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The Reconstruction of Terpakistan

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FC: The Reconstruction Plan of Terpakistan | By: Grace Maiorano and Francesco Pepe 11-1

2: 10% PLAN | This plan, created by Abraham Lincoln, stated that a state could be readmitted into the Union when 10% of the 1860 presidential vote count agreed to follow the laws of emancipation and swore allegiance to the U.S. Each state also had to establish a new government with its own constitution that outlawed slavery forever. | Grace Maiorano

3: Radical Reconstruction | Radical Reconstruction primarily revolves around radical Republicans who believed that blacks deserved the same political rights as whites. They also thought Confederate leaders should be punished for their roles in the Civil War. In 1867, Congress introduced the First and Second Reconstruction Acts Congress passes Tenure of Office Act. Andrew Johnson encouraged southern states to deny to ratify the 14th Amendment. He was then impeached for violating the Tenure of Office Act. Ulysses S. Grant was then elected as president. In 1869,Congress passed the Fifteenth Amendment, granting all American males, including African-Americans, the right to vote | (& the Impeachment of Andrew Johnson) | Grace Maiorano

4: Presidential Reconstruction | In 1865, Abraham Lincoln was assassinated; then Andrew Johnson became President. Congress established the Joint Committee on Reconstruction. In 1866, Johnson vetoed the revival of Freedmen’s Bureau charter. Over Johnson's veto, Congress passed Civil Rights Act of 1866. Following this, Congress drafted the Fourteenth Amendment. Johnson started his Johnson “Swing Around the Circle” speeches. | Grace Maiorano

5: Terpakistan Plan | After the bloody war has ended, and it has been decided that slavery must be outlawed in Terpakistan, we propose a 50% plan. After 50% of the presidential vote count in each state agrees to follow emancipation, that state will be readmitted into the Terpakistan nation. We feel 10% was too little of a minority for a state to be readmitted to the Union after the Civil War. This means that 90% was still possibly for slavery. This naturally caused some later issues such as, the Klu Klux Klan, in which Southerns fought back after wanting slavery to remain legal. Even if it would take much longer to get 50% of the state to support emancipation, it would cause less issues in the future. | Grace Maiorano

6: In terms of the Radical Reconstruction, we would take out and keep some of the notions of this reconstruction plan.We would keep The First Reconstruction Act, or the Military Reconstruction Act. It reduced the secessionist of states by dividing them into five military districts, each governed by a Union general. In order to protect the voting rights of slaves,we would also use the Second Reconstruction Act, placing Union troops in charge of voter registration. However, southern life did not change for everyone. Many southerns did not follow these laws passed. The newly formed southern governments created public schools, but they were still segregated, and did not receive much funding. | Grace Maiorano

7: In Terpakistan, we would make sure southern schools received funding. We would also make segregation in schools illegal to prevent future issues. We would also place more Union, in our case Terpakistan, police officers and soldiers in the south in order to arrest southerns who were not following the newly imposed laws. In terms of the Presidential Reconstruction, we would establish a few changes. Johnson created laws, in which many Radical and moderate Republicans in Congress did not approve of. This led to the | Grace Maiorano

8: formation of the Committee of Reconstruction, where stricter requirements were made in order for southern states to be readmitted. Then, Congress renewed the charter that had created Freedmen's Bureau. which Johnson vetoed, leading him to be impeached. In Terpakistan, the president must agree with Congress on the same ideas about readmitting former states. This would lead to less debate over vetoes, laws, etc., and could prevent the impeachment of a president. | Grace Maiorano

9: Black Codes | These were laws and constitutional amendments enacted by former Confederate states, in order to restrict the freedom of freed slaves. This would promise a supply of cheap agricultural labor, and keep a predominately white hierarchy in the south. Each ex-Confederate state, had their own set of laws. Some laws prevented blacks from voting, holding office, or serving juries. The majority of these laws led to the creation of the Jim Crow laws, which promoted segregation, such as separate schools for white and black children. This caused on-going issues the were not resolved until the 20th century by Dr. Martin Luther King. | Grace Maiorano | Grace Maiorano

