S: By: Shahar, Jordana and Talia B.
BC: The End | By: Jordana, Shahar and Talia B
FC: The Spectacular Plains
1: PG. 2-3: Today's Natives PG. 4-5: Arrival of the Europeans PG. 6-7: Social Structure PG. 8-9:Recreation and Games PG. 10-11: Shelter PG. 12-13: Tools PG. 14-15: Famous People PG. 16-17: Food Sources PG. 18-19: Transportation PG. 20-21: Role of Women PG. 22-23: Special Events PG. 24-25: Weapons PG. 26-27: Clothing PG. 28-29: Origins and Beliefs PG. 30-31: Geographic Location PG. 32-33: BIBLIOGRAPHY | Table of Contents
2: Many Natives today still live and have many rights and advantages in Canada. The Native Peoples do not need to pay income taxes that they have earned from working because they had an agreement that since the European Settlers took over their land, they have rights to not pay the taxes and many more advantages. It's very helpful for them to not pay the income tax because many of the Natives do not have much money! If they have a reasonable amount of money, it is because they were able to find oil on their land, which then they could sell. Native Peoples are still farmers or cattle ranchers. They either work on their land or in the western farming communities. Their property cannot be taken away from them, unless they sell it with everyone's permission! Just like there are, unfortunately, people who hate Jews, there are also people who hate the Natives’. The Natives are always on the lookout for white people because the white people want to set traps on the Natives. The Plains Natives have a special headdress that is only worn during ceremonial dances and celebrations of the heritage of their tribes. This dress is a very important dress that every generation of the Natives has worn. | Today's Natives
3: As you see, today's Natives are very different then you would think.” Most, still follow the beliefs and cultures, but try to have a fun life full of laughter and greatness! They can dress like us. It matters how observant they are. They have many advantages because of a mistake that took place thousands of years ago with the Europeans. | Natives today celebrating
4: Arrival of the Europeans Before In the 16th century, the Europeans began to arrive in North America;t his is where the Plains Natives lived. Before the Europeans arrived the Plains Natives would have their own way of life, they would make tools out of bones, horn, antlers and stone. Animal skins were used for clothing and receptacles of different kinds. Basketry and pottery was known among all semi-sedentary tribes and dogs were the only domesticated animal that was used. This was the Plains Natives way of life. | The Europeans trading their goods with the Natives
5: After Once the Europeans arrived both they and the Plains Natives were friendly to each other. The Plains Natives taught the Europeans how to hunt and in return the Europeans gave the Plain Natives pots and cans for cooking. But the Natives soon lost their way of life and started to depend on trading goods and the government for aid and help. Their hunting economy collapsed when the buffalo was exterminated in the 19th century. The Plains Natives crafts were replaced when metal utensils and cloths were introduced. They lost their culture as the traditional quilts were replaced with beads. The Europeans gave the Plains Natives a disease called smallpox. The Plains Natives had never encountered such a disease so many suffocated and died. This made the Plains Native population grow smaller because they did not know how to cure it. The Europeans thought they were superior to the Plains Natives. They made them move to reservations and took over their lands. Their buffalo was replaced with a small cattle. Most Plains Natives thought that this was a poor replacement. They had to make do with jobs that were never done before. For example, the work had to be divided between women and men. Many Natives today feel that it was not fair for what the Europeans did to their ancestors.
6: Bravery, courage, knowledge are just some of the qualities the chiefs had and what made them leaders. The chiefs usually were wise, patient, and sometimes wealthy and showed great leadership qualities. Also, most of them were either prophets or elderly. The band chief would usually only be supported they could catch enough food for the band.The council of elders would make their decision for the groups from the ideas the chief gave the It’s interesting how everybody, even the Palins Natives, needed a leader who helped them make decisions and made the natives organized. | Social Structure
7: Band Chief
8: Recreation and Games The Native Peoples had a huge passion for gambling and playing fun, wild and crazy games. They had a passion for gambling. You needed a large number of people to gamble, so the Natives would form into 2 opposing teams and gamble based on guessing and chance. They would use pegs, and depending on who was playing, it would sometimes be 2 different colours. One player on the 1st team would throw the pegs in the air. Once they were in the air the 2nd team would guess which side the pegs would land on, similar to the game heads or tails with a coin. During the game, the players would sing and cheer for their team. Cup and toy balls were very popular for the boys. They were made from the toe joints of deer and then pierced in many points of the toy for decoration and then a string would be strung on a thong ending on a bone needle. Each part of the toy had marks that showed the value to play the game. Instead of playing typical board games, girls and boys from aged 8 and up would rather form farm gangs. They would have teams and fight each gang. They fought extremely hard and bad that after the game was over, the defeated team went back to their camp to treat the cuts and bruises and the winning team would play against another team!
