FC: The Progressive Era:The Great Age of Reform | (1890-1920)
1: Khesli Johnson February 8, 2013 7th period
2: Table of Contents | Muckrakers................................3 Goals of the Progressives................4-5 Theodore Roosevelt.........................6-7 William Taft.....................................8-9 Woodrow Wilson..........................10-11 Amendments....................................12-18 16th Amendment..............................12-13 17th Amendment..............................14-15 18th Amendment..............................16-17 19th Amendment..............................17-18 Report Card.................................20-23
3: The Muckrakers | Mass-circulation magazines were very important in spreading the word of progressivism. The authors who contributed to those magazines were often called muckrakers. Writers like Lincoln Steffens and Ida Tarbell began to expose the ills in society, government, commerce, and industry. They wrote about the unsafe foods and medicines that were being sold on the open market without any governmental protection for the consumer, or without any regulation by the government. | They received their name, "muckrakers," from President Teddy Roosevelt who said they were raking through the muck of American society. Probably the most influencial muckraker was Upton Sinclair who wrote "The Jungle." The book pointed out the unsafe and unsanitary conditions of meat processing in the Chicago slaughter-houses.
4: Goals of the Progressives | A. End laissez-faire B.End abuses of monopolistic power with antitrust legislation -ex: Sherman Antitrust Act C.Make government more responsive D. Limit power of party bosses end government abuse of power
6: Theodore Roosevelt (1858-1919) was the 26th president of the United States and a proponent of the "New Nationalist" variety of Progressivism. A master of populist rhetoric and public charm, Roosevelt quickly tapped into the widespread fervor for reform. His administration pursued some widely publicized antitrust cases against large companies like Northern Securities and the Swift Beef Trust, but for all his aggressive rhetoric, Roosevelt actually went after fewer monopolies than his successor, William Howard Taft. Throughout his administration, Roosevelt attempted to strike a balance between employers and employees in labor disputes and pledged to give Americans a "Square Deal" that prized a person's character above his class. He made notable strides in the cause of conservationism, dedicating many National Parks and restricting private development on government lands. After voluntarily stepping down from office in 1908, Roosevelt became increasingly disenchanted with William Howard Taft, his hand-picked successor to the presidency. He challenged Taft for the Republican nomination in 1912, and when he lost, he started his own Progressive (or "Bull Moose") Party, positioning himself as the more aggressive trust-busting candidate. While Roosevelt's New Nationalist policy accepted economic concentration as an inevitability in America's rapidly industrializing society, Democrat Woodrow Wilson pledged to destroy the trusts altogether in order to restore competition to the marketplace. Roosevelt lost the election but remained a legendary figure in American political history.
7: Theodore Roosevelt
8: William Taft
9: William Howard Taft (1857-1930) was the 27th president of the United States and Theodore Roosevelt's hand-picked successor. Taft supported Teddy Roosevelt's "Square Deal" policy of attempting to strike a balance between employers and employees and conservatives and Progressives, but it soon proved impossible to please everyone. Taft simply did not have Roosevelt's personal charisma. Over time, he wound up satisfying conservatives more often than Progressives. His administration nonetheless pursued more antitrust suits than Roosevelt. Taft appointed conservatives to several key government posts, which embroiled him in controversy almost immediately. His secretary of the interior, Richard A. Ballinger, was accused of colluding with private business to release valuable Alaskan coal fields for development. Taft's refusal to fire Ballinger and his firm position against Gifford Pinchot (head of the Forest Service) forever alienated him from Roosevelt supporters. Taft also betrayed a platform pledge by going along with the Payne-Aldrich Act, which not only failed to substantially reduce duties (as Progressives had promised), but actually raised several of them. An outraged Roosevelt challenged Taft for the Republican nomination in 1912, and though Taft won the primary, in the general election he received an even smaller percentage of the popular vote than Roosevelt, who ran as third-party candidate.