10: Terpakistan Plan | In terms of the Black Codes, we would simply make it a national law for the enactment of these codes to be illegal. This would promote full liberty to newly freed slaves. Most importantly, the absence of these codes would prevent the development of segregation in the future, such as the Jim Crow Laws. We would make segregation illegal now, later on. | Grace Maiorano

11: 13th Amendment | This amendment officially outlawed slavery and involuntary servitude in the United states. It was the first of the three Reconstruction Amendments. Congress passed it on January 31, 1865, and it was ratified by the states on December 6, 1865. | 14th Amendment | The 14th Amendment to the Constitution was ratified on July 9, 1868, and granted citizenship to “all persons born or naturalized in the United States,” which included former slaves recently freed. | Grace Maiorano

12: 15th Amendment | The 15th Amendment to the Constitution granted African American men the right to vote by declaring that the "right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any state on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude." | Grace Maiorano

13: Terpakistan Plan | We have decided to obtain most of the notions of the 13th amendment, in order to better the overall status of Terpakistan. Once slavery is officially abolished, it will resolve the huge debate over whether is should be outlawed or not. Even though this amendment did not bring equality to slaves, it'd successfully freed them. We would ensure more acts of equality for them by enforcing in this amendment that Black Codes are illegal. We would keep the ideas of the 14th amendment as well because it gave citizenship to the freed slaves. We would keep the 15th amendment as well because it gave freed male slaves the right to vote. Obtaining citizenship and the right to vote are good foundations for a slave to start over his or her life as a freed person. | Grace Maiorano

14: The Port Royal Experiment | This was an experiment started during the Civil War in which ex-slaves worked on land abandoned by plantation owners. The Sea Islands off the coast of South Carolina was liberated by the Union in 1861; their main harbor was Port Royal. African Americans proved their ability to successfully maintain land and their ability to live freely. General Mitchel allowed African Americans to establish the town of Mitchelville on Hilton Head Island. President John ended the experiment in 1865. | Grace Maiorano

15: Terpakistan Plan | We would keep this experiment in our reform plan. This experiment successfully proved that freed slaves were more than capable of surviving on their by maintaining plantations and living independently. We'd also allow them to establish their own town. However, if our president tried to end this experiment, like Johnson had, Congress would veto his idea. This experiment is a fantastic model of what Reconstruction could have been. Terpakistan would keep it alive. | Grace Maiorano

16: Civil Rights Act of 1875 | This act was proposed by Senator Charles Sumner and Representative Benjamin F. Butler in 1870. The act was passed by Congress in February, 1875 and signed by President Grant on March 1, 1875. It promised that everyone, despite race, color, or previous condition of servitude, was entitled to the same treatment in public accommodations. Unfortunately, the law was barely enforced, especially following the 1876 presidential election and withdrawal of federal troops from the South. In 1883, the Supreme Court said the act was unconstitutional based on the idea that the Fourteenth Amendment does not give the state the power to prohibit discrimination by private individuals. | Grace Maiorano

17: Terpakistan Plan. | We would definitely impose the Civil Rights Act of 1875 into our reform plan. It would naturally be a major factor in genuinely giving freedom to former slaves. However, this act could never be ignored because we would make it illegal for states to enact forms of discrimination by private individuals. | Grace Maiorano

18: Hiram Revels | \ Hiram Rhodes Revels was the first African American to serve in the United States Senate. He was the first African American in the U.S. Congress because he preceded any African American in the House. He represented Mississippi in 1870 and 1871 during Reconstruction. Revels won by a vote of 81 to 15 in the Mississippi State Senate, in order to finish the term of one of the state's two seats in the US Senate that were left vacant since the Civil War. revels spoke for compromise and moderation in terms of racial equality. Revels tried to reassure Senators about the capability of African Americans. | Grace Maiorano

