S: The Most Amazing Cell Theory Project. By: Trent Sandland and Dylana Nguyen
BC: U.S.- $9.99 Canada- $12.99
FC: The Most Amazing Cell Theory Project By: Trent Sandland and Dylana Nguyen
1: Cell Theory: | Cell theory is based upon how cells were made and how their functions help carry out a certain order.The cell is the unit of structure, physiology, and organization in living things. The cell retains a dual existence as a distinct entity and a building block in the construction of organisms. Cells form by division of previous cells.
2: Contributing Scientists: | Robert Hooke- He made many discoveries in micro-anatomy. He believed that cells were like containers to hold the things within it, and thought cells only existed in plants because he discovered it in a cork tree. He used the word cell to describe what he saw, and the name stuck. He then wrote Micrographia, a book that described observations he had made through a microscope. He also created Hooke’s law, describing the elasticity of the body. | Theodor Schwann- He was a German physiologist. He discovered a digestion enzyme for protein in 1836. Schwann found some nuclear structures in plants with Schledien, and continued Schledien’s theory by saying the same cells were in animals. He thought that new cells were created around old cells that already existed. Many people call Schwann the founder of modern histology.
3: Contributing Scientists: | Rudolph Virchow- He pioneered the idea that disease originates in cells and not an entire organism. This had big implications for pathology, turning it from a mostly theoretical science to a science of microbiology. He also discovered leukemia. and found cells in bones and connecting tissues. | Matthias Schleiden- He studied the structures of plants and saw that they were made up of cells. Together with Theodor Schwann he created cell theory. He also discovered the nucleus's importance to the overall cell.
4: Prokaryotic VS Eukaryotic Cells: | The main differences between a prokaryotic cell and Eukaryotic cell is the shape and size (Prokaryotic cells are about 10 times larger). Also, Eukaryotic cells have a nucleus and organelles within it, while Prokaryotic cells only contain a nucleoid region. Prokaryotic cells were some of the very first cells to form, while eukaryotic cells evolved later on.
5: Plant VS Animal Cells: | The plant cell (left) contains chloroplast, a cell wall, a central vacuole, tonoplast, and plasmodesmata. Animal cells (right) contain centrioles. The common organelles are listed down the center. Plant cells make their own food, wile Animal cells do not. Animal cells are any eukaryotic cells that lack what a plant cell has.
6: Ten Cell Structures: | 1)Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum (third left)- Smooth ER synthesizes lipids and steroids. It is involved in the metabolism process and is attached to the nuclear envelope. This is in both animal and plant cells, but serves different purposes. 2) Cell Wall (very top)- A cell wall is a rigid border around the cell, located at the outside of the membrane. It provides support and protection for the plant cell and acts as a filtering mechanism.
7: 3) Cytoplasm (very bottom)- It is fluid within the membrane that holds all of the organelles together. Cytoplasm can be called "cell jelly", because of the substance. 4) Large Central Vacuole (bottom left)- The central vacuole is a large,roomy pouch that stores materials for the cell. Only found in plant cells. 5) Ribosomes (top left)- This is a very small circular structure that can be free floating around the cell or attached to the endoplasmic reticulum. Ribosomes make proteins and is found in all eukaryotes and some prokaryotes. 6) Golgi Apparatus (top right)- This is found in all eurkaryotic cells. Golgi apparatus is a group of membranes stacked on top of each other. They store and modify proteins and then transport those to other parts of the cell. 7) Mitochondrion (bottom right)- It is an organelle that is in a shape of a "bean". Through the center of this organelle is a cristae or inner membrane. Provides high energy for the cell by breaking down food. 8) Nucleus (top left)- The organelle that is somewhat close or near the center of the cell. It is considered as the "boss" of the cell because it contains all of the cells DNA. 9) Nucleolus (top left)- This is a spherical structure inside the nucleus that creates ribosomes that then leave the cell to attach to the Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum or float around the cell. 10) Chloroplast (top right)- A tube shaped organelle that contains a green pigment (chlorophyll). It makes food molecules through photosynthesis, using energy from the sun. Only found in plant cells.
8: Cell Membrane: | Cell membranes are the sort of bubble that keeps the cytoplasm and the cell structures together, and is made up of lipids. As the border of the cell, it has the job of regulating what enters and exits a cell.
9: Homeostasis: | Homeostasis means "staying the same", or maintaining equilibrium. For cells, that means when the cell has enough of a certain substance inside it, it stops taking it in. Likewise, when it needs something, it will take that something in from the area surrounding it.