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The Mysteries of Ancient Egypt

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S: The Mysteries of Ancient Egypt Allison L.

BC: The Mysteries of Ancient Egypt This book was written to answer all of your questions about ancient Egypt. Why did the Egyptians build pyramids? What did the Egyptians eat? Did they ever have wars? You will find out if you read this book.

FC: The Mysteries of Ancient Egypt Allison L. 12 /23/10 | King Tut's Burial Mask | http://www.mnsu.edu

1: Table of Contents 2. Egyptian Life 3 Geography 4 Egyptian Food 5 Egyptian Music 6 Egyptian Wars 7 Egyptian Gods and Goddesses 8 Egyptian Government 9 Mummification Process 10 Pyramids 11 Monuments 12 Temples 13 Bibliography | 1

2: Egyptian Life | Egyptian life depended on the Nile River and the land around it. Every year the Nile flooded which brought better harvests for the people. The flooding also enriched the soil around it. The people of Egypt also made mud brick homes for them to live in. They made their own bricks with mud and crushed up reeds. Egyptians also grew some of their own food, and they traded their food with other villages. Most ancient Egyptians worked as field hands, farmers, craftsmen, and scribes, but a small group of people were nobles. Egyptian life depended on cooperation and determination and without it the Egyptians wouldn’t have made it as far as they did. | The Nile River | http://static.howstuffworks.com/gif/nile-river-3.jpg | 2

3: 3 | Geography | Ancient Egypt was divided into two types of lands, the red land and the black land. The fertile land on the Nile was known as the black land. This land was the only place where the Egyptians could grow crops. They could only grow their crops there because of the layer of silt that was deposited each time the Nile flooded. The red land was the area of desert that protected Egypt on two sides. The red land separated Egypt for its neighboring countries. It also protected them from armies trying to invade the country. | The Red and Black Lands | http://www.snaithprimary.eril.net/egypt1/nilenubia.jpg

4: 4 | Egyptian Food | Egypt had very dry land which allowed them to only grow certain types of food. The crops that they mainly grew were wheat and barley. They made the wheat that they grew into bread, soup, and porridge. They used the barley that they grew to make beer. Most people think that the only reason that the Egyptians started to grow grains was to make beer. Egyptians made clay beer jars filled with beer to bury with someone so they could have beer in the other world. Egyptians also ate meat. They had butcher shops so they could receive their meat there. | Egyptian Bread | ttp://www.mummytombs.com/egypt/animal.food.jpg

5: 5 | Egyptian Music | The first sign of music in Egypt came around 3100 B.C. at the beginning of the Old Kingdom. We do not know what Egyptian music sounded like, but we do know what it looked like. In this picture below you can see that there were string instruments such as guitars and harps, and there were wind instruments such as clarinets. The little kid in the painting is playing a percussion instrument, the drum. Most instrument players were women and slaves. Music was a skilled job for them. They often played at religious festivals and private parties. | Egyptian Musicians | http://historyforkids.org/learn/egypt/art/egyptmusic.htm | Egyptian Musician | http://www.crystalinks.com/hermes.lyre.egypt.jpg

6: 6 | Egyptian Wars | Egypt was pretty hard to invade because of the surrounding deserts, but that didn’t mean that it never happened or that they were never in war. Egypt sometimes fought between themselves over who would be in charge of their country or whether or not their country would stay untied. The Egyptians also had to fight off invasions from the Libyans and the Nubians, and sometimes they lost. In 1700 B.C. there was a huge invasion from the Hyksos. The Egyptians also invaded their neighboring countries such as Levant and Nubia. Their army had bronze-tipped spears and shields made of wood and ox-hide. The pharaohs even fought in horse drawn chariots. | Pharaoh in Chariot | http://www.margaretmorrisbooks.com/images/pharoah%27s_chariot_387x343-med-01.jpg | Egyptian Warriors | http://www.historyforkids.org/learn/egypt/war/11dynsoldiers.jpg

