S: The River Valley Civilizations
FC: The River Valley Civilizations By: Madison Stacy
1: Table of Contents: Mesopotamia.............................page 2-4 Egypt.............................................page 5-7 Indus...........................................page 8-10 China..........................................page 11-13
2: Mesopotamia: Mesopotamia means "Land between the Rivers" in Greek. | Hammurabi was the Babylonian King, Babylon is the capital of Mesopotamia. He was the inventor of Hammurabi's Code the law of codes he used for his ruling at the time.
3: The Tigris and the Euphrates Rivers were the axes of most ancient civilizations in history. The Sumerians invented Cuneiform which is wedge-shaped symbols. Governments in Mesopotamia were controlled by temple priests. Sumerians believe in many gods, which means that they are polytheistic.
4: Historians believe that Sumerians invented the wheel, the sail, and the plow. The sumerians might have also been the first to use bronze. | In Mesopotamia they had a lot of cultural legacies, the culture was a synthesis of sumerian and semitic forms. | A series of rulers from a single family is called a dynasty and after about 2500 B.C. sumerian city-states became mostly under the rule of dynasties. | Sumerians lived in Mesopotamia and were also one of the first groups to form a civilization.
5: Egypt: Egyptians were polytheistic, there main gods were Re (the sun god), and Osiris (god of the dead). | The Nile River flows northward across Africa for over 4,100 miles, this is the largest river in the world. Egypt's settlements arose along this river.
6: Pyramids were a structure built in Egypt for a resting place for the kings of their kingdom to be put after there death. Pharaohs ruled as the gods, they were thought to be almost as splendid and powerful as the gods of heaven.
7: The Egyptians developed a writing called, hieroglyphics in Greek meaning "sacred carving" where pictures stood for ideas. Egyptians soon invented a new and better writing surface, since before they used stones and clay,but now they use papyrus reeds grown in a marshy land that makes a paper like sheet. | Egypt's type of government is based on religious authority which is called a theocracy. Egyptians were not trapped in their social classes they could succeed in there jobs or earn loyalty. Woman in Egypt were equal to the same rights as men. A big thing in Egyptian culture was mummification, where royal and important Egyptian bodies were preserved from decaying. Egyptians invented the calender and the 365 days in a year, counting written numbers, and medicine.
8: Indus: The Indus Valley Civilization is sometimes called the Harappan Civilization because many discoveries were made at that site. Many people of the Indus Valley were part of the Harappan Culture and the harappan culture made up there own language that they called the Harappan language. THe Harappan rulers are believed to have been close to religion but no temple has been found
9: The Indus River provided a link to sea, which developed trade with distant people. Geographers refer to the landmass including, India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh as the Indian Subcontinent. | Monsoons are seasonal winds that dominate Indus Valleys climate. Religions in Indus Valley were Hinduism and Buddhism. People in Indus Valley used the grid system to lay bricks that built India's first cities.
10: The uniformity in these cities planning and construction tells us that the Indus people had formed a central government. Around 1750 B.C. the quality of buildings in cities declined and the cities slowly fell apart.
11: China: Chinas boundaries did not completely protect its people from invasions. China's land is not very suitable for farming so only about 10% is used for farming.
12: China has two main rivers the Haung He, known as the Yellow River and the Chang Tiang, known as the Yangtze River. | The Chinese method of writing each character stands for one syllable or unit of language.
13: The Great Wall of China was built during the Qin dynasty to protect from attacks. The shang society was divided between nobles and peasants. The ruling class of nobles lead by a king, families owned the land. | One of the oldest and most important shang city was Anyang, one of the capitals of Shang Dynasty. The justification of a leader developed over time the royal authority came from heaven, which meant the leader had divine approval. Known as the Mandate of Heaven. China established a system called feudalism its a political system where nobels are granted use of lands that belonged to the king. Roads and canals were built to stimulate trade, money was introduced, used iorn to create weapons like axes and swords