum of Civilization in Quebec. There are still quite a few Natives from the Iroquois that are still living. All of them have done amazing things.

15: This picture is about a Native woman who has a Canadian passport. | This is a picture showing a person from the Iroquois dancing. He still dances today.

16: Food Sources | The Iroquois had many food sources and many different types of food. In the forest there a lot of different fruit like: berries, wild cherries, strawberries, currents, and huckleberries. They also had many different types of nuts like: chestnuts, beechnuts, hickory nuts, butternuts, acorns, and black walnuts. Maple sap was one of the few sweeteners that they had. Sap was collected from the forest and used to make maple sugar to use in the making of bread. They also used the sap to make syrup and a type of snow cone for the children. In the forest, they had many different plants and one of them is a plant used to make medicine. Medicine was used for curing diseases that could cause death. Food from the forest was a very important part in the Iroquois diet (plated crops). Woman grew many crops the most important crop was the corn, beans, and squash (AKA the 3 sisters). The corn was used in many different ways: cornmeal, corn cake, soups, and pudding. They also had different types of beans: kidney and lima. The Iroquois also ate sunflower seeds. The Iroquois made many of meals by harvesting crops, and they didn't have many different types of food like we have today.

17: These are huckleberries, a fruit that the Iroquois ate.

18: Art | Traditional Iroquois people liked art. The Iroquois decorated clothing with porcupine quills and shell beads. They used fine clay pots for storing cooking and serving their food. The women used special techniques for making pots. First a potter cleaned the clay, and then they added crushed rocks to harden the clay. Finally, they used their hands and simple tools to shape the pots. While the clay was still damp, the potter pressed and scratched in designs. The pots were then dried by the sun and after baked in a fire. Mothers would make and give their daughters faceless cornhusk dolls to teach the lesson that looks are not as important as what is inside of you. Art had a spiritual role in culture. Many men carved masks for the false face society, part of a ritual to cure illnesses. These masks were carved on living trees and then once they were finished they cut the masks off the trees. The masks were so sacred; it was disrespectful to show pictures of the masks or even to display them publicly. The Iroquois had many things they were famous for, one of these things is art.

19: This is a picture of a piece of a clay pot used by the Iroquois. | This is a picture of a painting done by an artist from the Iroquois tribe.

20: Weapons | Every Native tribe had their own kind of weapons. Weapons were used for hunting and fighting purposes. Iroquois had their own kind of weapons that they used. Iroquois used the bow and arrow, lances, war clubs, knives and tomahawks. The choice of weapon depended on the situation and the skills of the warrior. The crossbow was used while warriors would attack enemy on horseback. The kinds of bow used by riders were smaller than bows used by soldiers on foot, and hunters from the tribe. Iroquois made arrowheads out of bones, metal and flint. The most talented warriors had the ability to shoot 20 arrows in the time that it would normally take settlers to fire and reload for next shooting using musket. The most popular Native traditional weapon was the Tomahawk. It was made from a wooden held handle made from stone. It was used in one-on-one combat. It was also used to through tomahawk from riding on horseback. Iroquois made use of knives the same way.

21: The lance was also popular. They created lances so that they could knock their opponent off of their animal. It would provide leverage and protection during a battle. Iroquois would decorate long lances with feathers and scalps to give the man intimidating appearance. Not until the 1860's did the Iroquois get hold of modern day weapons. The first modern day weapon made by Iroquois was the rifle. The first documented use of the rifle was when the Natives used them against General George A. Custer. | The Iroquois used this weapon to attack their enemies.

22: Recreation & Games | The Iroquois played games to improve their strength, speed, and agility. They played different games in the different seasons and climates. The adult Iroquois played different games than the children Iroquois. The games were very important to the Iroquois everyday lives. Winter: They played a game called Snow Snake. This game is pretty easy, all you do is dig a path or groove in the snow and pour a bit of water on the snow to make it really smooth. Then make a long stick and slide it across the path. The person who slides the stick the farthest wins the game. Summer: They played a game called Darts. To play this game you need 2 teams, and each player within the 2 teams had 6 darts or spears. Each team was given a hoop in front of them; and the player has to try to get the darts through the hoop. The team with the best accuracy won.