10: Woodrow Wilson
11: Woodrow Wilson (1856-1924) was the 28th President of the United States, serving two terms from 1913-1919. As president of Princeton University and later as governor of New Jersey, Wilson was a leading Progressive, arguing for a stronger central government and fighting for anti-trust legislation and labor rights. As president of the United States, he passed important legislation on those and many other issues, narrowly winning reelection in 1916 after pledging to keep America out of World War I. Wilson's foreign policy was noted for its idealistic humanitarianism; his Fourteen Points—a statement of national objectives that envisioned a new international order after World War I—ultimately failed, but was one of the clearest expressions of interventionist American values. Wilson suffered a severe strokes during his second term in office and died in 1924. Wilson ran in 1912 under a platform known as the "New Freedom," in which he pledged to reintroduce real competition to the marketplace by destroying monopolistic economic trusts. In practice, however, his actions quickly came to resemble the "regulated monopoly" of Republican candidate Theodore Roosevelt, and few trusts were dissolved during his tenure. Though he achieved passage of a 1914 measure to create a Federal Trade Commission (FTC), the regulatory body became co-opted by business interests just like the Interstate Commerce Commission before it. Wilson lowered the tariff, introduced the income tax, and instituted the Federal Reserve System to reform the national economy.
12: 16th Amendment The Income Tax Amendment Congress is allowed to collect some of the money earned by people working in the United States, it doesn't matter where the money is earned, as long as it is “income.” There is no need to share the revenue with the states and the census can't be used as a basis for distributing taxes on people.
14: 17th Amendment Direct Election of Senators Progressives wanted to give the people an opportunity to vote for their senators directly. In 1912, Congress passed the amendment, providing direct elections of senators. Every state will have two Senators, and they will serve six-year terms in Congress. There will be one vote per senator, which now means 100 votes in total for our Senate. Any person that can vote in state elections may vote for the senator of that state. If a senator leaves office the governor may appoint someone to fill that opening as long as the state allows the governor to do this
16: 18th Amendment | Prohibition Amendment 1919 | This unpopular amendment banned the sale, making and drinking of alcohol in the United States. Not only did regular people find other ways to drink alcohol, criminals made a lot of money selling alcohol to those people.
19: 19th Amendment | Woman’s Suffrage 1920 | Guaranteed women the right to vote in all state and national elections.
20: A failure of the Progressive Era was the 18th Amendment. Many women were happy when alcohol was prohibited, however, the men were not. Criminals started selling alcohol & This caused regular people to drink alcohol illegally.Enforcement of prohibition became very difficult. Soon, such terms as "bootlegger," "bath tub gin," and "speakeasy" became household words. Gangs of hoodlums became more powerful as they trafficked in alcohol. By the 1930s, a majority of Americans had tired of the noble experiment, and the 18th Amendment was repealed. | One success of the Progressive Era was women were granted much needed suffrage. | Report Card
21: Progressives sought to enable the citizenry to rule more directly and circumvent political bosses. Thanks to the efforts of Oregon Populist Party State Representative William S. U'Ren and his Direct Legislation League, voters in Oregon overwhelmingly approved a ballot measure in 1902 that created the initiative and referendum processes for citizens to directly introduce or approve proposed laws or amendments to the state constitution, making Oregon the first state to adopt such a system. About 16 states began using primary elections to reduce the power of bosses and machines.The Seventeenth Amendment was ratified in 1913, requiring that all senators be elected by the people (instead of state legislatures). The main motivation was to reduce the power of political bosses, who controlled the Senate seats by virtue of their control of state legislatures.
22: The Progressives worked hard to reform and modernize the schools at the local level. The era was notable for a dramatic expansion in the number of schools and students served, especially in the fast-growing metropolitan cities. After 1910 that smaller cities began building high schools. By 1940, 50% of young adults had earned a high school diploma. The result was the rapid growth of the educated middle class, who typically were the grass roots supporters of progressive measures. During the Progressive Era, many states began passing compulsory schooling laws. An emphasis on hygiene and health was made in education, with physical and health education becoming more important and widespread.
23: The FTC was formed in 1914 to serve as a “watchdog” agency to end unfair business practices. The FTC protects consumers from business fraud. | In 1914 Congress enacted the Clayton Anti-Trust Act that strengthened the Sherman Act. It had an anti-trust provision that prevented companies from acquiring stock from another company and supported workers’ unions.