9: There were also many winter game choices. Of course, the pond was frozen, so of course they wanted to have some fun and play on it. The best game to play on the ice was to play whipping tops or “snakes.” The snake was a toy made from wood, bone, or horns. The players would push through the ice to see how far a ball would go. There was also game in the summer that was played on a field with 2 goalie nets marked with blankets. Each player had a stick to control the ball to get to the other side to score! The players did not need to use the stick; they were also allowed to kick the ball like soccer. Both of these games are very similar to the sports we play now: soccer and hockey. I noticed that many of the games they was played, are very similar to games we play now. I wonder if that's where soccer and hockey were invented? If I didn't have games, I would be really bored. These games is how the Natives kept their life entertaining, because remember, they did not have electricity then. | Toys that they played with.
10: Shelter The Plains Natives traveled with tipi's which were their practical and comfortable home. The tipi's was the property of the woman; it took strength and skill to put up. The tipi has a sacred significance. The round floor symbolized the earth, the walls represented the sky and the poles acted as paths from the human world to the spirits. The tipi's were made from soft buffalo fur skin and they had a brush inside the tipi's. The brush was stuffed between lining to keep the tipis toasty and warm. Some tipis were painted with bright colours. In order to build the tipis, wood poles, stakes, hide cover, ropes and pins were used. The tipis frame of four or three poles of pine or red cedar is tied up right. Then, the tanned buffalo hide is woven together with sinew. The hide cover is tied to the last pole and pulled around poles to the doorway on the eastern side (bottom up). The poles were pushed outward to make the cover tight.
11: The tipis were then held down by stones so that it would be steady. After all this work, the tipis would face the east so that the prevailing winds would not come sweeping by across the plains. In winter, the lining of hide would be five feet high and tied to the inside poles. Each time a storm came it would be made stronger by tying ropes where the poles crossed at the top. By the time summer came with the hot weather, the sides would be rolled up to let the cool air come in. When the Plains Natives cooked their dinner the tipis became a glowing cone. The Plains Natives also had a earth lodge that was another shelter to fit their need for hunting. | Glowing, from a tipi's cooking fire.
12: These days we have many tools to use for different things like computers are everyday tools but then they used “old fashioned tools”. One tool is called the warrior shield. It was a sacred possession made from strong hardened hide. Personal symbols were painted onto the shield. Different tools had different uses like the pipe tomahawk. The tomahawk would be used to either smoke tobacco and/or war. This tool may also be known as the peace pipe. The tomahawk, a similar tool to the pipe tomahawk was used for a peace ceremonies. I always wondered how the Natives survived without electricity. I guess you don’t need electricity to do different cool things. | Too s
13: Pipe Tomahawk | Tomahawk being held by a Native
14: Famous People The Natives had many famous people back then that we’ve probably never heard of. Some of these famous people’s spirits and beliefs are still believed today. Sitting Bull was the most famous Native chief of the plains. He was the leader in an area called South Dakota, which later on gold was discovered. The government tried to force them to execute, but they wouldn’t peacefully move. In 1876, there was a war between Sitting Bull’s tribe and the U.S. soldiers led by George Custer. Custer’s army had 260 soldiers, while Sitting Bull’s tribe had about 2500-4000 soldiers. One day, the warriors of Sitting Bull’s tribe surrounded Custer’s soldiers and attacked. All Custer’s soldiers were killed. This battle got named, “the Battle of Little Bighorn.” After that, Sitting Bull was punished and was forced to live in a reservation. After, when he caused even more problems, the U.S. government arrested him. Sitting Bull’s friends were trying as hard as they could to rescue him, but had just missed it because he was shot and killed by a U.S. soldier.
