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The Muslim World, A-Z

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S: The Muslim World, A-Z

FC: THE MUSLIM WORLD A-Z | Tayana Woodton, Michael Leggerie, Jeffrey Williford, and Joseph Marino

1: Allah Allah is the Arabic word for God. People of the Islam religion worship Allah, but they believe it’s the same God that is worshiped in Christianity and Judaism. It is believed that Allah spoke to Muhammad (the originator of Islam) through Gabriel, the angel. He brought monotheism to Mecca by teaching others about Allah. | Tayana, Category: Muhammad

2: Baghdad- the Abbasid capital city, Baghdad, impressed all who saw it. Caliph al-Mansur chose the site for his capital on the west bank of the Tigris River in 762. Extensive planning went into the city's distinctive circular design. The caliph's palace of marble and stone sat in the innermost circle, along with the grand mosque. Originally, the main streets between the middle wall and the palace were lined with shops. Later, the marketplace moved to a district outside the walls. Baghdad's population approached one million at its peak.

3: Joseph, Category: Cities of Importance

4: Caliph Successor of Muhammad or deputy of Muhammad. The first four righteous caliphs were Abu-Bakr, Umar, Uthman, and Ali. The time of the caliphs was the caliphate. | Jeffrey, Category: Expansion of Islam

5: Damascus Damascus is the city that became the Muslim capital in 661, when the Umayyad Caliphate came into power. in 762, the Abbasids came into power, and the capital moved to Baghdad. Today, 85% of Damascus citizens are Sunni Muslim. | Michael L., Category: Cities of Importance

6: Empire The Muslim Empire stretched 6,000 miles by the year of 750. It stretched from the Atlantic Ocean to the Indus River. This empire had “a sophistication that matched at that time only by the Tang Empire of China.” It had for social classes. The upper class consisted of those who were born as Muslims. The second class were those who converted to Islam. The third class were the “protected people”, which included Christians, Jews, and Zoroastrians. The lowest class were slaves. Tayana, Category: Expansion of Islam

8: Five Pillars The Five Pillars- to be a Muslim, all believers have to carry out five duties. These duties, are known as the Five Pillars of Islam. -Faith- to become a Muslim, a person has to testify to this statement "There is no God but Allah, and Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah". -Prayer- Muslims face towardMeccato pray. They assemble at a mosque. -Alms- Muhammad taught that all Muslims have a responsibility to support the less fortunate. Muslims give alms for the poor, through special religious tax. -Fasting- Muslims fast between dawn and sunset duringRamadan. Fasting shows Muslims that spiritual needs are greater then physical needs -Pilgrimage- All Muslims who are physically and finacially able, perform the hajj at least once | Joseph, Category: The Five Pillars

9: Geometric Patterns- Patterns that uses lines, circles, and polygons for a picture. Calligraphy is when you use writing to create a picture. Geometric patterns and calligraphy both originated from India. (Baghdad and Saudi- Arabia) | Jeffrey, Category: Innovations/Inventions

10: Hajj Hajj is a pilgrimage to Mecca required by all financially and physically able Muslims to perform at least once in their life, according to the fifth of the Five Pillars. This pilgrimage occurs during the 8th-12th days of the 12th month in the Islamic calendar. In 2010, 1,799,601 non-Saudi Arabian Muslims attended this pilgrimage. | Michael L., Category: The Five Pillars

11: Islam Islam is the Arabic word for submission to the will of Allah. Muslims are those who have submitted. People who follow this religion live by the Five Pillars. Muhammad was the originator of Islam. An angel named Gabriel came to him while he was meditating and told him that he was a messenger of Allah. He then began to teach that Allah was the only God and all others were to be abandoned, bringing monotheism to his people. Thus, Islam was born. | Tayana, Category: Muhammad

12: Jihad Abu-Bakr invoked jihad. which means "striving" and can refer to the inner struggle against evil. Abu-Bakr applied this meaning of Jihad to encourage and justify the expansion of Islam. | Joseph, Category: Muslims who made major contributions

13: Khadijah Khadijah the first wife of the prophet Muhammad. Se and few others were the first of Muhammad’s followers. Khadijah met Muhammad when she hired him as a business agent. When they married Khadijah was 40 and Muhammad was 25. | Jeffrey, Category: Muhammad

14: Literature Literature was always present in Arabia, even before Islam. Once Islam came, it inspired different literature, especially poems about praise to Muhammad and those about life, love, and nature. One work of literature was called The Thousand and One Nights, and it was a collection of many Arabic stories. Literature was always present in Arabia, even before Islam. Once Islam came, it inspired different literature, especially poems about praise to Muhammad and those about life, love, and nature. One work of literature was called The Thousand and One Nights, and it was a collection of many Arabic stories. | Michael L., Category: Innovations/Inventions

15: Muhammad Muhammad, as previously mentioned, was the originator of Islam. Allah had spoken to him through an angel named Gabriel and told him he was a messenger of Allah. He then began to teach about Allah and brought monotheism to his people. He was married to a businesswoman named Khadijah. He also led the Hijrah to Yathrib, in which he attracted many followers. He died in 632 at the age of 62. | Tayana, Category: Muhammad; Muslims who made major contributions; Expansion of Islam