7: 7 | Egyptian Gods and Goddesses | The Egyptians had over 700 gods and goddesses in their religion. During the Old Kingdom they realized that they had way too many gods, so they decided that they would divide them into family groups of about eight or nine. Each god or goddess had its own role to play. Some gods brought better harvest to the Egyptians. Some brought the flood of the Nile every year. Some even took care of people after they had died. The others were either local gods, or gods who represented plants and animals. The Egyptians believed that if they did not worship each god properly then their life would not run smoothly. | Egyptian god Ra | http://www.love-egypt.com/images/sky-god.jpg | Egyptian god Memphian Ptah | http://karenswhimsy.com

8: 8 | Egyptian Government | Ancient Egyptian government was controlled by the Pharaoh. The Pharaoh’s advisors and ministers were mostly priests. The Egyptians believed that only the priests knew the wants and needs of the gods. The priest’s status was above the citizen’s, so he was always obeyed. The governmental officials were the vizier, the prime minister, the chief treasurer, the tax collector, the minister of public works, and the army commander. They were responsible for the Pharaoh. The land was divided into what they called nomes. Each nome had a governor who was told what to do by the vizier. Taxes were paid with goods and labor. | Egyptian Priest | http://www.egyptianmyths.net/images/faq-egyptian.jpg

9: 9 | Mummification Process | There were three main people who took part in this process, the scribe, the cutter, and the embalmer. This process was saved only for the richest of them all. The scribe’s job was to look at the incision that the cutter made in the body. The embalmer’s job was to remove the internal organs from the body. This process took over two months. The body would be washed and dried with natron for forty days. Before the body was placed in the tomb, the face was covered with a burial mask. Depending on how important the person was, depended on whether they would have a well decorated sarcophagus and burial mask. | Ancient Egyptian Mummy | http://www.fatbraintoys.com/images/products/large/ST112.jpg

10: 10 | Pyramids | The Egyptians built pyramids as tombs for Pharaohs who have died, and their wives. They were built in many different shapes and sizes. There are about eighty pyramids that are still known and talked about today. The three largest were built at Giza. These pyramids took over eighty years to build. Pyramids were built to protect the part of the Pharaoh’s soul that was left behind with the body. The Pharaohs were hidden very well within the pyramids because the Egyptians did not want anyone to find and steal their bodies. | Three Pyramids at Giza | http://www.cap.nsw.edu.au/bb_site_intro/specialplaces/special_places_st2/africa/pyramid3.jpg | Pyramids | http://egypttourinfo.com

11: 11 | Monuments | The Pyramids at the Giza are the only remaining monuments of The Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, but the pyramids were not the only amazing wonder that the Egyptians built. The Great Sphinx also was built on the Giza plateau. This statue has the head of a man and the body of a lion. The Egyptians built this statue to guard and protect the tombs of the kings around it. Another magnificent statue built by the Egyptians was the Temple of Ramses II. Ramses II was known as the most powerful Pharaoh of ancient Egypt. They built this temple in his honor. | The Great Sphinx | http://library.thinkquest.org/3011/egypt1.htm | The Temple of Ramses II | http://library.thinkquest.org/3011/egypt1.htm

12: 12 | Temples | Each temple was in honor of a different god or goddess. The temples were the home for them. The god or goddess that lived in the temple was worshipped there by the temple priest and the pharaoh. The larger temples were built out of stone because the people of Egypt wanted them to last forever. The walls inside of the temple were covered with drawings carved into the stone. They were also painted. These drawings were of the pharaoh fighting or doing noble deeds with the god or goddess that the temple is dedicated to. | Temple | http://circulartimes.org/EDenAt583.jpg

13: 13 | Bibliography | Ancient Egyptian Gods and Goddesses. N.p., n.d. Web. 28 Dec. 2010. . Ancient Egyptian Government. N.p., n.d. Web. 28 Dec. 2010. . “Ancient Egyptian Pyramids.” National Geographic. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Dec. 2010. . | Ancient Egyptian Gods and Goddesses. N.p., n.d. Web. 28 Dec. 2010. . Ancient Egyptian Government. N.p., n.d. Web. 28 Dec. 2010. . “Ancient Egyptian Pyramids.” National Geographic. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Dec. 2010. . History for Kids! N.p., n.d. Web. 28 Dec. 2010. . The Trustees of The British Museum. Ancient Egypt. N.p., n.d. Web. 28 Dec. 2010. .

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