23: The Iroquois loved to play lacrosse out of all the sports. They didn't have much equipment, all they had was a stick with a net at one end, a ball made out of wood or animal skin and a goal post at each end of the field. They did not use any protective equipment. The purpose of the game was to throw the ball around and try to score goals. Whoever scored the most goals won. The game was usually played for fun , but that's not the only reason they played it, they also played it to improve their: aim, strength, speed. Lacrosse was played by boys and men only. Sometimes the games went on for 2 - 3 days, One game even ended up in war. Thanks to the Iroquois, lacrosse is still played today by people all ages. The Iroquois children had fun playing for entertainment. Girls mostly played with corn husk dolls that had no faces on them. The Iroquois felt if the dolls had faces, an evil spirit would be harmed. The young girls also liked to play house to strengthen their mothering skills. While the girls played their games, the boys played many sports and games. While playing, the Iroquois children learned skills that would help them throughout life.

24: As you can see, the Iroquois enjoyed playing many different types of games. Even the adults played games. The children of the Iroquois that were girls mostly played with a doll without a face. | These are the lacrosse sticks that the Iroquois played with.

25: This is a picture of the doll without a face ,that the little Iroquois girls like to play.

26: The five nations of the Iroquois who fought with each other formed a union. There were five nations of the Iroquois who fought with each other nonstop. These five nations are the Mohawks, the Senecas, the Onondagas, the Oneidas, and the Cayugas. Two wise men, Peganawidah and Hyantwatha said there was to be no more fighting. The nations agreed with what they said and promised to stop fighting. Later, the nations formed a union called The Great Peace Law. Another nation, called the Tuscarora joined in on the union. Their promise was to work together and help each other. The six nations also appointed Onondaga to be the head of the government. If any nation wanted to declare war they were warned three times to obey the Laws of Great Peace: use words not weapons to settle disputes. For many years the Iroquois Confederacy protected American colonies from invasions that came from the north. Without that protection there wouldn't be a U.S.A today. Many white leaders learned democracy from the confederacy. Now, the U.S.A is a lot like the Iroquois Union/Confederacy. | Social Structures & Government

27: Many important people have copied the idea of the Confederacy because they formed a union and helped each other when needed. | This is a picture of a leader from the Mohawk Nation.

28: Traditional Dances | The Iroquois danced to earth songs that had to do mostly with animals. Some of the dances about animals are: Alligator dance, Chicken dance, Duck dance, Pigeon dance, Rabbit dance, Raccoon dance, and Robin dance. Some dances that don't have anything to do with animals like: Cherokee's dance, Cousin dance, Delaware Skin dance, Fishing dance, Friendship dance, Garter dance, New Woman's shuffle, Northern dance, and Round dance. Then there are some that are just odd like: Moccasin dance, Old Moccasin dance, Shake the Bush dance, Sharpened Stick dance, Smoke dance, and Standing Quiver dance. Each of these dances tells a story related to the title of the dance. There are legends surrounding most of the earth songs.

29: The Rabbit Dance Legend is a story set in ancient tribal times, telling a story of hunters looking for a game. When they turned around they saw a rabbit bigger than anything they had ever seen. They were about to shoot the rabbit but suddenly the rabbit thumped its foot on the ground. Then some normal sized rabbits hopped towards the giant rabbit and thumped their feet too. The rabbits were completely ignoring the threat of the hunters, and then the rabbits formed a big circle and started to dance. Their dance was so captivating that the hunters returned to their village to tell the Clan Mother of what they had seen. The Clan Mother re-enacted the rhythm from her water drums. The Clan Mother told the hunters that the rabbits knew that the Iroquois depended on them for food and clothing. The rabbits thought the hunters had a way to express gratitude and reverence towards the rabbits for all they continued to give. To this very day the rabbit dance is done as a sign of thankfulness to the rabbit people for all they have brought to the lives of the villagers.

30: To these dances there were moves some of the moves were stop, slide step, and fish I will explain the different moves. Stop: The feet shuffle across the floor with right foot lead. The left foot is brought up to rejoin the right as the dancer moves across the floor, and the feet hit the floor hard enough to help carry the beat of the music to all the dancers. Slide-Step Shuffle: This foot shuffles and stomp is only performed by female dancers. The woman alternate shuffling their right and left feet across the ground. Fish: The fish dance step involves each foot hitting multiple beats. Instead of alternating feet, the right foot may stomp two or three times to the music before switching to the left foot.