15: Black Kettle was born near the Black Hills in South Dakota. He wanted to bring peace to his region and made a huge effort to do this. Unfortunately, Black Kettle also known as Peace Chief did not succeed. Even though he continued with a tremendous effort, he was shot in 1868 in the Wichita Valley of Oklahoma. Just as we love Adam Sandler or Jennifer Lawrence, the Native Peoples love their famous people from their nation. Some of the famous people in their tribe have provided new theories or rules, others are known for crime or war, peace or freedom. Many of these people have really helped the Plains tribes for all their rituals. | Sitting Bull
16: Food Sources The Plains Natives had many different examples of food sources, they would hunt gather and grow crop. They had two ways to hunt buffalo one was to creep on the herd and then rush in firing arrows at the herd. The second way is jumping the pound; however, the first is more common. The Plains Natives would pick foods from bushes and weeds, for example, berries from bushes, wild turnips from little ponds or the ground, roots and herbs. The berries are dried and put in skin containers, wild turnips would be peeled dried and pounded to fine flower used as thickening for soup. Meat was roasted over an open fire and can become boiling water for soups and stew. The stew was held by setting hot rocks on a window rack, inside a skin cooking pot. The herbs and roots seasoned the food to add more flavor. After the Plains Natives hunted the buffalo they roasted the ribs for an extra treat and the bones cracked open so the marrow extracted. They ate elk, deer and antelope. The meats were pounded and they mixed fat to make pemmican. Pemmican was very good for hunters and warriors on a long journey.
17: The Plains Natives grew crop, which was corn that they traded to the buffalo hunters. | This was the Plain Natives' main food source, the buffalo (bison).
18: Today people all go by car, bus, subway and many other things, but back in the Native’s times they had different ways of travelling. As you might of thought, their original transportation was by foot. Later, they came up with snowshoes, for travel during the long cold winters they had to survive in Canada. Snowshoes were a nice idea, but they came up dog pulling sleds. That idea opened a window for other uses for it. One of the uses they came up with using the dog pulling sled was for carrying things in the summer by putting travois on the dog’s backs and they would carry them. A travois is a round bag strapped onto two poles. That was another breakthrough for them. It’s cool how they were able to come up with things like snowshoes. | Transportation
19: Snow Shoes | Dogs pulling a sled
20: Role of Women Women provided encouragement to their husband for work and other activities or lifestyles they would do. Women also help look after their kids and spend time in the field. After the men would hunt, the women would prepare the meat by cutting the animal as quick as possible. Women also provide clothing to their family. They would provide hide for clothing, furniture, bedding, tipis and whatever else you need in your life. They also provide aid or medical attention to their men. Grandmothers would teach young girls to sew, cook and educate them about their tribe. They would try and make sure that they would fill their children’s stomachs by milking their cows. They would take care of their land and try to embrace their friends for their husband by wearing expensive and fashionable clothing. Without the women, their families would not be able to be safe and secure and to survive. Women play an extremely important role in the world. They give encouragement to their family, feed their bellies, and give medical care.
21: A tool | Ceramics | Clothing that women made for the men
22: Special Events The Plains Natives celebrations were mostly special dances, which got a large crowd that were performed at hunts, villages and on sunny days. One of the dances where the bison dance. This dance was preparation for the hunt so the herd of buffalo won't run away. The Plains Natives put on bison marks and bison masks so that the bison's would think they part of the herd. Then they whirled, jump, stamp and crept around the herd in a frightening matter. The people around them and their self would do tuneless chanting mingled with their magic words of the hunt, creating rhythm in spite of the nose and tumult. The Plain Natives thought that it was their magic that brought the bison near.
23: Another dance was the sun dance, which lasted for days. This was a test of courage. The dance gave protection from danger and the dancers were expected to have visions during the dance. The visions provided them with knowledge and sacred things; it put them in touch with supernatural powers of the universe. The dancers would dance and circle around a sacred post, which symbolized the sun linked by feather thongs. The thongs were fastened to the man's skin on chest or back by short sticks and the dancers would pull against it until the man fainted. These are two main special events that the Plains Native people celebrated. | The Plain Natives performing the sun dance.