16: Nomads Arab nomads, called Bedouins, were organized into tribes and groups called clans. These clans provided security and support for a life made difficult by the extreme conditions of the desert. The Bedouin ideals of courage and loyalty to family, along with their warrior skills, would become part of the Islamic way of life. | Joseph, Category: Innovations/Inventions

17: Oasis An oasis is a fertile green piece of land that suits life surrounded by water. Very few oases in Arabia and Oman can support agriculture. The prophet Muhammad moved to an oasis in Yathrib to work. | Jeffrey

18: Prayer Prayer traditions in Islam are very unique. According to the second of the 5 Pillars, Muslims must pray 5 times a day while facing toward Mecca. This can take place at an Islamic house of worship (called a mosque), or wherever they already are. These rules about praying led to mathematic discoveries in order to show people what direction and what time to pray. | Michael L., Category:The Five Pillars

19: Qur’an The Qur’an is the holy book of the Muslims. It is the equivalent to the Torah for Judaism and the Bible for Christianity. The Qur’an consists of the revelations Muhammad recited to his followers. They collected them in a book after his death. It is written in Arabic and considered by Muslims to be the only Arabic version of the true word of Allah. | Tayana, Category: the Five Pillars

20: The Qur'an

21: bloom | Ramadan Ramadan is a time of reflecting, believing and worshiping God. Muslims are expected to put more effort into following the teachings of Islam and to avoid obscene and irreligious sights and sounds. Purity of both thoughts and actions is important. The act of fasting is said to redirect the heart away from worldly activities, its purpose being to cleanse the inner soul and free it from harm. It also teaches Muslims to practice self-discipline, self-control, sacrifice, and empathy for those who are less fortunate; thus encouraging actions of generosity and charity. | Joseph, Category: The Five Pillars

22: Schism Schism is the divison of people because of an organization or a religious domination. The Sunni and Shi’a were divided because the Shi’a believed that all muslim rulers should be descended from Muhammad. The Sunni believes that muslim leaders should follow the Sunna, or Muhammad’s example. Both believe that the other has distorted the meaning of various passages in Qur’an. | Jeffrey, Category: Expansion of Islam

23: Trade Trade in the Muslim empire was very successful. They traded through the Mediterranean Sea and the Indian Ocean. This allowed not only a richer empire, but also the spread of Islam. The Muslims also invented bank checks, which they called sakks. Once the checks got to Europe, they were called checks. | Michael L., Category: Trade

24: Umayyads The Umayyads was the family who came into power after Ali, Muhammad’s cousin, was assassinated. They moved the Muslim capital to Damascus. They surrounded themselves with wealth and ceremony similar to non-Muslim rulers. These actions led to the Sunni-Shi’a split. The Sunni were okay with the Umayyads ruling. The Shi’a believed that Ali should’ve succeeded Muhammad. | Tayana, Category: Muslims who made major contributions

25: aVerroes Muslim philosopher Ibn Rushd (Averroes) was critized for trying to blend Aristotle's and Plato's views with those of Islam. However, Averroes argued that Greek philosophy and Islam both had the same goal: to find the truth. | Joseph, Category: Muslims who made major contributions

26: spring is here! | Ibn Rushd (Averroes)

27: House of Wisdom- The caliph Al- Mammon opened a library, academy, and a translation center for all people to go to. Many scholars and people taught and were involved in the House of Wisdom’ s reputation and image. People such as researchers, editors, linguists, and technical advisors. Scholars developed techniques for research. | Jeffrey, Category: Architectural Advancements

28: X Marks The Spot Red X= Mecca: Mecca is the city Muhammad lived and was spoken to by Angel Gabriel. It is also where Muslims face to pray 5 times a day, and where they travel to for the Hajj. Yellow X= Medina Medina, formerly known as Yathrib, is where Muhammad and his followers moved to after some of them were attacked in Mecca. This migration was known as the Hijrah. Blue X= Jerusalem Jerusalem, a city that is very important in all three major monotheistic religions, is important to Muslims because it is the site of the Dome of The Rock. This rock is where Muhammad ascended to heaven. The building at this site was finished being built in 691. It is the oldest surviving Islamic monument. | Michael L., Category: Cities of Importance

30: Yathrib The city of Yathrib was Muhammad’s destination when he left Mecca in 622. It was him and a small band of followers. This city was over 200 miles away from Mecca. The migration from Mecca to Yathrib became known as the Hijrah. This migration attracted many devoted followers to Muhammad. Yathrib was later renamed Medina. | Tayana, Category: Cities of Importance

31: al-raZi al-Razi, was a Persian scholar and a great physician of the Muslim world, and more than likely, of world civilization. He wrote an encyclopedia called the Comprehensive Book that drew on knowledge from Greek, Syrian, Arabic, and Indian sources as well as on his own experience. Al-Razi believed patients would recover more quickly if they breathed cleaner air. | Joseph, Category: Muslims who made major contributions

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  • Title: The Muslim World, A-Z
  • Project by: Tayana Woodton Jeffrey Williford Michael Leggerie Joseph Marino
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  • Published: over 5 years ago

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