19: Tepakistan Plan | Hiram Revels represents the ideal politician for any country going through a Reconstruction phase. He spoke profoundly on the ideas of equality for all races, particularly for freed slaves. Also, he represents hope and promise for a brighter future for the recently freed slaves. This is because he was a member of a race that was enslaved in the U.S., and then served as a politician in the very nation itself. It would be our goal in Terpakistan to only keep people in office with his notions of equality. | Grace Maiorano

20: The Colfax Massacre | The Colfax Massacre occurred on April 13, 1873. During a contested election for governor of Louisiana, a white militia, known as the White League, with rifles and a cannon overpowered freedmen and state Militia, whom were black. They attempted to control the Grant Parish courthouse in Colfax in order to protect white rule in the state. About 100 black men were killed. This massacre proved to President Grant how difficult it was going to be to guarantee the rights and protection of blacks in the South. | Grace Maiorano

21: Terpakistan Plan | In order to prevent massacres like this and other violent groups, such as the White League and the Ku Klux Klan, we would create methods of stronger protection for freed slaves. Multiple soldiers would act as police men roaming the streets and waters of the Western area, especially where freed slaves are residing. An FBI-like organization would keep an eye out for potential militia groups forming. | Grace Maiorano

22: Scalawags | Scalawags was a nickname given to southern whites who supported Reconstruction after the Civil War. To the majority of white Southerns, scalawags were a group of traitorous people who had abandoned their countrymen and ingratiated themselves with the Hated radical Republicans for their own grain. Scalawags believed that conformance with the dictated measures of the Reconstruction was the most successful method to end Reconstruction and return to the Southern home rule. Some who aided the Northern Republicans after the passing of the Reconstruction Act, which incorporated military rule in the Southern states to enforce black suffrage and political equality, were prime targets for groups like the KKK. | Grace Maiorano

23: Carpetbaggers | During the time of reconstruction many northerners began to move South. These newcomers were elected to the Southern Government sometimes and the Democratic Party in the South disliked these people a lot. The democratic party gave these Northerners the name carpetbaggers because they came in with their suitcases made of carpet fabrics. The Southern residents often saw the Northerners as intruders who were there to exploit the South. Although some did want to take advantage of the area, many wanted to find new opportunity that they had lacked to find in the North. School teachers often came in with hope of being able to educate the children of the South but still many Democratic supporting Southerners disliked this group. Francesco Pepe

24: Terpakistan Plan | Carpetbaggers and Scalawags would not be allowed in our Reconstruction. In Terpakistan we don't agree or approve of the idea of judging people by what they are or where they are coming from. This would be seen as unterpakistanian and would not be allowed. Francesco Pepe

25: Francesco Pepe

26: Sherman's General Field Order 15 | Sherman's Field order 15 did a great deed for African Americans during the period of Reconstruction. The order called for the settlement of black families on the land that had been confiscated. This land was located on the coastline that stretched along Charleston, South Carolina, and all the way to the Saint Johns river in Florida. The order was allowing blacks o settle in this land and it encouraged some of the Freedman to join the union cause as a means of retaining there new liberty. Roughly 40,000 African Americans were given the land although in 1865 president Andrew Johnson overturned the order Sherman put into place and returned the land to the farmers and planters who originally claimed ownership of it. Although Johnson did revoke what was put in place African Americans presently look back at this order as the promise America has made to them for the restitution for enslavement. | Francesco Pepe

27: Terpakistan Plan | Francesco Pepe | We would keep Sherman's General Field Order in our plan for Reconstruction because although it was revoked, at the time, it gave a sense of hope to the freed slaves. In Terpakistan, would we not allow the President to end such a successful order. To take that even further, after the revocation, it was still seen as a great American effort to improve the lives of freed slaves.