24: The Natives had some cool weapons that they used for hunting their tough game and battling their wars. The Natives used spears, bow and arrows and they made them all by themselves. To hunt for game or to attack a foe, weapons were needed by the Natives. Arrows were made out of stone and wood linked together using material by the name of sinew. An apparatus known as a quiver, was used to carry arrows to launch at game or foes. Sometimes in war, arrow heads were dipped in venom. Weapons had great uses for the Natives. To make their bows, they first had to search for a suitable branch, and then it was stripped of its bark. After it was stripped of its bark they would | Weapons
25: put it near laps of tipi-spoke season. When that was done they would smoothen the branch. At the ends of the smoothened branches they made notches, bent the branch and tied strings around the notches. | Bow and arrows Spear
26: Clothing Clothing was very important, especially fashion. If you didn’t have clothing, you would freeze to death. You would need hide or sheep to make clothing. Hide would make vests, jackets, dresses, moccasins, leggings, and breech cloth. Methods to clean clothing are now very easy, but back then it was extremely hard. It would take a lot of time and work. When the hide is ready, it has to be cut out and sewn. Now, sewing can be done by a machine, but back then it was done by a bone needle hand sewn to be put on and takes 3 or 4 days to put on beads. Women wear dresses and the children also wore dresses, and in the summer they would go naked!!! To decorate clothes, you would put fringes! Then, the design needed to get dyed by porcupine quills where plants and minerals were mixed with grease to make dyes. As the Europeans came, they used coloured beads to decorate their clothing and that became the style for a while. | 26
27: Fashion and clothing played a huge role in the Plains Native tribes. The clothing that they wore showed their personality and characteristic of themselves. There were many steps to make fashionable clothing and then clean it. It is so much easier to do things now, than it was before.. | Clothing that people made | 27
28: Origins and Beliefs Origins and beliefs are all about the Plains Natives doing traditions, customs and rituals based on beliefs in the spirit world. One of their traditions was sending a young man to a place for four days, fasting, and calling on spirits. This was called a vision quest. If they were successful calling on the spirits and fasting, they are able to call on the spirits for help. Also, the man has the choice to become a shaman or medicine man. The Plain Natives thought that the grasslands were created by the great spirits, which allowed them to live there. Ceremonies were performed to make the spirits happy and satisfied. One myth was a turtle that held a mystery of the moon shell.
29: The scales on the turtle shell represented different months of the year; it had a beaded covered amulet in the shape. The turtle was very sacred because it was a symbol of longevity and when tied to a child crib it brings good luck. More customs and rituals they had were dances that happen rarely, to celebrate luck or to give thanks to the spirits. | This painting shows the turtle, one of the Plains Natives' myths.
30: The Plains Natives lived around Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba where they had lowlands, hills, plateaux and plains. Living where they lived was hot and it was dry in the south where it was less than 100 cm snow per year. These Natives had different natural resources. They had are the following: gypsum sulphur, dairy, copper, zinc, other grain sand, cobalt, wheat crops, gold, cattle, no fishing, salt, and barley. With many of these resources the Plains Natives were able to make their weapons for hunting cattle. They had many kinds of trees like the black spruce, balsam fir, jack Pine, white birch Willow, trembeling aspen. These trees weren’t really something someone would rely on for food. The Natives had many things like rock that they used for their needs. The fact that only one of the trees grows fruit means that they relied mostly on hunting and not on farming. | Geographic Location
31: Jack Pine | Zinc | Cattle
32: Engal, Lor. Among the Plains Indians.US States: Lerner Publications Company, 1970. Munro, Ron. Canada’s First People. Canada: Poung Panasis, 2006. Stanford Quentin H, Canadian Oxford School Atlas, Donmills, Ontario, Oxford University Press, 2003 “Famous People.” http://whitewolve.com/native_americans/indexblok.plains.htm Date: January 26- March 1 2012 Shemie, Bonnie. Houses of Hide and Earth.UN: Tundra Books of Northern New York, 1991. Cheneau, André. Indians of the crow tribe. Italy: A.Mandadori, Verona, 1979. Chesneau, Andre. Indians of the Crow tribe. London, Ontario. Macdonald Education. 1980 Cass, James. Indians of the Plains. Toronto, Ontario. Grolier Ltd. 1983 Karkness, Verna. Indians of the Plains. Toronto, Ontario. Grolier Ltd. 1984 Morris, Neil. Native Americans. Florence, Italy: McRae Books, 2004. May, Robin. Plains Indians of North America. Hove. Wayland. 1984 | Bibliography
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