31: Food Dishes | Iroquois Corn Bread | Boiled Corn Bread: The Iroquois Natives made a wonderful boiled corn bread. They made flour by pounding corn into corn flour. To make bread, they mixed water with corn flour. Sometimes cooked beans were added, or berries or nuts. The bread was kneaded and formed into small loaves. The loaves were dropped into boiling water and cooked until the bread floated. Boiled corn bread was served both hot and cold. They also used the same bread mix to bake bread by putting it on clay tablets in the fire. They used sunflower oil to fry bread. Recipe: If you want to try making Iroquois corn bread, mix flour with water and a little salt. Knead it.

32: Turn it out on a floured board. Keep kneading until you can handle the bread without it sticking to your fingers. Then either boil it or fry it. If you want it to puff up, add a little baking soda. | Food Dish #2 | PEANUT BUTTER PIE HOTEL IROQUOIS Serving Size: 8 Preparation Time: 0:00 Categories : Pies Amount Measure Ingredient -- Preparation Method -------- ------------ -------------------------------- | This is the corn bread that the Iroquois baked.

33: -----CRUST----- 1 2/3 cups Graham cracker crumbs 1/4 cup Sugar 3/4 Stick butter -----FILLING----- 3 ounces Cream cheese 1 cup Confectioners' sugar 1/4 cup Milk 1 cup Smooth peanut butter 2 teaspoons Vanilla 1 1/2 cups Heavy cream 3 tablespoons Chopped unsalted peanuts CRUST: Combine crumbs, sugar and butter and press into 9 pie plate. Bake 425 for 9-10 min. Let cool. FILLING: Beat cream cheese with confectioners' sugar until light and Fluffy and beat in milk, peanut butter and vanilla. In chilled bowl, Beat cream until it holds stiff peaks; stir one third of it into the

34: Peanut butter mixture; fold in the remaining cream gently but Thoroughly. Turn filling into the shell; sprinkle the pie with the Peanuts and chill, covered, for at least 4 hrs. or overnight. | This is a picture of the Peanut Butter Pie that the Iroquois made.

35: PEANUT BUTTER PIE HOTEL IROQUOIS Serving Size: 8 Preparation Time: 0:00 Categories : Pies Amount Measure Ingredient -- Preparation Method -------- ------------ -------------------------------- -----BETTE LELAND----- -----CRUST----- 1 2/3 cups Graham cracker crumbs 1/4 cup Sugar 3/4 Stick butter -----FILLING----- 3 ounces Cream cheese 1 cup Confectioners' sugar

36: The Iroquois had many interesting legends. One of the most interesting ones we will describe. Once upon a time there was land up in the sky called the sky world (no wonder). There was a root of the great tree in the middle of the sky world which none were permitted to touch. Her husband scraped away the soil to bare the root of the tree. Underneath there was a hole and suddenly the woman fell into the hole leaving the sky world. A flock of birds helped her to the great sea turtle who received her on his back. On the back of the sea turtle she plated bits of roots and plants she had brought from the sky world. As she walked across the turtles back she was planting, praying, and creating the earth (AKA Turtle Island). | Origins & Beliefs

37: The woman had a daughter who became impregnated by the west wind. In the womb the daughter's twins began to quarrel about how they would emerge from their mother's body. There were two twins and one was the left handed twin and the other was the right handed twin. The left handed twin forced himself out of his mother's left armpit, killing his mother. The newborn twins buried their mother who became corn mother, beans and squash, the three sisters of the Iroquois. From her heart grew sacred tobacco, used to send messages of thanks to the sky world. The two brothers (twins) continued to compete with each other as they created animals and plants. In the process, they represented different ways of living. The right-handed twin created: beautiful hills, lakes, blossoms, and gentle creatures. The left-handed twin created: jagged cliffs, whirlpools, thorns, and predators. The right-handed twin created people (the right-handed twin is AKA “Our Creator” and “The Mater Of Life”). The left-handed twin invented rituals' of sorcery and healing.