28: Sharecropping vs. Tenant Farming | Sharecropping is a system of agriculture in which a landowner allows a tenant to work on the land in return for a share of the crop grown on that land. Sharecropping was needed as a result of the economic issue caused by the emancipation of slaves. This system was one of the few options for poor freedmen to produce crops and support themselves. However, through sharecropping, former white slave owners would take advantage of uneducated former slaves by drawing up a 70-30 contract, instead of 50-50. Tenant farmers owned their own mule and plow, and they paid the landowner less, usually about one-third of the crop. | Grace Maiorano

29: Terpakistan Plan | We would use the ideas of sharecropping and tenant farming in our reform plan because it gives freed slaves opportunities to work for their own earnings in order to provide for themselves and their families. However, we would impose laws that would prevent workers from being taking advantaged of by landowners. If a land-owner was not drawing a 50-50 contract, it would be illegal. Through this, more equality would be promoted for freedmen. | Grace Maiorano

30: The Military Reconstruction Act | The military Reconstruction Act wiped out Johnson's programs for the most part. The act was passed in March of 1867 and it split the former confederacy in five districts. The only area it didn't split was Tennessee because they had already ratified the Fourteenth amendment in 1866. The union placed generals in charge of each of the five separate districts. The conditions of these divided lands consisted of the creation of a new constitution that the Congress had to accept. The new constitution had to give the right to vote to all men, no matter race, and the confederates also had to ratify the fourteenth amendment before they could elect people into congress. The military officers were watching over the registration of voters and the South was beginning to hold elections and bring together conventions. In 1868, North Carolina, South Carolina, Florida, Alabama, Louisiana, and Arkansas all met the requirements of the Military Reconstruction Act and were than readmitted into the Union. | Francesco Pepe

31: Terpakistan Plan | In Terpakistan the Military Reconstruction Act would have been accepted. This act did one of the most important things that happened during the Reconstruction. It set a standard that needed to be met in order to once again be part of the Union. In Terpakistan we would have needed to restore order and make our country a whole again so the Military reconstruction act would be perfect. Once all of the regions met the requirement we would allow them to be accepted back into to our controlling body and again order would be restored. Francesco Pepe

32: Ulysses S. Grant | During the period of Reconstruction Grant went at the Ku Klux Klan. He wanted to get rid of them so he tried to get rid of the members that were in South Carolina. He stopped the group until about 1920 but even when he stopped them there was still a lot of existing slavery in the South. Grant was president during the time of Reconstruction and he believed that business was of national interest so he signed legislation that would protect business interests. The legislation he passed would later create more monopolies, public longing for the increasing of wealth and corruption. From the start of Grants presidency a lot of scandal surrounded him always and after his Reelection the scandal would increase so he later left office. The controversy disgusted him to much to bear it any longer. Francesco Pepe

33: Terpakistan Plan | In our Terpakistan plan we would accept some of the ideas grant supported but we would not accept Grant himself. The president did do a lot for the civil war while it occurred but after during his presidency he was accused of many things. We would take the idea of the destruction of the KKK because we are attempting to create a land full of peace and without discrimination from cruel groups who are racist. We would leave his scandal and his business ideas behind because they supported a corrupt society that we frown upon. | Francesco Pepe

34: Civil Rights Act of 1866 | The civil rights act of 1866 was an attempt to override the black codes. The Act gave citizenship to all of the people that were born in the U.S. but it excluded Native Americans. The Act also allowed Blacks to be allowed to own property as well as making it so that blacks were treated as equals in a court room. The federal government was given the power to sue any person who violated the rights that were being stated within the act. There was a huge fear that surrounded this act being pushed to the side so the Republicans brought about the 14th amendment. This amendment protected this act because it gave citizenship to all people born in the U.S. and it stated that no state could take away a persons right of life, liberty, or property without taking them through a court system first. No state could deny a person equal protection of the laws either. The increasing violence that was occurring in the South at this time convinced Republicans that were on the edge to approve the Amendment and it was passed in June of 1866. Francesco Pepe

