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The Mughal Empire

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1: The Mughal Empire founded by Babur in 1526 lasted for more than 300 years. The Maghal Empire was located in Northern India.

2: The dynasty was founded by a Chagatai Turkic prince named Bbur (reigned 1526–30), who was descended from the Turkic conqueror Timur on his father’s side and from Chagatai, second son of the Mongol ruler Genghis Khan, on his mother’s side At it's height, it united most of the peoples of South Asia. Its golden age occurred during the reign of Akbar, grandson, of Babur.

3: "If men walk in the way of God's will, interference with them would be unfair," declared the Mughal emperor Akbar the Great. He was one of the few world leaders of his time to practice toleration of all religions. Akbar hoped to end religious conflict by uniting different faiths. He was a great believer in religious tolerance.

4: Rulers/Religion Akbar realized that to rule India he had to lead Hindus as well as Muslims. Adopting a policy of religious toleration, he married a Hindu princess and abolished the special tax on Hindus. The Mughal (or Mogul) Empire ruled most of India and Pakistan in the 16th and 17th centuries. It consolidated Islam in South Asia, and spread Muslim (and particularly Persian) arts and culture as well as the faith. The Mughals were Muslims who ruled a country with a large Hindu majority. However for much of their empire they allowed Hindus to reach senior government or military positions.

5: The Mughals brought many changes to India: Centralised government that brought together many smaller kingdoms Delegated government with respect for human rights Persian art and culture Persian language mixed with Arabic and Hindi to create Urdu Periods of great religious tolerance A style of architecture (Taj Mahal) A system of education that took account of pupils needs and cultures.

6: Akbar's grandson, Shah Jahan, hired the best architects to build the Taj Mahal as a monument to his beloved wife Mumtaz Mahal. He ordered the white marble tomb to be "as beautiful as she was beautiful."

7: Government: The Mughal empire provided a system of government that shared many ideas with the Sultanate as well as bringing in some new ideas of its own. It also incorporated many Indian ideas as well. The empire was essentially still military in nature, with every officer of the Mughal state a member of the army. The emperor was an autocrat and had unlimited freedom in making laws. Although he had a council of ministers, he was not bound to consult them, and his word was law. The only restriction was that he had to follow the guidelines set forth in the scriptures and Islamic traditions. However, a powerful emperor could often violate these as well. The great Mughal kings can best be described as benevolent despots, who ruled fairly and justly. Most of them did involve their ministers in decision making. They also attempted to improve the lives of their subjects, although there was no socialistic work in their times.

8: Government continued: Mughal power weakend in the 1700s, because of wasteful spending. Another reason for the weakend power was that Akbar's successores ended his policy of toleration. The imposed heavy taxes on the Hindus, closed Hindu schools. and dismissed Hindus from government.

9: SOURCES: 1. World Cultures textbook A Global Mosaic 2. BBC Religions.com 3. Thinkquest.org. 4. www.britannica.com

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