38: When they finished their creations , they continued to compete for it by playing lacrosse and fighting with clubs. Grasping a deer antler, the right-handed twin prevailed and killed his brother, throwing the left-handed twins body over the edge of the earth. The right-handed twin rules day and the sky-world land while the left-handed twin prevails overnight and the lower world. Grandmother sky woman was angry that the right-handed twin murdered his brother and accused him of wrongdoing. Grandmother sky woman always favored the left-handed twin because he cut off her head and threw it up to the sky where it became the moon. The left-handed twin also threw her body into the ocean where it became all the fish in the sea. The tension and struggle for balance between the 2 brothers and principles of life incorporated into Iroquois festival cycles of life. The Iroquois believe that it was necessary for both brothers to take part in creating the world if the 2 brothers didn't compete in their creations the world wouldn't be as it is today.

39: This is a picture of the souls of the Iroquois.

40: Geographic Location | The Iroquois were the only people that had vegetation. Their landforms include great lakes and many deciduous trees. In the cold winter, the Iroquois would have heavy snowfalls. During the summer they would have hot humid summers. The had many trees like Eastern White, Pine Eastern, Henlack, Red Pine, Yellow Birch, Sugar Maple, Oak Beach, Black Walnut, Hickory, Red Oak, White Elm and and Butter Nut. Natural resources include salt, gypsum, gold, lead, silver, platinum, nickel, cobalt. Other grains and oil seeds crops: fruits, vegetables, cattle, and field crops, Agriculture includes: pelts, sheep, horses, fur bearing animals, flowers, mushrooms, maple products, barley, dairy, hogs, honey, bees wax, Fishing was mainly sardines. Iroquois had many landforms. They needed good weather for crops. They had lots of trees. They didn't rely on fish.

41: This is a map that shows the geographic locations of the Iroquois villages in 1650-1700.

42: Special events and ceremonies were very important to the Iroquois. The Iroquois had many festivals, including: The Strawberry Festival, The Blackberry Festival, The Bean Festival, The Green Corn Festival, The Little Corn Festival and the harvest festivals. The festivals are made to thank the spirits. They held the festivals in the same order every year to mark the stages and cycle of planting and harvesting. The Green Corn Festival was the most special out of all the other festivals, so it lasted several days. At these festivals they held many dances feasts and games. Another large festival was the midwinter festival, a six day festival to thank the creator. During these festivals they cleaned their longhouses and talked about their dreams. The Iroquois loved these festivals and celebrated them often. | Special Events & Ceremonies

43: This picture is of Natives gathering around a peach seed for the Green Corn Festival.

44: “The Woman Who Fell From The Sky” http:/www.webwinds.com/yupanqui/iroquoisdreams3.htm Tika Yupanqui (Tracy Marks) 1998 Febuary 29th 2012 “Food” www.westirondequoit.org/technology/k-6/Iroquois... Food.htm Arianna, Oliva, Cassicly Febuary 29th 2012 “Iroquois Traditional Dances” http:dance.lovetoknow.com/iroquois-traditional-dances Tamara Warta Febuary 29th 2012

45: “Shelter” http:www.westirondequoit.org technology/k-6/Iroquois _Nation/Shelter.htm Alex, Greg Febuary 29th 2012 “Recreation” www.westirondequoit.org technology/k-6/Iroquois.../Recreation.htm Sara, Courtney, Catlin Febuary 29th 2012

46: “Iroquois Corn Bread April 3 2012 April 17 2012 http:nativeamericans.mrdonn.org/recipes/iroquoiscornbread.html April 19 2012 Lomberg, Michelle American Indian Art and Culture the Iroquois Philadelphia Chelsea Clubhouse 2004 Crunton J. Bradley, Francis Daniel First Peoples and First Contacts Ontario Oxford University Press Canada 2000 April 4 2012 Dorethy, Craig A. Dorethy, Kathrine M. The Iroquois New York Franklin Watts 1989 April 3 2012 Welcome to Recipe Source!”1995 April 3 2012 http:www.recipes source.com/dessert spies/09/rec0930.html April 3 2012 “Country Facts The World at your Fingertips” March 17 2012

47: Clothing, Art and Tools Lomberg, Michelle. American Indian Art and Culture the Iroquois. Philadelphia: Chelsea Clubhouse, 2004. | Special Events & Ceremonies Silvey, Dianne. The Kids Book of Aborigional Peoples in Canada. Toronto: Kids Can Press, 2005. | Social Structure and Government The Government of the Iroquois Nations. 2002. Nihewan Foundation. 21 Feb. 2012. | Geographic Location Stanford, Quentin H. Canadian Oxford School Atlas 8th Edition. Don Mills: Oxford University Press, 2003.

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