35: Francesco Pepe

36: Terpakistan Plan | The Civil Rights act of 1866 was a major step in Reconstruction. In our Terpakistan Plan the Civil Rights act of 1866 would be included. We would utilize this plan because it gave every person born in the U.S. citizenship and we support equality. We would use this because it not only would give African Americans the right to own their own property but it also brought about the 14th Amendment. We would have brought in the amendment because it supported our act and it gave a definite right to life, liberty, and property. Francesco Pepe

37: Redemption | Redemption was a movement that overthrew Reconstruction and restored a sense of supremacy in th South. The people that ran for government in the South were now trying to gain black votes by promising to allow them to have their rights. Although the idea of promising blacks rights was a strategy the main strategies were economic intimidation and actual physical violence. The KKK and other groups were dedicated to ending Republican rule and stopping blacks from voting. The redeemers were intimidating the blacks and taking their right to vote away so Congress passed the Force Act which allowed the president to use federal troops as a means of stopping the denial of voting rights. Although the KKK began to let up the intimidation still existed and this diminished Republican Government in all but three states. Francesco Pepe

38: Terpakistan Plan | In Terpakistan the Redeemers would have to be excluded. We wouldn't want these kind of people to exist in the first place but because of the inevitability that they are always going to, we would have to stop them by any means. Organizations like the KKK and people that will try to rebel our free land will have to be stopped somehow. We cannot allow them to intimidate the black voters on our land because in doing so they will be taking the Republican leaders out of Terpakistan. Francesco Pepe

39: US v. Kruikshank (1876) | This court case was over the Colfax Massacre. There were three whit men involved in this Massacre that were put on trial. They were being charged but argued that the Second Amendment and other acts of government justified their actions during the Colfax Massacre. In the end the case was ruled by the Supreme Court. The ruling went against any individual right to bear arms and from this the cases that the white men were making were proved to be incorrect. they learned that the second amendment guaranteed only states rights to keep militias and that state governments could regulate guns however they saw fit. In the end it overturned the convictions of two of the defendants in the case. Francesco Pepe

40: Terpakistan Plan | In our plan for Reconstruction this case would have been ruled in the same way. Although the defendants tried to change the case by pulling on their amendments and rights their actions were wrong so they needed to be sentenced. This would set an example to the people of Terpakistan that they cannot get around the system that is in place and that it would be foolish to believe that they could anyway. Francesco Pepe

41: The Ku Klux Klan | The Ku Klux Klan (KKK) were a secret society that was started in 1866 by former confederate soldiers. The secret societies goal was to remove the Union troops from the south and regain control for the Democratic party. The members were all hooded with white robes and they drove through and they rode throughout the night terrorizing people who supported the Republican Government. The KKK would break up Republican meetings and burn African American homes,schools, and churches all in an attempt to keep Blacks and Republicans from voting. The Republicans and blacks formed groups that fought back against this harsh group until the African American organization that was fighting back reported back to our federal government and called for help. Francesco Pepe

42: Terpakistan Plan | The KKK would not be accepted in our plan. People who could commit the harsh acts that this group had been committing would be driven out of our society for obvious reasons. We want people who are tolerant of every race, motto, and creed in our society and if there are people to stubborn to accept our government and people that feel the need to result to violence to get what they want, than those people do not belong in Terpakistan. Francesco Pepe

43: Charles Sumner Charles Sumner was a senator from Massachusetts but during the Reconstruction he had much greater purpose. During the time of Reconstruction Sumner led the fight for radical reconstruction. Radical Reconstruction was a plan that was fighting to give blacks equality and liberty as well as enfranchisement for the black men. Not only did Sumner lead the pack in radical reconstruction but he also began the movement that was put in place to impeach Andrew Johnson. After Johnson was acquitted Sumner was still one of the few people who wanted him to be impeached. Although Sumner had passed, the Civil Rights act was passed in 1875 and this is something he really pushed for. The man believed that all men should be treated equally and he was a big supporter of trying to make the U.S. an accepting country that was full of opportunity for all men. Francesco Pepe

