BC: The End
FC: The Mongol Empire (1206-1368A.D)
1: An Overview: I. Beginnings II.Genghis Khan III. The Golden Age IV. Collapse
3: Prior to Expansion, the Mongols were constantly at war with the Jin Dynasty (right of the map shown) The Jin would constantly provoke the Mongol and Tatar tribes to engage in warfare. Eurasia was composed of many empires and dynasties going through constant reform. War broke out on constantly in the early 11th century. The Mongols "shared" their territory with other tribes (Merkits, Tatars, Jalayr, Oniggrad. etc.) In 1147, the Jin surprisingly signed a peace treaty with the Mongols, who began to focus on the much hated Tatars. The Mongols sought revenge for the killing of their most recent Khan (family of leaders in the Mongol tribe) Their efforts were useless and short lived. They would not attempt expansion until several decades later.
4: Genghis Khan
5: Real name: Temujin (~1127-1227 A.D) Genghis Khan was raised in poverty; relying on hunting and growing crops just to survive. As a child, he was exposed to the constant warfare plaguing central Asia. Due to a land dispute, he killed his half brother Behter. Hoelun (Genghis Khan's mother) raised him throughout most of his childhood life. She stressed the need for alliances and friendships in order to survive. This would become a constant theme in Khan's military tactics. At the age of 16, his father arranged a marriage to Borte of the Onggirat tribe (in order to create an alliance). Borte was later kidnapped and sold as a wife, but Khan would eventually find her several years later. While Khan had many children with various wives, Borte's were the only ones involved in the line of succession. By unifying the various nomadic tribes along central Asia, Khan created a formidable army to fight the often disorientated tribes. Khan used political manipulation and alliances with old foes to gain momentum in Asia.
7: By following his mother's focus on alliances, Khan's army became formidable and constantly growing. He toppled the Jin Dynasty, along with a wide variety of other "states" Genghis Khan split his army into several advanced segments, unheard of during this time period. By constantly rotating his guards by day and night shifts, soldiers got the proper rest for a pending invasion As expected in this era, Khan's army showed little mercy to states not within their influence. Villages were burned to the ground, while innocent citizens were killed almost instantly. By imposing cruel punishments and relentless invasion, the Mongols became the most feared branch in central Asia The Mongol Empire began to expand at a rapid pace. What started out as a tiny group of herdsman formed into an empire bigger than present day Russia. This massive empire was double that of the Roman Empire and the Muslim Caliphate. Before his death. Genghis Khan split his empire between Khanates, or "supreme leaders." These leaders are: Ogedei Khan, Tolui Khan, Chagati Khan, and Orda Khan. This split the once unified landmass into several different sub-states.
8: The Golden Age
9: Laws were very concrete and strict within Mongol society. The death penalty was implemented as punishment for various crimes. (such as not picking up a weapon left behind by another soldier.) These laws allowed a tense era to be run safely and efficiently . Rebellion and external resistance were not tolerated. Villages who refused to adapt to Mongol life were burned to the ground. Citizens who did not buy into the system were killed. Despite such harsh laws, Genghis Khan stressed religious tolerance. Buddhists, Muslims, and other sects lived in relative harmony. Under his rule, all religious leaders were tax exempt. The Silk Road played a huge role in commerce all across the Mongol Empire. Officials Constructed a system of connected roadways to make strengthen trade and transmit culture. Merchants were considered a necessity to Mongolians. Traders would receive capital from the government in exchange for their services. The Mongol Empire created a successful mail system similar to that of the Pony Express. Travelers would go 25 miles before reaching a resting house, in which another mailman would take over.
10: The Collapse | By the time of the empire's collapse, the Mongol state covered across Asia, Russia, and parts of the Middle East The Black Plague played a significant role in the demise of the Mongol Empire. Illness and death struck many densely populated towns, making the disease heavily contagious and difficult to subdue. Trade was cut off for several months, while cultural advancements came to a halt. The death of Abu Said Bahatur resulted in political confusing and turmoil. With no real leader remaining, non-Mongol figures began to compete for power and influence. Without any sense of unity, the Mongol Empire was vulnerable to attack.
11: The Mongol Empire lost most of its lands to the Ming Dynasty in 1368. The Chinese destroyed towns and other landmarks with ease. Once a unified army capable of overcoming any militia, Mongol was reduced to hundreds of families striving for their own agenda. To the West, Georgians began to push the Mongols right back to where the originated in the 1320's. They also began to lose their influence in Persia due to the increasing demands of the Persian Warlords. Fighting battles on both sides of the empire, the Mongols were suffocated with little ambition to fight back. Despite their turbulent collapse, the Mongol Empire is one of the largest empires to date.