44: Terpakistan Plan | In Terpakistan we would gladly welcome Sumner and all of the ideals he possessed. Sumner fought alongside Radical Reconstruction and he really wanted all men to have equal rights. In Terpakistan we believe that all men should be created equal and live accordingly. Sumner would make a great contribution to our society because he would also stand up to the Southerners and others who believed that blacks were peasants who didn’t deserve rights. Francesco Pepe

45: Panic of 1873- During Grants presidency we experienced the Panic of 1873. There were a series of bad railroad investments that took place in the U.S. and a severe economic crisis began. This panic caused the stock market to crash and smaller banks to close. Thousands of businesses closed down and tens of thousands of American workers lost their jobs. The scandals at hand and this economic debt hurt the Republican party and the Democrats won control over the House of Representatives. Francesco Pepe

46: Terpakistan Plan | This kind of issue would not be acceptable in Terpakistan. You cannot have a president in power that has constant scandals surrounding his name and that allows businesses to disrupt the economy of your people. The debt wound up allowing an unlawful body to take over the country and in Terpakistan we must keep our power in check and we must not allow it to fall into the hands of the wrong group.

47: The Slaughterhouse Cases | The slaughterhouse cases were a series of trials that changed the way our amendments and acts are perceived. In 1869, Louisiana Legislature granted a 25 year monopoly to a slaughterhouse in New Orleans. The other people who owned slaughterhouses filed suit because they were taken away their right to property without due process of law which was guaranteed to them in the 14th amendment. The majority decision was against the slaughterhouse operators, being that the Fourteenth amendment needed to be considered in the vision of its original framers. The Fourteenth Amendment could not be construed to mean only black slavery; it did not really rights as those in question. There was a huge distinction drawn between the U.S. and individual state governments. The case did not mean to make it seem as if legal control or civil rights over a citizen were being deprived. Francesco Pepe

48: Terpakistan Plan | Although this plan in the removal of several slaughterhouses was supposed to beneficial to the health of Americans it can be seen as unfair and unjust. The amendment does state that we will have our right to property. In Terpakistan if you had your right to property you would be given it and nobody could take it away from you. No matter what the circumstance is, if you place a certain idea out into the world than you cannot go back on it and change it because your people will call discrimination on you.

49: The Compromise of 1877 | The Southern Democrats pulled together with the Republicans and decided that the election would go to Hayes. The Republican party had one the election but this couldn't have happened without the support of the Southern Democrats. This fact made many citizens feel as if a deal was made between the two groups. The idea of the deal is why the outcome of this presidential election is also often referred to as the Compromise of 1877. Although nobody really knows if a deal was made it is believed that Hayes was elected because the North agreed to pull federal troops out of the South if Hayes was elected into presidency. Hayes did pull troops out after he assumed his position and the Republican governments in the South fell which means that the South had than redeemed the Southern territory. Francesco Pepe

50: Terpakistan Plan | This idea of a compromise would be accepted in Terpakistan. The power that we support in Terpakistan is the Republican party and if we are being offered a presidency in exchange for pulling troops out of an area that was almost done removing the republican party from their area anyway than I would willingly accept it. The South was removing the Republican Party from their land anyway so we might as well have just accepted this compromise and won a presidency over an already lost battle for position in the South. Francesco Pepe

52: Political

53: Cartoon

54: Cartoon Analyzation | The first part of the picture is of President Andrew Johnson trying to pick up a book version of the U.S. Constitution. This represents his attempt to withhold the Constitution through his overturning, revoking, and vetoing of laws and acts passed during Reconstruction. In the second part of the picture, he is lying on the floor with the Constitution lying on top of him. This represents his impeachment for violating the Tenure of Office Act. The book falling on him shows that he was not powerful enough to keep his political ideas alive before being put out of his presidency. | Grace Maiorano

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